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1.
Respir Care ; 66(11): 1713-1719, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A cough peak flow (CPF) of < 60 L/min was associated with increased risk of extubation failure after a successful spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). Passive cephalic excursion of the diaphragm (PCED), measured by ultrasonography during cough expiration, was reported to predict CPF in healthy adults. We hypothesized that PCED, diaphragm peak velocity, or both during cough, as measured by ultrasonography, might predict CPF and extubation outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients. This study attempted to identify associations of diaphragm movement during cough, as assessed by ultrasonography with simultaneously measured CPF, and to determine predictive values of ultrasonographic indices for extubation outcomes after a successful SBT. METHODS: In the study, 252 mechanically ventilated subjects with a successful SBT were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Right hemidiaphragm passive cephalic excursion and peak velocity were measured by ultrasonography during voluntary cough expiration with maximum effort. CPF was measured simultaneously by ultrasonography. RESULTS: A multiple regression model adjusted for age and sex showed a significant association between PCED and CPF (P < .001, adjusted ß coefficient 11.4, 95% CI 8.88-14.0, adjusted R2 = 0.287) and between diaphragm peak velocity and CPF (P < .001, adjusted ß coefficient 1.71, 95% CI 1.91-2.24, adjusted R2 = 0.235). The areas under the curves of PCED, diaphragm peak velocity, and CPF for extubation failure were 0.791 (95% Cl 0.668-0.914), 0.587 (95% Cl 0.426-0.748), and 0.765 (95% Cl 0.609-0.922), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PCED on ultrasonography was significantly associated with CPF and extubation failure after a successful SBT. Future studies should investigate if this method is applicable for determination of tracheostomy decannulation in stable patients in general wards.


Assuntos
Extubação , Tosse , Adulto , Tosse/etiologia , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia
2.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e932252, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Osimertinib is an oral third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) approved as first-line therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with positive EGFR mutation. Rashes, nail toxicity, and diarrhea are common adverse events. Hematological adverse effects, including anemia, thrombocytopenia, and lymphocytopenia, have been reported. However, erythrocytosis has not been reported as an adverse event. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of acute lower extremity thrombosis presumably caused by osimertinib-induced erythrocytosis. CASE REPORT A 70-year-old man with epidermal EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC presented with acute left sural pain. The patient's left foot was cold, and peripheral arterial Doppler signals were absent. He had developed erythrocytosis of unknown etiology during osimertinib therapy. Hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit were 22.6 g/dL and 62.5%, respectively. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed thrombotic occlusion of the popliteal artery. Other than erythrocytosis, there was no possible cause of arterial thrombosis. Osimertinib was discontinued immediately because the NSCLC started to resist treatment and was presumed to be the cause of erythrocytosis. He received endovascular treatment (EVT). Following serial EVT and debridement, his fourth toe was amputated for necrosis. Erythrocytosis persisted 8 months during osimertinib therapy. Hb levels decreased to 15.4 mg/dL due to blood loss complicated with catheter thrombectomy and remained normal for 20 months after osimertinib discontinuation. The patient died of cancer progression. CONCLUSIONS This case suggests the erythrocytosis was possibly caused by osimertinib. We may need to monitor Hb levels during osimertinib therapy and be alert to thrombosis once Hb starts to rise.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Policitemia , Trombose , Acrilamidas , Idoso , Compostos de Anilina , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Mutação , Policitemia/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos
4.
Int J Emerg Med ; 14(1): 38, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic errors or delays can cause serious consequences for patient safety, especially in the emergency department. Anchoring bias is one of the major factors leading to diagnostic error. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the high probability of COVID-19 in febrile patients could be a major cause of anchoring bias leading to diagnostic error. In addition, certain evaluations such as auscultation are difficult to perform on a casual basis due to the increased risk of contact infection, which lead to inadequate assessment of the patients with valvular disease. Acute mitral regurgitation (MR) could be a fatal disease in the emergency department, especially if there is a diagnostic error or delay in diagnosis. It is often reported that diagnosis can be difficult even though there is no treatment other than emergent surgery. The diagnosis of acute MR has become more difficult because coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic could affect our daily practice especially in febrile patients. We report a case of a diagnostic delay of a febrile patient because of anchoring bias during the COVID-19 pandemic. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of acute dyspnea and fever. Based on vital signs and computed tomography of the chest, acute pneumonia due to COVID-19 was suspected. Auscultation was avoided because of facility rule based on concern of contact infection. After admission to the intensive care unit, Doppler echocardiography revealed acute mitral regurgitation, and transesophageal echocardiography revealed mitral valve tendon rupture. After confirming the negative result for the polymerase chain reaction of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, mitral valvuloplasty was performed on the third day after admission. The patient was discharged 14 days after admission without complications. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 pandemic, anchoring bias suspecting COVID-19 among febrile patients becomes a strong heuristic factor. A thorough history and physical examination is still important in febrile patients presenting with dyspnea to ensure the correct diagnosis of acute mitral regurgitation.

5.
Chest ; 159(6): 2494-2502, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Japan, public dialogue on allocation of life-saving medical resources remains taboo, and discussion largely has been avoided. RESEARCH QUESTION: Do Japanese health care workers and the general public agree with principles of ventilator allocation developed internationally? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A four-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to assess the extent of agreement or disagreement with internationally developed triage principles for rationing mechanical ventilators during pandemics. Questionnaires were distributed in person or online, and generalized linear models were used to analyze quantitative data. Free-text descriptions were analyzed qualitatively, both deductively and inductively, to compare respondent opinions with those described in previous US studies. RESULTS: Of 3,191 surveys distributed, 1,520 were returned. Allocation of resources to maximize survival from current illness ("save the most lives") was the most popular triage principle, with 95.8% of respondents in agreement. Allocation to ensure a minimum duration of benefit, as determined by predicted prognosis after illness ("ensure minimum duration of benefit"), and allocation to persons who have experienced fewer life stages ("life cycle") obtained agreement of 82.2% and 80.1%, respectively. Withdrawal and reallocation of mechanical ventilators to more appropriate patients was supported by 64.4% of respondents. Only 28.4% of respondents supported the principle of first-come, first-served access to ventilators. INTERPRETATION: Most respondents supported allocation principles developed internationally and disagreed with the idea of first-come, first-served allocation during resource shortages. The Japanese public seems largely to be prepared to discuss the ethical dilemmas and possible solutions regarding fair and transparent allocation of critical care resources as a necessary step in confronting present and future pandemics and disasters.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , COVID-19/terapia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Opinião Pública , Ventiladores Mecânicos/provisão & distribuição , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Triagem
6.
Int J Gen Med ; 13: 721-728, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061541

RESUMO

Purpose: An early do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order is classified as such when it occurs within 24 hours of admission. Early DNR has been previously associated with in-hospital mortality among acute heart failure (AHF) patients and one-year mortality among patients discharged from ICU. Here, we investigate whether early DNR is associated with long-term mortality in AHF Japanese patients, by performing a retrospective cohort study. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively investigated all patients with AHF, admitted to our hospital between April 2013 and March 2015, and survived to discharge. We obtained data on demographics, comorbidities, laboratory and echocardiography results, social background, DNR status, and outcomes (one-year death). The association of early DNR with one-year death was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 370 survive to discharge patients, 48 (12%) were lost to follow up. We analyzed 322 patients. The median age was 74 years, and 80 (25%) had an early DNR order. Patients with a DNR order were older and displayed more activities of daily living (ADL)-dependence. Early DNR was associated with higher one-year mortality. Conclusion: Early DNR was associated with one-year mortality among AHF patients. Further studies are necessary to investigate unmeasured factors associated with a worse prognosis related to early DNR among AHF patients.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230186, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160256

RESUMO

Professionalism is a critical competency for emergency medicine (EM) physicians, and professional behavior affects patient satisfaction. However, the findings of various studies indicate that there are differences in the interpretation of professionalism among EM resident physicians and faculty physicians. Using a cross-sectional survey, we aimed to analyze common challenges to medical professionalism for Japanese EM physicians and survey the extent of professionalism coursework completed during undergraduate medical education. We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional survey of EM resident physicians and faculty physicians at academic conferences and eight teaching hospitals in Japan using the questionnaire by Barry and colleagues. We analyzed the frequency of providing either the best or second-best answers to each scenario as the main outcome measure and compared the frequencies between EM resident physicians and EM faculty physicians. Fisher's exact test and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to analyze data. A total of 176 physicians (86 EM resident physicians and 90 EM faculty physicians) completed the survey. The response rate was 92.6%. The most challenging scenario presented to participants dealt with sexual harassment, and only 44.5% chose the best or second-best answers, followed by poor responses to the confidentiality scenario (69.9%). The frequency of either the best or second-best responses to the confidentiality scenario was significantly greater for EM resident physicians than for EM faculty physicians (77.1% versus 62.9%, p = 0.048). More participants in the EM resident physician group completed formal courses in medical professionalism than those in the EM faculty physician group (25.8% versus 5.5%, p < 0.01). Further, EM faculty physicians were less likely than EM resident physicians to provide acceptable responses in terms of confidentiality, and few of both had received professionalism training through school curricula. Continuous professionalism education focused on the prevention of sexual harassment and gender gap is needed for both EM resident physicians and faculty physicians in Japan.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Profissionalismo/tendências , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Anaerobe ; 60: 102107, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal and practical laboratory diagnostic approach for detection of Clostridioides difficile to aid in the diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI) is controversial. A two-step algorithm with initial detection of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) or nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) alone are recommended as a predominant method for C. difficile detection in developed countries. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) detecting toxins A and B, NAAT detecting the toxin B gene, and GDH compared to toxigenic culture (TC) for C. difficile as the gold standard, in patients prospectively and actively assessed with clinically significant diarrhea in 12 medical facilities in Japan. METHODS: A total of 650 stool specimens were collected from 566 patients with at least three diarrheal bowel movements (Bristol stool grade 6-7) in the preceding 24 h. EIA and GDH were performed at each hospital, and NAAT and toxigenic C. difficile culture with enriched media were performed at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases. All C. difficile isolates recovered were analyzed by PCR-ribotyping. RESULTS: Compared to TC, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of EIA were 41%, 96%, 75% and 84%, respectively, and for NAAT were 74%, 98%, 91%, and 92%, respectively. In 439 specimens tested with GDH, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 73%, 87%, 65%, and 91%, and for an algorithm (GDH plus toxin EIA, arbitrated by NAAT) were 71%, 96%, 85%, and 91%, respectively. Among 157 isolates recovered, 75% of isolates corresponded to one of PCR-ribotypes (RTs) 002, 014, 018/018", and 369; RT027 was not isolated. No clear differences in the sensitivities of any of EIA, NAAT and GDH for four predominant RTs were found. CONCLUSION: The analytical sensitivities of NAAT and GDH-algorithm to detect toxigenic C. difficile in this study were lower than most previous reports. This study also found low PPV of EIAs. The optimal method to detect C. difficile or its toxins to assist in the diagnosis of CDI needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Clostridioides difficile/genética , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/normas , Clostridioides difficile/classificação , Clostridioides difficile/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Ribotipagem , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Respir Care ; 64(11): 1371-1376, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluation of cough strength is clinically important, especially for patients with neuromuscular disorders and before extubation of mechanically ventilated patients. The pressure gradient between the airway and thoracoabdominal cavities during the cough expiratory phase generates cough flow and passive cephalic movement of the diaphragm. We hypothesized that passive diaphragmatic cephalic excursion, peak velocity, or both during cough expiration might predict cough peak flow (CPF). This physiologic study investigated associations of CPF with simultaneously measured ultrasonographic indices in healthy adults during the cough expiratory phase. METHODS: 56 healthy adults participated in this study. Right hemidiaphragm excursion and peak velocity were measured with ultrasonography during voluntary cough expiration with maximum effort. CPF was simultaneously measured for all coughs along with the ultrasonographic measurements. A linear regression model was used to determine whether ultrasonographic indices predicted CPF. RESULTS: Simple regression analysis showed significant associations between excursion and CPF in men and women (P < .001, beta coefficient 37.8, 95% CI 10.9-64.7, adjusted R2 = 0.195 for men; P < .001, beta coefficient 46.1, 95% CI 22.3-69.9, adjusted R2 = 0.386 for women). A multiple regression model adjusted for age, height, and sex showed a significant association between CPF and excursion (P < .001, adjusted beta coefficient 38.32, 95% CI 21.20-55.44, adjusted R2 = 0.643). Simple regression analysis showed a significant association between diaphragmatic peak velocity and CPF only in women (P = .004, beta coefficient 5.07, 95% CI 1.81-8.33, adjusted R2 = 0.280 for women). CONCLUSIONS: Passive cephalic excursion of the diaphragm during the cough expiratory phase significantly predicted CPF with maximum cough effort in healthy adults. Future studies should investigate the relationship between CPF and excursion in persons with respiratory and neuromuscular disorders.


Assuntos
Tosse/fisiopatologia , Diafragma , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Extubação/métodos , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Diafragma/fisiologia , Expiração/fisiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Neuromusculares/fisiopatologia , Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia
10.
Anaerobe ; 60: 102011, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872073

RESUMO

Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile is the leading cause of healthcare-associated infectious diarrhea in the developed world. Retrospective studies have shown a lower incidence of C. difficile infection (CDI) in Japan than in Europe or North America. Prospective studies are needed to determine if this is due lack of testing for C. difficile or a true difference in CDI epidemiology. A prospective cohort study of CDI was conducted from May 2014 to May 2015 at 12 medical facilities (20 wards) in Japan. Patients with at least three diarrheal bowel movements (Bristol stool grade 6-7) in the preceding 24 h were enrolled. CDI was defined by positive result on enzyme immunoassay for toxins A/B, nucleic acid amplification test for the toxin B gene or toxigenic culture. C. difficile isolates were subjected to PCR-ribotyping (RT), slpA-sequence typing (slpA-ST), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The overall incidence of CDI was 7.4/10,000 patient-days (PD). The incidence was highest in the five ICU wards (22.2 CDI/10,000 PD; range: 13.9-75.5/10,000 PD). The testing frequency and CDI incidence rate were highly correlated (R2 = 0.91). Of the 146 isolates, RT018/018″ was dominant (29%), followed by types 014 (23%), 002 (12%), and 369 (11%). Among the 15 non-ICU wards, two had high CDI incidence rates (13.0 and 15.9 CDI/10,000 PD), with clusters of RT018/slpA-ST smz-02 and 018"/smz-01, respectively. Three non-RT027 or 078 binary toxin-positive isolates were found. All RT018/018" isolates were resistant to moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, clindamycin, and erythromycin. This study identified a higher CDI incidence in Japanese hospitals than previously reported by actively identifying and testing patients with clinically significant diarrhea. This suggests numerous patients with CDI are being overlooked due to inadequate diagnostic testing in Japan.


Assuntos
Clostridioides difficile , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Clostridioides difficile/classificação , Clostridioides difficile/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridioides difficile/genética , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem Molecular , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ribotipagem
11.
Ann Intensive Care ; 8(1): 123, 2018 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proportional modes (proportional assist ventilation, PAV, and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist, NAVA) could improve patient-ventilator interaction and consequently may be efficient as a weaning mode. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine whether proportional modes improved patient-ventilator interaction and whether they had an impact on the weaning success and length of mechanical ventilation, in comparison with PSV. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception through May 13, 2018. We included both parallel-group and crossover randomized studies that examined the efficacy of proportional modes in comparison with PSV in mechanically ventilated adults. The primary outcomes were (1) asynchrony index (AI), (2) weaning failure, and (3) duration of mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: We included 15 studies (four evaluated PAV, ten evaluated NAVA, and one evaluated both modes). Although the use of proportional modes was not associated with a reduction in AI (WMD - 1.43; 95% CI - 3.11 to 0.25; p = 0.096; PAV-one study, and NAVA-seven studies), the use of proportional modes was associated with a reduction in patients with AI > 10% (RR 0.15; 95% CI 0.04-0.58; p = 0.006; PAV-two studies, and NAVA-five studies), compared with PSV. There was a significant heterogeneity among studies for AI, especially with NAVA. Compared with PSV, use of proportional modes was associated with a reduction in weaning failure (RR 0.44; 95% CI 0.26-0.75; p = 0.003; PAV-three studies) and duration of mechanical ventilation (WMD - 1.78 days; 95% CI - 3.24 to - 0.32; p = 0.017; PAV-three studies, and NAVA-two studies). Reduced duration of mechanical ventilation was found with PAV but not with NAVA. CONCLUSION: The use of proportional modes was associated with a reduction in the incidence with AI > 10%, weaning failure and duration of mechanical ventilation, compared with PSV. However, reduced weaning failure and duration of mechanical ventilation were found with only PAV. Due to a significant heterogeneity among studies and an insufficient number of studies, further investigation seems warranted to better understand the impact of proportional modes. Clinical trial registration PROSPERO registration number, CRD42017059791. Registered 20 March 2017.

12.
Int J Gen Med ; 11: 405-412, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410386

RESUMO

Background: A do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order is reportedly associated with a decrease in performance measures, but it should not be applied to noncardiopulmonary resuscitation procedures. Good performance measures are associated with improvement in heart failure outcomes. Aim: To analyze the influence of DNR order on performance measures of heart failure at our hospital, where lectures on DNR order are held every 3 months. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: The medical report of patients with acute heart failure who were admitted between April 2013 and March 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. We collected demographic data, information on the presence or absence of DNR order within 24 hours of admission, and inhospital mortality. Performance measures of heart failure, including assessment of cardiac function and discharge prescription of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker and beta-blocker for left ventricular systolic dysfunction and anticoagulant for atrial fibrillation, were collected and compared between groups with and without DNR orders. Results: In 394 total patients and 183 patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, 114 (30%) and 44 (24%) patients, respectively, had a DNR order. Patients with a DNR order had higher inhospital mortality. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the four quality measures (left ventricular function assessment, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, beta-blocker, and anticoagulant). Conclusion: DNR orders did not affect performance measures, but they were associated with higher inhospital mortality among acute heart failure patients.

13.
Am J Case Rep ; 19: 978-984, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a clinical syndrome that can be life-threatening, depending on the organs involved. Although DRESS commonly presents with skin lesions, myocarditis and pericarditis associated with DRESS, although rare, can be fatal. A case of DRESS associated with myocarditis is presented with a review of the literature of 43 reported cases of DRESS associated with myocarditis that included the present case, to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment of DRESS with corticosteroids. CASE REPORT A 33-year-old man presented with fever, diarrhea, and a diffuse maculopapular rash, four weeks after being treated with antibiotics and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). He developed renal failure, liver dysfunction, and profound hypotension with severe left ventricular dysfunction that required mechanical cardiac support. A diagnosis was made of myocarditis associated with DRESS syndrome. After treatment began with prednisolone, the skin rash, multi-organ dysfunction, and cardiogenic dysfunction resolved. CONCLUSIONS Myocarditis is a rare complication associated with DRESS, but when it is suspected, urgent echocardiography should be performed, particularly when hemodynamic instability occurs. Early diagnosis, removal of the causative agent, and treatment with corticosteroids are important to reduce mortality from cardiac involvement in patients with DRESS.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/etiologia , Miocardite/etiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Miocardite/induzido quimicamente
14.
J Intensive Care ; 6: 45, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094030

RESUMO

Background: Because of the complex pathophysiological processes involved, neurocritical care has been driven by anecdotal experience and physician preferences, which has led to care variation worldwide. Standardization of practice has improved outcomes for many of the critical conditions encountered in the intensive care unit. Main body: In this review article, we introduce preliminary guideline- and pathophysiology-based protocols for (1) prompt shivering management, (2) traumatic brain injury and intracranial pressure management, (3) neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest, (4) delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage, (5) nonconvulsive status epilepticus, and (6) acute or subacute psychosis and seizure. Conclusion: These tentative protocols may be useful tools for bedside clinicians who need to provide consistent, standardized care in a dynamic clinical environment. Because most of the contents of presented protocol are not supported by evidence, they should be validated in a prospective controlled study in future. We suggest that these protocols should be regarded as drafts to be tailored to the systems, environments, and clinician preferences in each institution.

15.
Ann Intensive Care ; 8(1): 61, 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A patient's ability to clear secretions and protect the airway with an effective cough is an important part of the pre-extubation evaluation. An increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is important in generating the flow rate necessary for a cough. This study investigated whether an increase from baseline in IAP during a coughing episode induced by routine pre-extubation airway suctioning is associated with extubation outcome after a successful spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). METHODS: Three hundred thirty-five (335) mechanically ventilated patients who passed an SBT were enrolled. Baseline IAP and peak IAP during successive suctioning-induced coughs were measured with a fluid column connected to a Foley catheter. RESULTS: Extubation was unsuccessful in 24 patients (7.2%). Unsuccessful extubation was 3.40 times as likely for patients with a delta IAP (ΔIAP) of ≤ 30 cm H2O than for those with a ΔIAP > 30 cm H2O, after adjusting for APACHE II score (95% CI, 1.39-8.26; p = .007). CONCLUSION: ΔIAP during a coughing episode induced by routine pre-extubation airway suctioning is significantly associated with extubation outcome in patients with a successful SBT. Trial registration UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial, UMIN000017762. Registered 1 June 2015.

16.
J Crit Care ; 43: 169-182, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28918201

RESUMO

Pressure controlled ventilation is a common mode of ventilation used to manage both adult and pediatric populations. However, there is very little evidence that distinguishes the efficacy of pressure controlled ventilation over that of volume controlled ventilation in the adult population. This gap in the literature may be due to the absence of a consistent and systematic algorithm for managing pressure controlled ventilation. This article provides a brief overview of the applications of both pressure controlled ventilation and volume controlled ventilation and proposes an algorithmic approach to the management of patients receiving pressure controlled ventilation. This algorithmic approach highlights the need for clinicians to have a comprehensive conceptual understanding of mechanical ventilation, pulmonary physiology, and interpretation of ventilator graphics in order to best care for patients receiving pressure controlled ventilation. The objective of identifying a systematic approach to managing pressure controlled ventilation is to provide a more generalizable and equitable approach to management of the ICU patient. Ideally, a consistent approach to managing pressure controlled ventilation in the adult population will glean more reliable information regarding actual patient outcomes, as well as the efficacy of pressure controlled ventilation when compared to volume controlled ventilation.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Adulto , Expiração , Humanos , Inalação , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Pressão , Ventiladores Mecânicos
17.
J Gen Intern Med ; 33(3): 384-387, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29188542

RESUMO

Wet beriberi, characterized by high cardiac output with predominantly right-sided heart failure and lactic acidosis, is a disease caused by thiamine deficiency, and is rarely seen in modern society. However, patients with social withdrawal syndrome, also known as hikikomori syndrome, may be a new population at risk of thiamine deficiency. Hikikomori syndrome, first recognized in Japan, is becoming a worldwide issue. A 39-year-old Japanese patient was brought to our hospital, with a 3-week history of progressive shortness of breath and generalized edema. The patient had right-sided high-output heart failure, lactic acidosis, and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Because of his history of social isolation, we diagnosed hikikomori syndrome according to the Japanese government's definition, which is as follows: lifestyle centered at home; no interest or willingness to attend school or work; persistence of symptoms beyond 6 months; and exclusion of other psychiatric and developmental disorders. Considering his diagnosis of hikikomori syndrome and social isolation, we suspected malnutrition, particularly thiamine deficiency, and successfully treated him. Clinicians should be aware of the potential risk of thiamine deficiency associated with hikikomori syndrome and initiate thiamine replacement in cases of high-output heart failure associated with lactic acidosis.


Assuntos
Beriberi/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Korsakoff/diagnóstico por imagem , Isolamento Social , Deficiência de Tiamina/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Beriberi/tratamento farmacológico , Beriberi/psicologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Síndrome de Korsakoff/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Korsakoff/psicologia , Masculino , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Síndrome , Deficiência de Tiamina/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Tiamina/psicologia , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem
18.
Int J Gen Med ; 10: 207-214, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28769583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Code status discussion is associated with a decrease in invasive procedures among terminally ill cancer patients. We investigated the association between code status discussion on admission and incidence of invasive procedures, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and opioid use among inpatients with advanced stages of cancer and noncancer diseases. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study in a single center, Ito Municipal Hospital, Japan. Participants were patients who were admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine between October 1, 2013 and August 30, 2015, with advanced-stage cancer and noncancer. We collected demographic data and inquired the presence or absence of code status discussion within 24 hours of admission and whether invasive procedures, including central venous catheter placement, intubation with mechanical ventilation, and CPR for cardiac arrest, and opioid treatment were performed. We investigated the factors associated with CPR events by using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among the total 232 patients, code status was discussed with 115 patients on admission, of which 114 (99.1%) patients had do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders. The code status was not discussed with the remaining 117 patients on admission, of which 69 (59%) patients had subsequent code status discussion with resultant DNR orders. Code status discussion on admission decreased the incidence of central venous catheter placement, intubation with mechanical ventilation, and CPR in both cancer and noncancer patients. It tended to increase the rate of opioid use. Code status discussion on admission was the only factor associated with the decreased use of CPR (P<0.001, odds ratio =0.03, 95% CI =0.004-0.21), which was found by using multivariate logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Code status discussion on admission is associated with a decrease in invasive procedures and CPR in cancer and noncancer patients. Physicians should be educated about code status discussion to improve end-of-life care.

19.
J Intensive Care ; 5: 50, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Japanese Society of Respiratory Care Medicine and the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine provide here a clinical practice guideline for the management of adult patients with ARDS in the ICU. METHOD: The guideline was developed applying the GRADE system for performing robust systematic reviews with plausible recommendations. The guideline consists of 13 clinical questions mainly regarding ventilator settings and drug therapies (the last question includes 11 medications that are not approved for clinical use in Japan). RESULTS: The recommendations for adult patients with ARDS include: we suggest against early tracheostomy (GRADE 2C), we suggest using NPPV for early respiratory management (GRADE 2C), we recommend the use of low tidal volumes at 6-8 mL/kg (GRADE 1B), we suggest setting the plateau pressure at 30cmH20 or less (GRADE2B), we suggest using PEEP within the range of plateau pressures less than or equal to 30cmH2O, without compromising hemodynamics (Grade 2B), and using higher PEEP levels in patients with moderate to severe ARDS (Grade 2B), we suggest using protocolized methods for liberation from mechanical ventilation (Grade 2D), we suggest prone positioning especially in patients with moderate to severe respiratory dysfunction (GRADE 2C), we suggest against the use of high frequency oscillation (GRADE 2C), we suggest the use of neuromuscular blocking agents in patients requiring mechanical ventilation under certain circumstances (GRADE 2B), we suggest fluid restriction in the management of ARDS (GRADE 2A), we do not suggest the use of neutrophil elastase inhibitors (GRADE 2D), we suggest the administration of steroids, equivalent to methylprednisolone 1-2mg/kg/ day (GRADE 2A), and we do not recommend other medications for the treatment of adult patients with ARDS (GRADE1B; inhaled/intravenous ß2 stimulants, prostaglandin E1, activated protein C, ketoconazole, and lisofylline, GRADE 1C; inhaled nitric oxide, GRADE 1D; surfactant, GRADE 2B; granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, N-acetylcysteine, GRADE 2C; Statin.). CONCLUSIONS: This article was translated from the Japanese version originally published as the ARDS clinical practice guidelines 2016 by the committee of ARDS clinical practice guideline (Tokyo, 2016, 293p, available from http://www.jsicm.org/ARDSGL/ARDSGL2016.pdf). The original article, written for Japanese healthcare providers, provides points of view that are different from those in other countries.

20.
J Crit Care ; 41: 112-118, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28514715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of physician education and the availability of Peso and PL data on physicians' decisions regarding ventilator management during specific simulated clinical conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a prospective, before-after study using a case scenario-based questionnaire and a case simulator device comprising an Avea ventilator and an artificial lung and esophagus, which was connected to a Series 1101 Electronic Breathing Simulator. The 99 physicians participating in the study were provided with five simulated cases with on-time ventilator graphics without Peso and PL and completed a questionnaire on decisions they would make regarding ventilator management of the cases. Then, after receiving instruction on Peso and PL, they were given the same cases along with ventilator graphics that included Peso and PL. RESULTS: After receiving instruction and data on Peso and PL, statistically significant numbers of physicians changed their answers regarding ventilator management decisions in all five cases. CONCLUSIONS: Providing education and data for Peso and PL had a significant effect on physician decisions regarding ventilator management in simulated cases. The use of case scenario-based education with simulator devices for physicians may hasten worldwide understanding and clinical application of Peso and PL.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Esôfago/fisiologia , Médicos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Respiração Artificial , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação
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