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1.
World J Urol ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825944

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/ultrasound-fusion prostate biopsy (FB) comprises multiple steps each of which can cause alterations in targeted biopsy (TB) accuracy leading to false-negative results. The aim was to assess the inter-operator variability of software-based fusion TB by targeting the same MRI-lesions by different urologists. METHODS: In this prospective study, 142 patients eligible for analysis underwent software-based FB. TB of all lesions (n = 172) were carried out by two different urologists per patient (n = 31 urologists). We analyzed the number of mismatches [overall prostate cancer (PCa), clinically significant PCa (csPCa) and non-significant PCa (nsPCa)] between both performed TB per patient. In addition we evaluated factors contributing to inter-operator variability by uni- and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: In 11.6% of all MRI-lesions (10.6% of all patients) there was a mismatch between TB1 and TB2 in terms of overall prostate cancer (PCa detection. Regarding csPCa, patient-based mismatch occurred in 14.8% (n = 21). Overall PCa and csPCa detection rate of TB1 and TB2 did not differ significantly on a per-patient and per-lesion level. Analyses revealed a smaller lesion size as predictive for mismatches (OR 9.19, 95% CI 2.02-41.83, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Reproducibility and precision of targeting particularly small lesions is still limited although using software-based FB. Further improvements in image-fusion, segmentation, needle-guidance, and automatization are necessary.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(22)2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830885

RESUMO

Finding prognostic biomarkers with high accuracy in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) remains a challenging problem. To improve the prediction of survival and to investigate the relevance of quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIB) we combined QIB with established clinical parameters. In this retrospective study a total of 75 patients with metastatic PC and liver metastases were analyzed. Segmentations of whole liver tumor burden (WLTB) from baseline contrast-enhanced CT images were used to derive QIBs. The benefits of QIBs in multivariable Cox models were analyzed in comparison with two clinical prognostic models from the literature. To discriminate survival, the two clinical models had concordance indices of 0.61 and 0.62 in a statistical setting. Combined clinical and imaging-based models achieved concordance indices of 0.74 and 0.70 with WLTB volume, tumor burden score (TBS), and bilobar disease being the three WLTB parameters that were kept by backward elimination. These combined clinical and imaging-based models have significantly higher predictive performance in discriminating survival than the underlying clinical models alone (p < 0.003). Radiomics and geometric WLTB analysis of patients with metastatic PC with liver metastases enhances the modeling of survival compared with models based on clinical parameters alone.

3.
Magn Reson Med ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652819

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To design and manufacture a pelvis phantom for magnetic resonance (MR)-guided prostate interventions, such as MRGB (MR-guided biopsy) or brachytherapy seed placement. METHODS: The phantom was designed to mimic the human pelvis incorporating bones, bladder, prostate with four lesions, urethra, arteries, veins, and six lymph nodes embedded in ballistic gelatin. A hollow rectum enables transrectal access to the prostate. To demonstrate the feasibility of the phantom for minimal invasive MRI-guided interventions, a targeted inbore MRGB was performed. The needle probe was rectally inserted and guided using an MRI-compatible remote controlled manipulator (RCM). RESULTS: The presented pelvis phantom has realistic imaging properties for MR imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US). In the targeted inbore MRGB, a prostate lesion was successfully hit with an accuracy of 3.5 mm. The experiment demonstrates that the limited size of the rectum represents a realistic impairment for needle placements. CONCLUSION: The phantom provides a valuable platform for evaluating the performance of MRGB systems. Interventionalists can use the phantom to learn how to deal with challenging situations, without risking harm to patients.

4.
Radiologe ; 61(11): 1005-1013, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581842

RESUMO

CLINICAL ISSUE: Structured reporting has been one of the most discussed topics in radiology for years. Currently, there is a lack of user-friendly software solutions that are integrated into the IT infrastructure of hospitals and practices to allow efficient data entry. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Radiological reports are mostly generated as free text documents, either dictated via speech recognition systems or typed. In addition, text components are used to create reports of normal findings that can be further edited and complemented by free text. METHODOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS: Software-based reporting systems can combine speech recognition systems with radiological reporting templates in the form of interactive decision trees. A technical integration into RIS ("radiological information system"), PACS ("picture archiving and communication system"), and AV ("advanced visualization") systems via application programming interfaces and interoperability standards can enable efficient processes and the generation of machine-readable report data. PERFORMANCE: Structured and semantically annotated clinical data collected via the reporting system are immediately available for epidemiological data analysis and continuous AI training. EVALUATION: The use of structured reporting in routine radiological diagnostics involves an initial transition phase. A successful implementation further requires close integration of the technical infrastructure of several systems. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: By using a hybrid reporting solution, radiological reports with different levels of structure can be generated. Clinical questions or procedural information can be semi-automatically transferred, thereby eliminating avoidable errors and increasing productivity.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação em Radiologia , Radiologia , Humanos , Software , Integração de Sistemas , Fluxo de Trabalho
5.
Radiologe ; 61(9): 829-838, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251481

RESUMO

CLINICAL/METHODOLOGICAL ISSUE: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and local staging of primary prostate cancer. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Image-guided biopsy techniques such as MRI-ultrasound fusion not only allow guidance for targeted tissue sampling of index lesions for diagnostic confirmation, but also improve the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. METHODOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS: Minimally invasive, focal therapies of localized prostate cancer complement the treatment spectrum, especially for low- and intermediate-risk patients. PERFORMANCE: In patients of low and intermediate risk, MR-guided, minimally invasive therapies could enable local tumor control, improved functional outcomes and possible subsequent therapy escalation. Further study results related to multimodal approaches and the application of artificial intelligence (AI) by machine and deep learning algorithms will help to leverage the full potential of focal therapies for prostate cancer in the upcoming era of precision medicine. ACHIEVEMENTS: Completion of ongoing randomized trials comparing each minimally invasive therapy approach with established whole-gland procedures is needed before minimally invasive therapies can be implemented into existing treatment guidelines. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: This review article highlights minimally invasive therapies of prostate cancer and the key role of mpMRI for planning and conducting these therapies.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia
6.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670457

RESUMO

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are relatively rare neoplasms arising from the hormone-producing neuroendocrine system that can occur in various organs such as pancreas, small bowel, stomach and lung. As the majority of these tumors express somatostatin receptors (SSR) on their cell membrane, utilization of SSR analogs in nuclear medicine is a promising, but relatively costly approach for detection and localization. The aim of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of 68Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT (Gallium-68 DOTA-TATE Positron emission tomography/computed tomography) compared to 111In-pentetreotide SPECT/CT (Indium-111 pentetreotide Single Photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) and to CT (computed tomography) alone in detection of NETs. A decision model on the basis of Markov simulations evaluated lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) related to either a CT, SPECT/CT or PET/CT. Model input parameters were obtained from publicized research projects. The analysis is grounded on the US healthcare system. Deterministic sensitivity analysis of diagnostic parameters and probabilistic sensitivity analysis predicated on a Monte Carlo simulation with 30,000 reiterations was executed. The willingness-to-pay (WTP) was determined to be $ 100,000/QALY. In the base-case investigation, PET/CT ended up with total costs of $88,003.07 with an efficacy of 4.179, whereas CT ended up with total costs of $88,894.71 with an efficacy of 4.165. SPECT/CT ended up with total costs of $89,973.34 with an efficacy of 4.158. Therefore, the strategies CT and SPECT/CT were dominated by PET/CT in the base-case scenario. In the sensitivity analyses, PET/CT remained a cost-effective strategy. This result was due to reduced therapy costs of timely detection. The additional costs of 68Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT when compared to CT alone are justified in the light of potential savings in therapy costs and better outcomes.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(3)2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our retrospective single-center study aims to evaluate the impact of structured reporting (SR) using a CEUS LI-RADS template on report quality compared to conventional free-text reporting (FTR) in contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We included 50 patients who underwent CEUS for HCC staging. FTR created after these examinations were compared to SR retrospectively generated by using template-based online software with clickable decision trees. The reports were evaluated regarding report completeness, information extraction, linguistic quality and overall report quality by two readers specialized in internal medicine and visceral surgery. RESULTS: SR significantly increased report completeness with at least one key feature missing in 31% of FTR vs. 2% of SR (p < 0.001). Information extraction was considered easy in 98% of SR vs. 86% of FTR (p = 0.004). The trust of referring physicians in the report was significantly increased by SR with a mean of 5.68 for SR vs. 4.96 for FTR (p < 0.001). SR received significantly higher ratings regarding linguistic quality (5.79 for SR vs. 4.83 for FTR (p < 0.001)) and overall report quality (5.75 for SR vs. 5.01 for FTR (p < 0.001)). CONCLUSIONS: Using SR instead of conventional FTR increases the overall quality of reports in CEUS examinations of HCC patients and may represent a valuable tool to facilitate clinical decision-making and improve interdisciplinary communication in the future.

8.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; 68(5): 1518-1526, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Three-dimensional (3D) blood vessel structure information is important for diagnosis and treatment in various clinical scenarios. We present a fully automatic method for the extraction and differentiation of the arterial and venous vessel trees from abdominal contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) volumes using convolutional neural networks (CNNs). METHODS: We used a novel ratio-based sampling method to train 2D and 3D versions of the U-Net, the V-Net and the DeepVesselNet. Networks were trained with a combination of the Dice and cross entropy loss. Performance was evaluated on 20 IRCAD subjects. Best performing networks were combined into an ensemble. We investigated seven different weighting schemes. Trained networks were additionally applied to 26 BTCV cases to validate the generalizability. RESULTS: Based on our experiments, the optimal configuration is an equally weighted ensemble of 2D and 3D U- and V-Nets. Our method achieved Dice similarity coefficients of 0.758 ± 0.050 (veins) and 0.838 ± 0.074 (arteries) on the IRCAD data set. Application to the BTCV data set showed a high transfer ability. CONCLUSION: Abdominal vascular structures can be segmented more accurately using ensembles than individual CNNs. 2D and 3D networks have complementary strengths and weaknesses. Our ensemble of 2D and 3D U-Nets and V-Nets in combination with ratio-based sampling achieves a high agreement with manual annotations for both artery and vein segmentation. Our results surpass other state-of-the-art methods. SIGNIFICANCE: Our segmentation pipeline can provide valuable information for the planning of living donor organ transplantations.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
9.
Eur Radiol ; 31(2): 834-846, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851450

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prediction of 1-year survival (1-YS) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with use of a systematic comparative analysis of quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs) based on the geometric and radiomics analysis of whole liver tumor burden (WLTB) in comparison to predictions based on the tumor burden score (TBS), WLTB volume alone, and a clinical model. METHODS: A total of 103 patients (mean age: 61.0 ± 11.2 years) with colorectal liver metastases were analyzed in this retrospective study. Automatic segmentations of WLTB from baseline contrast-enhanced CT images were used. Established biomarkers as well as a standard radiomics model building were used to derive 3 prognostic models. The benefits of a geometric metastatic spread (GMS) model, the Aerts radiomics prior model of the WLTB, and the performance of TBS and WLTB volume alone were assessed. All models were analyzed in both statistical and predictive machine learning settings in terms of AUC. RESULTS: TBS showed the best discriminative performance in a statistical setting to discriminate 1-YS (AUC = 0.70, CI: [0.56, 0.90]). For the machine learning-based prediction for unseen patients, both a model of the GMS of WLTB (0.73, CI: [0.60, 0.84]) and the Aerts radiomics prior model (0.76, CI: [0.65, 0.86]) applied on the WLTB showed a numerically higher predictive performance than TBS (0.68, CI: [0.54, 0.79]), radiomics (0.65, CI: [0.55, 0.78]), WLTB volume alone (0.53, CI: [0.40. 0.66]), or the clinical model (0.56, CI: [0.43, 0.67]). CONCLUSIONS: The imaging-based GMS model may be a first step towards a more fine-grained machine learning extension of the TBS concept for risk stratification in mCRC patients without the vulnerability to technical variance of radiomics. KEY POINTS: • CT-based geometric distribution and radiomics analysis of whole liver tumor burden in metastatic colorectal cancer patients yield prognostic information. • Differences in survival are possibly attributable to the spatial distribution of metastatic lesions and the geometric metastatic spread analysis of all liver metastases may serve as robust imaging biomarker invariant to technical variation. • Imaging-based prediction models outperform clinical models for 1-year survival prediction in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with liver metastases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso , Humanos , Fígado , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Tumoral
10.
Ultraschall Med ; 42(4): 411-417, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052386

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Correct differentiation between malignant and benign incidentally found cystic renal lesions has critical implications for patient management. In several studies contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) showed higher sensitivity with respect to the accurate characterization of these lesions compared to MRI, but the cost-effectiveness of CEUS has yet to be investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of CEUS as an alternative imaging method to MRI for the characterization of incidentally found cystic renal lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A decision model including the diagnostic modalities MRI and CEUS was created based on Markov simulations estimating lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The recent literature was reviewed to obtain model input parameters. The deterministic sensitivity of diagnostic parameters and costs was determined and probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte-Carlo Modelling was applied. Willingness-to-pay (WTP) was assumed to be $ 100 000/QALY. RESULTS: In the base-case scenario, the total costs for CEUS were $9654.43, whereas the total costs for MRI were $9675.03. CEUS resulted in an expected effectiveness of 8.06 QALYs versus 8.06 QALYs for MRI. Therefore, from an economic point of view, CEUS was identified as an adequate diagnostic alternative to MRI. Sensitivity analysis showed that results may vary if CEUS costs increase or those of MRI decrease. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of the analysis, the use of CEUS was identified as a cost-effective diagnostic strategy for the characterization of incidentally found cystic renal lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Meios de Contraste , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
11.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 145561320973765, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295222

RESUMO

Penetrating traumas of the head are generally life-threatening injuries, whose management poses a substantial challenge for emergency department teams. These injuries are characteristically violence-associated and frequently accompanied by damage of essential organs including brain, meninges, large vessels, cranial nerves, eyes, viscerocranium, internal ear, and/or labyrinth. Here, we present an exceptional case of head trauma caused by a knife blade, which was stuck deep inside in the petrous bone. After the extraction of the knife, the patient had very few immediate and no long-term post-traumatic complications. In conclusion, high-end technical equipment as well as an interdisciplinary team of specialized physicians is recommended for the management of penetrating head trauma to optimize the outcome.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242804, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253265

RESUMO

Computed tomography (CT) scans represent the gold standard in the planning of functional endoscopic sinus surgeries (FESS). Yet, radiologists and otolaryngologists have different perspectives on these scans. In general, residents often struggle with aspects involved in both reporting and operation planning. The aim of this study was to compare the completeness of structured reports (SR) of preoperative CT images and structured operation planning (SOP) to conventional reports (CR) and conventional operation planning (COP) to potentially improve future treatment decisions on an individual level. In total, 30 preoperative CT scans obtained for surgical planning of patients scheduled for FESS were evaluated using SR and CR by radiology residents. Subsequently, otolaryngology residents performed a COP using free texts and a SOP using a specific template. All radiology reports and operation plannings were evaluated by two experienced FESS surgeons regarding their completeness for surgical planning. User satisfaction of otolaryngology residents was assessed by using visual analogue scales. Overall radiology report completeness was significantly higher using SRs regarding surgically important structures compared to CRs (84.4 vs. 22.0%, p<0.001). SOPs produced significantly higher completeness ratings (97% vs. 39.4%, p<0.001) regarding pathologies and anatomical variances. Moreover, time efficiency was not significantly impaired by implementation of SR (148 s vs. 160 s, p = 0.61) and user satisfaction was significantly higher for SOP (VAS 8.1 vs. 4.1, p<0.001). Implementation of SR and SOP results in a significantly increased completeness of radiology reports and operation planning for FESS. Consequently, the combination of both facilitates surgical planning and may decrease potential risks during FESS.


Assuntos
Endoscopia , Doenças dos Seios Paranasais/cirurgia , Radiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças dos Seios Paranasais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Seios Paranasais/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867107

RESUMO

PURPOSE: After a percutaneous ablation of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM), follow-up investigations to evaluate potential tumor recurrence are necessary. The aim of this study was to analyze whether a combined 18F-Fluordesoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) scan is cost-effective compared to a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) scan for detecting local tumor progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A decision model based on Markov simulations that estimated lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) was developed. Model input parameters were obtained from the recent literature. Deterministic sensitivity analysis of diagnostic parameters based on a Monte-Carlo simulation with 30,000 iterations was performed. The willingness-to-pay (WTP) was set to $100,000/QALY. RESULTS: In the base-case scenario, CE-CT resulted in total costs of $28,625.08 and an efficacy of 0.755 QALYs, whereas 18F-FDG PET/CT resulted in total costs of $29,239.97 with an efficacy of 0.767. Therefore, the corresponding incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 18F-FDG PET/CT was $50,338.96 per QALY indicating cost-effectiveness based on the WTP threshold set above. The results were stable in deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Based on our model, 18F-FDG PET/CT can be considered as a cost-effective imaging alternative for follow-up investigations after percutaneous ablation of colorectal liver metastases.

14.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 19(4): 291-300.e5, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) are used to define degrees of response to chemotherapy. For accelerated response evaluation, early tumor shrinkage (ETS) of ≥ 20% has been suggested as a predictor for outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Together with depth of response (DpR), new alternative metrics have been provided, yielding promising outcome parameters. In this analysis, we aimed to further characterize ETS and DpR. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This analysis was based on FIRE-3, a randomized phase 3 trial comparing first-line FOLFIRI plus either cetuximab or bevacizumab in KRAS exon 2 wild-type mCRC. ETS and DpR were determined on the basis of RECIST 1.1 in a blinded radiologic review. ETS was evaluated as a categorized (≥ 20% shrinkage) and continuous parameter. The impact of baseline location and size of metastases on ETS and DpR were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Of 592 patients, 395 (66.7%) had data available for radiologic review. Median continuous ETS for lung, liver, and suspected lymph node metastases was 20%, 23%, and 30%, respectively. The median DpR was -32%, -44%, and -50%, respectively (all P < .01). In multivariate analysis, lung metastases were significantly associated with inferior DpR (P = .021), whereas hepatic metastases led to higher DpR (P = .024). Large metastases were associated with favorable ETS, whereas small metastases were correlated with higher DpR (P < .001). CONCLUSION: ETS and DpR depend on the location and size of metastases in mCRC. These associations may establish the basis for further research to optimize the predictive accuracy of both parameters. This may help basing treatment decisions on ETS and DpR.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630787

RESUMO

Radiomics is an emerging field of image analysis with potential applications in patient risk stratification. This study developed and evaluated machine learning models using quantitative radiomic features extracted from multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to detect and classify prostate cancer (PCa). In total, 191 patients that underwent prostatic mpMRI and combined targeted and systematic fusion biopsy were retrospectively included. Segmentations of the whole prostate glands and index lesions were performed manually in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps and T2-weighted MRI. Radiomic features were extracted from regions corresponding to the whole prostate gland and index lesion. The best performing combination of feature setup and classifier was selected to compare its predictive ability of the radiologist's evaluation (PI-RADS), mean ADC, prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) and digital rectal examination (DRE) using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Models were evaluated using repeated 5-fold cross-validation and a separate independent test cohort. In the test cohort, an ensemble model combining a radiomics model, with models for PI-RADS, PSAD and DRE achieved high predictive AUCs for the differentiation of (i) malignant from benign prostatic lesions (AUC = 0.889) and of (ii) clinically significant (csPCa) from clinically insignificant PCa (cisPCa) (AUC = 0.844). Our combined model was numerically superior to PI-RADS for cancer detection (AUC = 0.779; p = 0.054) as well as for clinical significance prediction (AUC = 0.688; p = 0.209) and showed a significantly better performance compared to mADC for csPCa prediction (AUC = 0.571; p = 0.022). In our study, radiomics accurately characterizes prostatic index lesions and shows performance comparable to radiologists for PCa characterization. Quantitative image data represent a potential biomarker, which, when combined with PI-RADS, PSAD and DRE, predicts csPCa more accurately than mADC. Prognostic machine learning models could assist in csPCa detection and patient selection for MRI-guided biopsy.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231495, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine potential gadolinium (Gd) accumulation in the brain of healthy mice after long-term oral administration of Gd-containing food pellets and to investigate whether Gd leads to adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects, specifically focussing on locomotor impairment in Gd exposed compared to control animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The local Animal Experimental Ethics Committee approved all procedures and applications. Fifteen female C57Bl/6 mice were orally exposed to a daily intake of 0.57 mmol Gd chloride/ kg body weight over a period of 90 weeks from the age of 4 weeks on. Gd-free, but otherwise equivalent experimental diets were given to the control group (N = 13). The animals were monitored daily by animal caretakers regarding any visible signs of distress and evaluated clinically every four weeks for the first 60 weeks and afterwards every two weeks for a better temporal resolution of potential long-term effects regarding impairment of motor performance and loss of body weight. The individual Gd content was measured using mass spectrometry in a sub-cohort of N = 6 mice. RESULTS: The absolute brain Gd levels of the Gd-exposed mice were significantly increased compared to control mice (0.033± 0.009 vs. 0.006± 0.002 nmol Gd/ g brain tissue). Long-term oral Gd exposure over almost the entire life-span did not lead to adverse CNS effects including locomotor changes (rotarod performance, p = 0.1467) in healthy mice throughout the study period. Gd-exposed mice showed less increased body weight compared to control mice during the study period (p = 0.0423). Histopathological alterations, such as hepatocellular vacuolization due to fatty change in the liver and a loss of nucleated cells in the red pulp of the spleen, were found in peripheral organs of both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of intracerebral Gd caused by chronic oral exposure over almost the entire life span of mice did not lead to alterations in locomotor abilities in healthy mice throughout the normal aging process.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Gadolínio/administração & dosagem , Gadolínio/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Animais , Feminino , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
18.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228030, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wavelet transformed reconstructions of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MR perfusion (wavelet-MRP) are a new and elegant way of visualizing vascularization. Wavelet-MRP maps yield a clear depiction of hypervascular tumor regions, as recently shown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to elucidate a possible connection of the wavelet-MRP power spectrum in glioblastoma (GBM) with local vascularity and cell proliferation. METHODS: For this IRB-approved study 12 patients (63.0+/-14.9y; 7m) with histologically confirmed IDH-wildtype GBM were included. Target regions for biopsies were prospectively marked on tumor regions as seen on preoperative 3T MRI. During subsequent neurosurgical tumor resection 43 targeted biopsies were taken from these target regions, of which all 27 matching samples were analyzed. All specimens were immunohistochemically analyzed for endothelial cell marker CD31 and proliferation marker Ki67 and correlated to the wavelet-MRP power spectrum as derived from DSC perfusion weighted imaging. RESULTS: There was a strong correlation between wavelet-MRP power spectrum (median = 4.41) and conventional relative cerebral blood volume (median = 5.97 ml/100g) in Spearman's rank-order correlation (κ = .83, p < .05). In a logistic regression model, the wavelet-MRP power spectrum showed a significant correlation to CD31 dichotomized to no or present staining (p = .04), while rCBV did not show a significant correlation to CD31 (p = .30). No significant association between Ki67 and rCBV or wavelet-MRP was found (p = .62 and p = .70, respectively). CONCLUSION: The wavelet-MRP power spectrum derived from existing DSC-MRI data might be a promising new surrogate for tumor vascularity in GBM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioblastoma/irrigação sanguínea , Glioblastoma/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neovascularização Patológica/diagnóstico por imagem , Perfusão , Análise de Ondaletas , Biópsia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Proliferação de Células , Volume Sanguíneo Cerebral , Feminino , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/metabolismo , Curva ROC
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1103, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980635

RESUMO

The goal of radiomics is to convert medical images into a minable data space by extraction of quantitative imaging features for clinically relevant analyses, e.g. survival time prediction of a patient. One problem of radiomics from computed tomography is the impact of technical variation such as reconstruction kernel variation within a study. Additionally, what is often neglected is the impact of inter-patient technical variation, resulting from patient characteristics, even when scan and reconstruction parameters are constant. In our approach, measurements within 3D regions-of-interests (ROI) are calibrated by further ROIs such as air, adipose tissue, liver, etc. that are used as control regions (CR). Our goal is to derive general rules for an automated internal calibration that enhance prediction, based on the analysed features and a set of CRs. We define qualification criteria motivated by status-quo radiomics stability analysis techniques to only collect information from the CRs which is relevant given a respective task. These criteria are used in an optimisation to automatically derive a suitable internal calibration for prediction tasks based on the CRs. Our calibration enhanced the performance for centrilobular emphysema prediction in a COPD study and prediction of patients' one-year-survival in an oncological study.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Calibragem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Enfisema/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(35): 3401-3411, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609637

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This trial investigated the addition of panitumumab to triplet chemotherapy with fluorouracil/folinic acid, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan (FOLFOXIRI) in a two-to-one randomized, controlled, open-label, phase II trial in patients with untreated RAS wild-type (WT) metastatic colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) according to RECIST (version 1.1). The experimental arm (modified FOLFOXIRI [mFOLFOXIRI] plus panitumumab) was considered active if the ORR was ≥ 75%. The experimental ORR was compared with an estimated ORR of 60% based on historical data, verified by a randomized control group (FOLFOXIRI). The power of the trial was 80%, with a potential type I error of 0.05. Secondary end points included secondary resection rate, toxicity, progression-free survival, and overall survival. RESULTS: A total of 63 patients were randomly assigned to the experimental arm and 33 patients to the control arm. The ORR of the mFOLFOXIRI plus panitumumab arm exceeded 75% and was higher when compared with that of FOLFOXIRI (87.3% v 60.6%; odds ratio, 4.469; 95% CI, 1.61 to 12.38; P = .004). The secondary resection rate was improved with the addition of panitumumab (33.3% v 12.1%; P = .02). Progression-free survival was similar in the study arms, whereas overall survival showed a trend in favor of the panitumumab-containing arm (hazard ratio for death, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.11; P = .12). CONCLUSION: The addition of panitumumab to mFOLFOXIRI in patients with RAS WT metastatic colorectal cancer improved the ORR and rate of secondary resection of metastases and represents a treatment option in selected and fit patients in need of highly active first-line therapy. Future studies should determine whether the addition of panitumumab to mFOLFOXIRI prolongs survival.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação , Proteínas ras/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Irinotecano/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Panitumumabe/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
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