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1.
Sci Adv ; 7(12)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741596

RESUMO

Nonreciprocal devices operating at the single-photon level are fundamental elements for quantum technologies. Because magneto-optical nonreciprocal devices are incompatible for magnetic-sensitive or on-chip quantum information processing, all-optical nonreciprocal isolation is highly desired, but its realization at the quantum level is yet to be accomplished at room temperature. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate two regimes, using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) or a Raman transition, for all-optical isolation with warm atoms. We achieve an isolation of 22.52 ± 0.10 dB and an insertion loss of about 1.95 dB for a genuine single photon, with bandwidth up to hundreds of megahertz. The Raman regime realized in the same experimental setup enables us to achieve high isolation and low insertion loss for coherent optical fields with reversed isolation direction. These realizations of single-photon isolation and coherent light isolation at room temperature are promising for simpler reconfiguration of high-speed classical and quantum information processing.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(4): 043602, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576670

RESUMO

We propose tunable chiral bound states in a system composed of superconducting giant atoms and a Josephson photonic-crystal waveguide (PCW), with no analog in other quantum setups. The chiral bound states arise due to interference in the nonlocal coupling of a giant atom to multiple points of the waveguide. The chirality can be tuned by changing either the atom-waveguide coupling or the external bias of the PCW. Furthermore, the chiral bound states can induce directional dipole-dipole interactions between multiple giant atoms coupling to the same waveguide. Our proposal is ready to be implemented in experiments with superconducting circuits, where it can be used as a tunable toolbox to realize topological phase transitions and quantum simulations.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(2): 023602, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512204

RESUMO

We propose a method for the fast generation of nonclassical ground states of the Rabi model in the ultrastrong and deep-strong coupling regimes via the shortcuts-to-adiabatic (STA) dynamics. The time-dependent quantum Rabi model is simulated by applying parametric amplification to the Jaynes-Cummings model. Using experimentally feasible parametric drive, this STA protocol can generate large-size Schrödinger cat states, through a process that is ∼10 times faster compared to adiabatic protocols. Such fast evolution increases the robustness of our protocol against dissipation. Our method enables one to freely design the parametric drive, so that the target state can be generated in the lab frame. A largely detuned light-matter coupling makes the protocol robust against imperfections of the operation times in experiments.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21660, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303819

RESUMO

The coherent nonlinear process where a single photon simultaneously excites two or more two-level systems (qubits) in a single-mode resonator has recently been theoretically predicted. Here we explore the case where the two qubits are placed in different resonators in an array of two or three weakly coupled resonators. Investigating different setups and excitation schemes, we show that this process can still occur with a probability approaching one under specific conditions. The obtained results provide interesting insights into subtle causality issues underlying the simultaneous excitation processes of qubits placed in different resonators.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(16): 166802, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124837

RESUMO

A quantum two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting could provide a minimal universal quantum heat machine. We present the experimental realization and the theoretical description of such a two-level system as an impurity electron spin in a silicon tunnel field-effect transistor. In the incoherent regime, the system can behave analogously to either an Otto heat engine or a refrigerator. The coherent regime could be described as a superposition of those two regimes, producing specific interference fringes in the observed source-drain current.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(15): 153602, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095609

RESUMO

Hybrid spin-mechanical setups offer a versatile platform for quantum science and technology, but improving the spin-phonon as well as the spin-spin couplings of such systems remains a crucial challenge. Here, we propose and analyze an experimentally feasible and simple method for exponentially enhancing the spin-phonon and the phonon-mediated spin-spin interactions in a hybrid spin-mechanical setup, using only linear resources. Through modulating the spring constant of the mechanical cantilever with a time-dependent pump, we can acquire a tunable and nonlinear (two-phonon) drive to the mechanical mode, thus amplifying the mechanical zero-point fluctuations and directly enhancing the spin-phonon coupling. This method allows the spin-mechanical system to be driven from the weak-coupling regime to the strong-coupling regime, and even the ultrastrong coupling regime. In the dispersive regime, this method gives rise to a large enhancement of the phonon-mediated spin-spin interactions between distant solid-state spins, typically two orders of magnitude larger than that without modulation. As an example, we show that the proposed scheme can apply to generating entangled states of multiple spins with high fidelities even in the presence of large dissipations.

7.
Nano Lett ; 20(10): 7594-7599, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936650

RESUMO

Non-Hermitian systems, with symmetric or antisymmetric Hamiltonians under the parity-time (PT) operations, can have entirely real or imaginary eigenvalues. This fact has led to surprising discoveries such as loss-induced lasing and topological energy transfer. A merit of anti-PT systems is free of gain, but in recent efforts on making anti-PT devices, nonlinearity is still required. Here, counterintuitively, we show how to achieve anti-PT symmetry and its spontaneous breaking in a linear device by spinning a lossy resonator. Compared with a Hermitian spinning device, significantly enhanced optical isolation and ultrasensitive nanoparticle sensing are achievable in the anti-PT-broken phase. In a broader view, our work provides a new tool to study anti-PT physics, with such a wide range of applications as anti-PT lasers, anti-PT gyroscopes, and anti-PT topological photonics or optomechanics.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13408, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770061

RESUMO

The Dicke model is a paradigmatic quantum-optical model describing the interaction of a collection of two-level systems with a single bosonic mode. Effective implementations of this model made it possible to observe the emergence of superradiance, i.e., cooperative phenomena arising from the collective nature of light-matter interactions. Via reservoir engineering and analogue quantum simulation techniques, current experimental platforms allow us not only to implement the Dicke model but also to design more exotic interactions, such as the two-photon Dicke model. In the Hamiltonian case, this model presents an interesting phase diagram characterized by two quantum criticalities: a superradiant phase transition and a spectral collapse, that is, the coalescence of discrete energy levels into a continuous band. Here, we investigate the effects of both qubit and photon dissipation on the phase transition and on the instability induced by the spectral collapse. Using a mean-field decoupling approximation, we analytically obtain the steady-state expectation values of the observables signaling a symmetry breaking, identifying a first-order phase transition from the normal to the superradiant phase. Our stability analysis unveils a very rich phase diagram, which features stable, bistable, and unstable phases depending on the dissipation rate.

9.
Nature ; 583(7818): 775-779, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728243

RESUMO

Models of light-matter interactions in quantum electrodynamics typically invoke the dipole approximation1,2, in which atoms are treated as point-like objects when compared to the wavelength of the electromagnetic modes with which they interact. However, when the ratio between the size of the atom and the mode wavelength is increased, the dipole approximation no longer holds and the atom is referred to as a 'giant atom'2,3. So far, experimental studies with solid-state devices in the giant-atom regime have been limited to superconducting qubits that couple to short-wavelength surface acoustic waves4-10, probing the properties of the atom at only a single frequency. Here we use an alternative architecture that realizes a giant atom by coupling small atoms to a waveguide at multiple, but well separated, discrete locations. This system enables tunable atom-waveguide couplings with large on-off ratios3 and a coupling spectrum that can be engineered by the design of the device. We also demonstrate decoherence-free interactions between multiple giant atoms that are mediated by the quasi-continuous spectrum of modes in the waveguide-an effect that is not achievable using small atoms11. These features allow qubits in this architecture to switch between protected and emissive configurations in situ while retaining qubit-qubit interactions, opening up possibilities for high-fidelity quantum simulations and non-classical itinerant photon generation12,13.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12356, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704032

RESUMO

We implement an all-optical setup demonstrating kernel-based quantum machine learning for two-dimensional classification problems. In this hybrid approach, kernel evaluations are outsourced to projective measurements on suitably designed quantum states encoding the training data, while the model training is processed on a classical computer. Our two-photon proposal encodes data points in a discrete, eight-dimensional feature Hilbert space. In order to maximize the application range of the deployable kernels, we optimize feature maps towards the resulting kernels' ability to separate points, i.e., their "resolution," under the constraint of finite, fixed Hilbert space dimension. Implementing these kernels, our setup delivers viable decision boundaries for standard nonlinear supervised classification tasks in feature space. We demonstrate such kernel-based quantum machine learning using specialized multiphoton quantum optical circuits. The deployed kernel exhibits exponentially better scaling in the required number of qubits than a direct generalization of kernels described in the literature.

11.
Sci Adv ; 6(25): eaba4935, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596458

RESUMO

Nonequilibrium quantum many-body systems, which are difficult to study via classical computation, have attracted wide interest. Quantum simulation can provide insights into these problems. Here, using a programmable quantum simulator with 16 all-to-all connected superconducting qubits, we investigate the dynamical phase transition in the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model with a quenched transverse field. Clear signatures of dynamical phase transitions, merging different concepts of dynamical criticality, are observed by measuring the nonequilibrium order parameter, nonlocal correlations, and the Loschmidt echo. Moreover, near the dynamical critical point, we obtain a spin squeezing of -7.0 ± 0.8 dB, showing multipartite entanglement, useful for measurements with precision fivefold beyond the standard quantum limit. On the basis of the capability of entangling qubits simultaneously and the accurate single-shot readout of multiqubit states, this superconducting quantum simulator can be used to study other problems in nonequilibrium quantum many-body systems, such as thermalization, many-body localization, and emergent phenomena in periodically driven systems.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(21): 210502, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530656

RESUMO

The unavoidable interaction of a quantum open system with its environment leads to the dissipation of quantum coherence and correlations, making its dynamical behavior a key role in many quantum technologies. In this Letter, we demonstrate the engineering of multiple dissipative channels by controlling the adjacent nuclear spins of a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. With a controllable non-Markovian dynamics of this open system, we observe that the quantum Fisher information flows to and from the environment using different noisy channels. Our work contributes to the developments of both noisy quantum metrology and quantum open systems from the viewpoints of metrologically useful entanglement.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(15): 150603, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357046

RESUMO

Adiabatic pumping is characterized by a geometric contribution to the pumped charge, which can be nonzero even in the absence of a bias. However, as the driving speed is increased, nonadiabatic excitations gradually reduce the pumped charge, thereby limiting the maximal applicable driving frequencies. To circumvent this problem, we here extend the concept of shortcuts to adiabaticity to construct a control protocol which enables geometric pumping well beyond the adiabatic regime. Our protocol allows for an increase, by more than an order of magnitude, in the driving frequencies, and the method is also robust against moderate fluctuations of the control field. We provide a geometric interpretation of the control protocol and analyze the thermodynamic cost of implementing it. Our findings can be realized using current technology and potentially enable fast pumping of charge or heat in quantum dots, as well as in other stochastic systems from physics, chemistry, and biology.

14.
Nanoscale ; 12(17): 9717-9726, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323694

RESUMO

It is often desirable to enhance the motility of active nano- or microscale swimmers such as, e.g., self-propelled Janus particles as agents of chemical reactions or weak sperm cells for better chances of successful fertilization. Here we tackle this problem based on the idea that motility can be transferred from a more active guest species to a less active host species. We performed numerical simulations of motility transfer in two typical cases, namely for interacting particles with a weak inertia effect, by analyzing their velocity distributions, and for interacting overdamped particles, by studying their effusion rate. In both cases, we detected motility transfer with a motility enhancement of the host species of up to a factor of four. This technique of motility enhancement can find applications in chemistry, biology and medicine.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(5): 053601, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083917

RESUMO

We demonstrate theoretically the bundle emission of n strongly correlated phonons in an acoustic cavity QED system. The mechanism relies on Stokes resonances that generate super-Rabi oscillations between states with a large difference in their number of excitations, which, combined with dissipation, transfer coherently pure n-phonon states outside of the cavity. This process works with close to perfect purity over a wide range of parameters and is tunable optically with well-resolved operation conditions. This broadens the realm of quantum phononics, with potential applications for on-chip quantum information processing, quantum metrology, and engineering of new types of quantum devices, such as optically heralded n-phonon guns.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1751, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019941

RESUMO

We explore the problem of projecting the ground-state of an ultra-strong-coupled circuit-QED system into a non-energy-eigenstate. As a measurement apparatus we consider a nonlinear driven resonator. We find that the post-measurement state of the nonlinear resonator exhibits a large correlation with the post-measurement state of the ultra-strongly coupled system even when the coupling between measurement device and system is much smaller than the energy scales of the system itself. While the projection is imperfect, we argue that because of the strong nonlinear response of the resonator it works in a practical regime where a linear measurement apparatus would fail.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(2): 023603, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004058

RESUMO

Exploring the properties and applications of topological quantum states is essential to better understand topological matter. Here, we theoretically study a quasi-one-dimensional topological atom array. In the low-energy regime, the atom array is equivalent to a topological superatom. Driving the superatom in a cavity, we study the interaction between light and topological quantum states. We find that the edge states exhibit topology-protected quantum coherence, which can be characterized from the photon transmission. This quantum coherence helps us to find a superradiance-subradiance transition, and we also study its finite-size scaling behavior. The superradiance-subradiance transition also exists in symmetry-breaking systems. More importantly, it is shown that the quantum coherence of the subradiant edge state is robust to random noises, allowing the superatom to work as a topologically protected quantum memory. We suggest a relevant experiment with three-dimensional circuit QED. Our study may have applications in quantum computation and quantum optics based on topological edge states.

18.
Langmuir ; 36(25): 7091-7099, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011149

RESUMO

Synthetic nano- and micromotors interact with each other and their surroundings in a complex manner. Here, we report on the anisotropy of active-passive particle interaction in a soft matter system containing an immobile yet photochemical Ag/AgCl-based Janus particle embedded in a dense matrix of passive beads in pure water. The asymmetry in the chemical gradient around the Janus particle, triggered upon visible light illumination, distorts the isotropy of the surrounding electric potential and results in the repulsion of adjacent passive beads to a certain distance away from the Janus particle. This exclusion effect is found to be anisotropic with larger distances to passive beads in front of the Ag/AgCl cap of the Janus particle. We provide insight into this phenomenon by performing the angular analysis of the radii of exclusion and tracking their time evolution at the level of a single bead. Our study provides a novel fundamental insight into the collective behavior of a complex mixture of active and passive particles and is relevant for various application scenarios, e.g., particle transport at micro- and nanoscale and local chemical sensing.

19.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(3): 294-307, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959921

RESUMO

Classical reinforcement learning (CRL) has been widely applied in neuroscience and psychology; however, quantum reinforcement learning (QRL), which shows superior performance in computer simulations, has never been empirically tested on human decision-making. Moreover, all current successful quantum models for human cognition lack connections to neuroscience. Here we studied whether QRL can properly explain value-based decision-making. We compared 2 QRL and 12 CRL models by using behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data from healthy and cigarette-smoking subjects performing the Iowa Gambling Task. In all groups, the QRL models performed well when compared with the best CRL models and further revealed the representation of quantum-like internal-state-related variables in the medial frontal gyrus in both healthy subjects and smokers, suggesting that value-based decision-making can be illustrated by QRL at both the behavioural and neural levels.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Fumar Cigarros/fisiopatologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Reforço Psicológico , Adulto , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Teoria Quântica
20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(22): 223202, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868398

RESUMO

The possibility to manipulate quantum coherence and interference, apart from its fundamental interest in quantum mechanics, is essential for controlling nonlinear optical processes such as high harmonic generation, multiphoton absorption, and stimulated Raman scattering. We show, analytically and numerically, how a nonlinear optical process via resonance Raman scattering (RRS) can be manipulated in a four-level double-Λ system by using pulsed laser fields. We find that two simultaneously excited RRS paths involved in the system can generate an ultimately destructive interference in the broad-bandwidth-limit regime. This, in turn, reduces the four-level system to an equivalent three-level system in a V configuration capable of naturally vanishing RRS effects. We further show that this counterintuitive phenomenon, i.e., the RRS vanishing, can be prevented by transferring a modulated phase of the laser pulse to the system at resonance frequencies. This work demonstrates a clear signature of both quantum destructive and constructive interference by actively controlling resonant multiphoton processes in multilevel quantum systems, and it therefore has potential applications in nonlinear optics, quantum control, and quantum information science.

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