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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD012254, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical treatment and detoxification from opiate disorders includes oral administration of opioid agonists. Dihydrocodeine (DHC) substitution treatment is typically low threshold and therefore has the capacity to reach wider groups of opiate users. Decisions to prescribe DHC to patients with less severe opiate disorders centre on its perceived safety, reduced toxicity, shorter half-life and more rapid onset of action, and potential retention of patients. This review set out to investigate the effects of DHC in comparison to other pharmaceutical opioids and placebos in the detoxification and substitution of individuals with opiate use disorders. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of DHC in reducing illicit opiate use and other health-related outcomes among adults compared to other drugs or placebos used for detoxification or substitution therapy. SEARCH METHODS: In February 2019 we searched Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. We also searched for ongoing and unpublished studies via ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and Trialsjournal.com. All searches included non-English language literature. We handsearched references of topic-related systematic reviews and the included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effect of DHC for detoxification and maintenance substitution therapy for adolescent (aged 15 years and older) and adult illicit opiate users. The primary outcomes were abstinence from illicit opiate use following detoxification or maintenance therapy measured by self-report or urinalysis. The secondary outcomes were treatment retention and other health and behaviour outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed the standard methodological procedures that are outlined by Cochrane. This includes the GRADE approach to appraise the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included three trials (in five articles) with 385 opiate-using participants that measured outcomes at different follow-up periods in this review. Two studies with 150 individuals compared DHC with buprenorphine for detoxification, and one study with 235 participants compared DHC to methadone for maintenance substitution therapy. We downgraded the quality of evidence mainly due to risk of bias and imprecision. For the two studies that compared DHC to buprenorphine, we found low-quality evidence of no significant difference between DHC and buprenorphine for detoxification at six-month follow-up (risk ratio (RR) 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25 to 1.39; P = 0.23) in the meta-analysis for the primary outcome of abstinence from illicit opiates. Similarly, low-quality evidence indicated no difference for treatment retention (RR 1.29, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.68; P = 0.06). In the single trial that compared DHC to methadone for maintenance substitution therapy, the evidence was also of low quality, and there may be no difference in effects between DHC and methadone for reported abstinence from illicit opiates (mean difference (MD) -0.01, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.29). For treatment retention at six months' follow-up in this single trial, the RR calculated with an intention-to-treat analysis also indicated that there may be no difference between DHC and methadone (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.16). The studies that compared DHC to buprenorphine reported no serious adverse events, while the DHC versus methadone study reported one death due to methadone overdose. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found low-quality evidence that DHC may be no more effective than other commonly used pharmacological interventions in reducing illicit opiate use. It is therefore premature to make any conclusive statements about the effectiveness of DHC, and it is suggested that further high-quality studies are conducted, especially in low- to middle-income countries.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early intervention for psychosis is recommended because the first 5 years beyond the first episode is considered the critical period within which individuals have the most potential to maximize their response to treatment and recovery. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been studied extensively in diverse disease groups, but research in people with recent-onset psychosis is still immature. AIM: This review aims to explore the feasibility, acceptability and summarize any effectiveness data on of the MBIs for people with recent-onset psychosis reported by the study authors. METHODS: A systematic search of original intervention research studies relevant to the topic published between January 2000 and August 2019 was conducted with 10 databases. Articles published in English with accessible full text were included. RESULTS: A total of eight studies were included, which reported recruitment rates of between 62.5% and 100%, withdrawal rates between 0% and 37.5% and attendance rates of between 56% and 100%. Participants' qualitative feedback indicated high levels of satisfaction with the MBIs. The intervention approaches adopted in the reviewed studies include mindfulness-based interventions, acceptance and commitment therapy and compassion-based interventions. MBIs have produced promising positive effects on participants' psychiatric and psychosocial outcomes. CONCLUSION: This review confirms that MBIs are generally feasible and acceptable for people with recent-onset psychosis. The preliminary results suggested the potential effects of MBIs in this area. Fully powered randomized controlled trials are suggested to confirm the effectiveness and exploratory studies to gain greater insight into the active components and mechanism of actions of MBIs for recent-onset psychosis.

3.
Scand J Caring Sci ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: SPECAL is a model of care for people with dementia based on a novel conceptualisation of memory and how this changes in dementia. Carers adapt their communication style to prevent distress and promote well-being for the person with dementia. However, there is limited scientific evidence on the effectiveness of SPECAL. AIM: This study explored mechanisms of SPECAL through a qualitative enquiry with family carers. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with family carers who had been coached in SPECAL and applied its principles and practices. Thematic analysis was applied. FINDINGS: All participants had found SPECAL helpful in caring for a person with dementia. The core themes of this positive experience were empathy, harmony and resilience. Synthesis of these themes contributes to a proposed model of the mechanisms of SPECAL. CONCLUSION: In applying SPECAL, carers gained an empathetic insight to the feelings of the person with dementia. This empathy leads to a more harmonious environment, which enhances the carer's resilience.

4.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 56(2): 428-442, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632948

RESUMO

Newspapers are influential sources of information and opinion on mental health, but careless reporting may reinforce stigma. This review examined portrayals of mental disorder in Saudi Arabian newspapers. A cross-sectional sample (N = 200) of relevant articles was obtained from four of the most popular newspapers. These were categorised for descriptive and thematic analysis, using an established framework. The theme of highest frequency was advocacy, actions, and concerns; such articles were likely to have a positive impact by raising public awareness. Similarly, numerous reports with the theme of treatment and recovery informed readers of developments in mental health care, potentially breaking down barriers to seeking help. The theme of blame was found in a quarter of the articles; in addition to discussing environmental and genetic factors, there were several commentaries or reports on spiritual possession, which could perpetuate stigmatising ideas. While portrayals of mental disorder in Saudi newspapers show similarities to media coverage in other countries, distinct cultural perspectives were evident, including the prevailing notion of the 'evil eye'. The authors recommend collaboration of mental health experts, patients and family carers to devise guidelines for more accurate reporting of mental disorder by Saudi media.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Jornais como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Opinião Pública , Arábia Saudita
6.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 30(5): 332-343, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29917160

RESUMO

Purpose: To examine whether attachment styles of healthcare workers influence the quality of their relationships with patients, or impact patients' health outcomes. Data source: Literature database searches on the CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE and PsyCinfo, and hand searching of reference lists of the retained articles. Study selection: Original empirical studies reporting an analysis of the relationship of interest were selected for review. Data extraction: Estimates of association between healthcare workers' attachment style and patients' health outcomes were extracted. Results of data synthesis: Results from 13 studies were mixed in terms of which attachment styles related to patients' perceptions of care or health outcomes, and the evidence overall was of poor quality and methodologically heterogeneous. However, there is limited evidence that secure attachment styles of healthcare workers have little or a negative effect on patients' health outcomes or perceptions in the short term but in the long term have a more positive effect. Conversely, insecure styles tend to have a positive effect in the short term but little or a negative effect on long-term relationships. Studies which used self-report attachment measurements tended to report stronger associations with patients' outcome measurements than studies using the interviewer rated Adult Attachment Interview. Conclusion: It is unclear whether or not there is a relationship between attachment style of health workers and patients' health outcomes. Further research using consistent data collection tools, especially in relation to the attachment measurement construct selected, and analysis methods across studies is required to draw recommendations for clinical practice.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Adulto , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente
7.
Stem Cell Reports ; 10(4): 1175-1183, 2018 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29576539

RESUMO

Here, we describe the NeoThy humanized mouse model created using non-fetal human tissue sources, cryopreserved neonatal thymus and umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Conventional humanized mouse models are made by engrafting human fetal thymus and HSCs into immunocompromised mice. These mice harbor functional human T cells that have matured in the presence of human self-peptides and human leukocyte antigen molecules. Neonatal thymus tissue is more abundant and developmentally mature and allows for creation of up to ∼50-fold more mice per donor compared with fetal tissue models. The NeoThy has equivalent frequencies of engrafted human immune cells compared with fetal tissue humanized mice and exhibits T cell function in assays of ex vivo cell proliferation, interferon γ secretion, and in vivo graft infiltration. The NeoThy model may provide significant advantages for induced pluripotent stem cell immunogenicity studies, while bypassing the requirement for fetal tissue.


Assuntos
Timo/transplante , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/transplante , Recém-Nascido , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia
9.
Br J Nurs ; 27(4): 190-196, 2018 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29457938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: despite a 450% increase in UK alcohol-related liver disease mortality over the past 30 years, little evidence-based guidance exists regarding preventing recidivism post-liver transplant for alcohol-related liver disease. METHOD: a systematic literature review was conducted to identify demographic variables predictive of alcohol relapse and effective psychosocial interventions for alcohol-related liver disease patients post-liver transplant. RESULTS: variables most significantly predictive of alcohol relapse post-transplant were-less than 12 months pre-liver transplant abstinence; patients with children; poor pre-liver transplant psychosomatic evaluation; non-compliance with post-liver transplant treatment plan; and patients with active insurance policies. Structured management was the most effective psychosocial intervention in preventing alcohol relapse. CONCLUSION: findings should be interpreted cautiously, due to limited and poor-quality evidence. Rigorously designed further research of the psychosocial interventions targeting predictive demographic variables is recommended.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/cirurgia , Cooperação do Paciente , Alcoolismo/enfermagem , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Demografia , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado , Período Pós-Operatório , Recidiva , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 78: A1-A2, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157604

Assuntos
Enfermagem
12.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 78: 76-83, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29110907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nursing is an integral part of all healthcare services, and has the potential of having a wide and enduring impact on health outcomes for a global ageing population. Over time nurses have developed new roles and assumed greater responsibilities. It is increasingly important to demonstrate the safety and overall impact of nurses' practice through research, to support the case for greater investment and development of nursing services around the world. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of existing research evidence on the impact of nursing on patient outcomes, identify gaps in evidence, and point to future priorities for global research. Specifically to address two questions: what is the evidence that nursing contributes to improving the health and well-being of populations?; and where should research activity be focused to strengthen the evidence base for the impact of nursing? METHODS: A search of the literature from 1996 using CINAHL, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and the NICE evidence databases using the key words: nursing, nurse led, nursing interventions and patient outcomes. Initial analysis of the retrieved citations to reveal clusters of evidence of nursing impact in clinical areas which had been subject to systematic/integrative reviews or meta-analyses. Further analysis of these reviews to provide an overview of the research evidence for nurses' contributions to healthcare to inform discussion on future research agendas. We use the terms low, moderate and high quality evidence to reflect the assessments made by the review authors whose work is presented throughout. RESULTS: Analysis of 61 reviews, including ten Cochrane reviews and two scoping/selective reviews to provide a summary of the research evidence for nurses' contributions to healthcare in the following areas of practice: nursing in acute care settings; nurses' involvement in public health; the contribution of specialist nurse and nurse-led services to the management of chronic disease; comparison of care provided by nurses and doctors; and task shifting to invasive procedures. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that adequate numbers of well-educated nurses working in acute care areas can reduce the risk of patient mortality, although the evidence for this is confined to studies in high income countries and the evidence is not sufficiently robust to draw up definitive nurse: patient ratios. There is also moderate evidence that well trained nurses can produce health outcomes that are equivalent to those of doctors for patients with a range of chronic health problems, particularly for those patients managed in primary care, and that nurse-led care may be more effective than medical care in promoting patient adherence to treatment and patient satisfaction. There is low to moderate evidence for the benefits of parenting support programmes delivered by nurses on a range of health outcomes; and for the impact of home visiting on improving function and other health service outcomes for older people. The wider societal benefits of home visiting by nurses and the impact of this on long term outcomes and related cost-effectiveness of home visiting has not been established. There is limited available information regarding the wider global impact of increasing the numbers of nurses and their contribution to healthcare through improved education. Moreover there is very little evidence for the cost-effectiveness of changing care providers from doctors to nurses and as the majority of cost data available has tended to come from studies based in higher income countries, their external validity in terms of applicability to settings in low and middle income countries is questionable. In addition to effectiveness, cost and safety, future research needs to address how implementing expanded nursing roles and task shifting impacts on the morale, retention, and professional development of nurses and the other workforces, and the longer term implications of these developments both locally and internationally.


Assuntos
Enfermagem Geriátrica , Idoso , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; 45(3): 238-252, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Misuse of codeine-containing medicines is an emerging public health issue. AIMS: We present the application of Liese and Franz's (1996) cognitive developmental model of substance abuse to the trajectory from legitimate codeine use for pain, towards that of therapeutic and other forms of misuse, and physical and psychological dependence. It illustrates a cognitive behavioural analysis of the experiences of codeine misusers - which 'surfaces' the specific beliefs, thoughts, emotions and behaviours of this group of hidden codeine dependent individuals, who are distinct and unique from other opioid-dependent cohorts. METHOD: In-depth one-to-one interviews with codeine misusers and dependent individuals in Ireland (n = 21) and South Africa (n = 25) are analysed and applied to Liese and Franz's (1996) cognitive developmental model of substance abuse. RESULTS: Misuse and dependence pathways are maintained by the interplay between physiological determinants relating to pain, withdrawal and tolerance, and psychological influences such as therapeutic need, pre-empting of anticipated physical pain, pleasure from the dreamy sedative opiate effect of codeine and relief of emotional distress. Progression towards habitual use and misuse for therapeutic and intoxication purposes appears to be mediated by external environmental triggers pertaining to availability, internal meta-cognitions around physical pain and emotional distress, and increasing importance of codeine in the life of the user. CONCLUSION: The concept mapping of codeine misuse and dependence presented here could provide psychological therapists working with individuals experiencing problems with codeine, misusing codeine and those with iatrogenic dependence, with an enhanced understanding of the key concepts involved in misuse and recovery pathways.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Codeína , Cognição , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/reabilitação , Dor/fisiopatologia , Dor/psicologia , África do Sul
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD011464, 2017 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28116752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates that individuals who develop severe mental illness (SMI) are also vulnerable to developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), due to increased risk of exposure to traumatic events and social adversity. The effectiveness of trauma-focused psychological interventions (TFPIs) for PTSD in the general population is well-established. TFPIs involve identifying and changing unhelpful beliefs about traumatic experiences, processing of traumatic memories, and developing new ways of responding to cues associated with trauma. Little is known about the potential feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of TFPIs for individuals who have a SMI and PTSD. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of psychological interventions for PTSD symptoms or other symptoms of psychological distress arising from trauma in people with SMI. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Study-Based Register (up until March 10, 2016), screened reference lists of relevant reports and reviews, and contacted trial authors for unpublished and/or specific outcome data. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which investigated TFPIs for people with SMI and PTSD, and reported useable data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors (DS, MF, IN) independently screened the titles and abstracts of all references identified, and read short-listed full text papers. We assessed risk of bias in each case. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for binary outcomes, and the mean difference (MD) and 95% CI for continuous data, on an intention-to-treat basis. We assessed quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) and created 'Summary of findings' tables. MAIN RESULTS: Four trials involving a total of 300 adults with SMI and PTSD are included. These trials evaluated three active intervention therapies: trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TF-CBT), eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), and brief psychoeducation for PTSD, all delivered via individual sessions. Our main outcomes of interest were PTSD symptoms, quality of life/well-being, symptoms of co-morbid psychosis, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, adverse events and health economic outcomes. 1. TF-CBT versus usual care/waiting list Three trials provided data for this comparison, however, continuous outcome data available were more often found to be skewed than unskewed, leading to the necessity of conducting analyses separately for the two types of continuous data. Using the unskewed data only, results showed no significant differences between TF-CBT and usual care in reducing clinician-rated PTSD symptoms at short term (1 RCT, n =13, MD 13.15, 95% CI -4.09 to 30.39,low-quality evidence). Limited unskewed data showed equivocal results between groups in terms of general quality of life (1 RCT, n = 39, MD -0.60, 95% CI -4.47 to 3.27, low-quality evidence), symptoms of psychosis (1 RCT, n = 9, MD -6.93, 95% CI -34.17 to 20.31, low-quality evidence), and anxiety (1 RCT, n = 9, MD 12.57, 95% CI -5.54 to 30.68, very low-quality evidence), at medium term. The only available data on depression symptoms were skewed and were equivocal across groups at medium term (2 RCTs, n = 48, MD 3.26, 95% CI -3.66 to 10.18, very low-quality evidence). TF-CBT was not associated with more adverse events (1 RCT, n = 100, RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.09 to 2.31, low-quality evidence) at medium term. No data were available for health economic outcomes. Very limited data for PTSD and other symptoms were available over the long term. 2. EMDR versus waiting listOne trial provided data for this comparison. Favourable effects were found for EMDR in terms of PTSD symptom severity at medium term but data were skewed (1 RCT, n = 83, MD -12.31, 95% CI -22.72 to -1.90, very low-quality evidence). EMDR was not associated with more adverse events (1 RCT, n = 102, RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.85, low-quality evidence). No data were available for quality of life, symptoms of co-morbid psychosis, depression, anxiety and health economics.3. TF-CBT versus EMDROne trial compared TF-CBT with EMDR. PTSD symptom severity, based on skewed data (1 RCT, n = 88, MD -1.69, 95% CI -12.63 to 9.23, very low-quality evidence) was similar between treatment groups. No data were available for the other main outcomes.4. TF-CBT versus psychoeducationOne trial compared TF-CBT with psychoeducation. Results were equivocal for PTSD symptom severity (1 RCT, n = 52, MD 0.23, 95% CI -14.66 to 15.12, low-quality evidence) and general quality of life (1 RCT, n = 49, MD 0.11, 95% CI -0.74 to 0.95, low-quality evidence) by medium term. No data were available for the other outcomes of interest. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Very few trials have investigated TFPIs for individuals with SMI and PTSD. Results from trials of TF-CBT are limited and inconclusive regarding its effectiveness on PTSD, or on psychotic symptoms or other symptoms of psychological distress. Only one trial evaluated EMDR and provided limited preliminary evidence favouring EMDR compared to waiting list. Comparing TF-CBT head-to-head with EMDR and brief psychoeducation respectively, showed no clear effect for either therapy. Both TF-CBT and EMDR do not appear to cause more (or less) adverse effects, compared to waiting list or usual care; these findings however, are mostly based on low to very low-quality evidence. Further larger scale trials are now needed to provide high-quality evidence to confirm or refute these preliminary findings, and to establish which intervention modalities and techniques are associated with improved outcomes, especially in the long term.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Dessensibilização e Reprocessamento através dos Movimentos Oculares/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psicoterapia Breve/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Adulto , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Listas de Espera
16.
J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 32(4): E9-E23, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107251

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, including mental health comorbidity, which is associated with poor outcomes. Self-management is key, but there is limited access to self-management support. Internet-delivered interventions may increase access. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to (1) determine the effectiveness of Internet-delivered CHD self-management support for improving CHD, mood, and self-management related outcomes and (2) identify and describe essential components for effectiveness. METHOD: Randomized controlled trials that met prespecified eligibility criteria were identified using a systematic search of 3 healthcare databases (Medline, PsychINFO, and Embase). RESULTS: Seven trials, which included 1321 CHD patients, were eligible for inclusion. There was considerable heterogeneity between studies in terms of the intervention content, outcomes measured, and study quality. All 7 of the studies reported significant positive between-group effects, in particular for lifestyle-related outcomes. Personalization of interventions and provision of support to promote engagement may be associated with improved outcomes, although more data are required to confirm this. The theoretical basis of interventions was poorly developed though evidence-based behavior change interventions were used. CONCLUSION: More well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed. These should also explore how interventions work and how to improve participant retention and satisfaction and examine the role of personalization and support within interventions.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/reabilitação , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Autogestão/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença das Coronárias/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Autocuidado/psicologia
17.
Health Expect ; 20(4): 696-704, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27709734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recruitment to clinical research studies can prove complex. This is particularly true of mental health research, given factors such as confidentiality, capacity and consent, or when attempting to recruit family members as opposed to service users themselves. AIM: This study investigated the challenges experienced and strategies employed in the recruitment of siblings of people with first episode psychosis using Early Intervention in Psychosis Services (EIPS) in England. METHODS: As part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an e-health intervention for siblings, we conducted a process evaluation study whereby semistructured interview was undertaken with clinical and research staff involved in recruitment of siblings. Data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Twelve participants from six EIPS were interviewed. Data analysis revealed seven key themes: (i) limited comprehensive family data available; (ii) data governance and consent issues; (iii) organizational factors; (iv) convoluted recruitment methods; (v) concerns about service users' opinions; (vi) fluidity in siblings' needs and expectations; and (vii) strategies to enhance recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: Recruitment challenges identified in this study concerned administrative, organizational, process and attitudinal issues. These are similar to other studies recruiting mental health service users as well as family members. Failure to recruit to target implies that studies are underpowered to detect potential statistically or clinically meaningful changes. Future studies should establish how best to enhance family inclusiveness in clinical practice and research.


Assuntos
Seleção de Pacientes , Transtornos Psicóticos , Irmãos/psicologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Inglaterra , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 19(3): 367-381, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27806253

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Promoting and ensuring safe use of codeine containing medicines remains a public health issue given the rise in reporting of misuse and dependence particularly in countries where available over-the-counter (OTC). The aim of this unique study was to identify best practices in management of opioid abuse and dependence, particularly codeine, and innovations to meet challenges surrounding safe and compliant use, patient awareness-raising, reducing health harms and enhancing successful treatment of dependence. METHODS: A mixed methods approach using three data points was used that included : (1) analysis of data from existing scoping reviews to identify potential areas for innovation (2) interviews with key national stakeholders from public health, pharmaceutical, regulatory, primary care and addiction practice in three distinct regulatory regimes (Ireland, United Kingdom and South Africa); and (3) a circular email request for information on potential innovations to members of the European Medicine's Agency European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance (ENCEPP). Data from these three sources were analysed to identify best practices and opportunities for innovation. RESULTS: Best practices and potential innovations were identified under the nine headings: (1) manufacture; (2) product information and public education; (3) responsible prescribing; (4) monitoring and surveillance; (5) dispensing, screening and brief interventions in community pharmacies; (6) safety in the workplace and on the road; (7) internet supply of codeine and online support; (8) treatment of codeine dependence; and (9) learning resources and training for health professionals. CONCLUSIONS: Challenges ensuring availability of codeine containing medicines for legitimate therapeutic use, while minimising misuse, dependence and related health harms warrant consideration of new innovations. Most promising innovative potential lies across the products' retail lifecycle from manufacture to prescriber and community pharmacy practitioner.This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Codeína/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Humanos , Dependência de Morfina/terapia
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