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1.
J Pediatr ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145968

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess associations between neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)-level patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) treatment rates (pharmacologic or surgical) and neonatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This cohort study included infants born at 24-28 weeks of gestation and birth weight <1500 g in 2007-2015 in NICUs caring for ≥100 eligible infants in 6 countries. The ratio of observed/expected (O/E) PDA treatment rates was derived for each NICU by estimating the expected rate using a logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounders and network. The primary composite outcome was death or severe neurologic injury (grades III-IV intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia). The associations between the NICU-level O/E PDA treatment ratio and neonatal outcomes were assessed using linear regression analyses including a quadratic effect (a square term) of the O/E PDA treatment ratio. RESULTS: From 139 NICUs, 39 096 infants were included. The overall PDA treatment rate was 45% in the cohort (13%-77% by NICU) and the O/E PDA treatment ratio ranged from 0.30 to 2.14. The relationship between the O/E PDA treatment ratio and primary composite outcome was U-shaped, with the nadir at a ratio of 1.13 and a significant quadratic effect (P<.001). U-shaped relationships were also identified with death, severe neurologic injury, and necrotizing enterocolitis. CONCLUSIONS: Both low and high PDA treatment rates were associated with death or severe neurologic injury, whereas a moderate approach was associated with optimal outcomes.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop research priorities on the consequences of very preterm (VPT) birth for the RECAP Preterm platform which brings together data from 23 European VPT birth cohorts. DESIGN AND SETTING: This study used a two-round modified Delphi consensus process. Round 1 was based on 28 research themes related to childhood outcomes (<12 years) derived from consultations with cohort researchers. An external panel of multidisciplinary stakeholders then ranked their top 10 themes and provided comments. In round 2, panel members provided feedback on rankings and on new themes suggested in round 1. RESULTS: Of 71 individuals contacted, 64 (90%) participated as panel members comprising obstetricians, neonatologists, nurses, general and specialist paediatricians, psychologists, physiotherapists, parents, adults born preterm, policy makers and epidemiologists from 17 countries. All 28 initial themes were ranked in the top 10 by at least six panel members. Highest ranking themes were: education (73% of panel members' top 10 choices); care and outcomes of extremely preterm births, including ethical decisions (63%); growth and nutrition (60%); emotional well-being and social inclusion (55%); parental stress (55%) and impact of social circumstances on outcomes (52%). Highest ranking themes were robust across panel members classified by background. 15 new themes had at least 6 top 10 endorsements in round 2. CONCLUSIONS: This study elicited a broad range of research priorities on the consequences of VPT birth, with good consensus on highest ranks between stakeholder groups. Several highly ranked themes focused on the socioemotional needs of children and parents, which have been less studied.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(5): e015369, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079479

RESUMO

Background Very preterm infants are at high risk of death or severe morbidity. The objective was to determine the significance of severe congenital heart defects (CHDs) for these risks. Methods and Results This cohort study included infants from 10 countries born from 2007-2015 at 24 to 31 weeks' gestation with birth weights <1500 g. Severe CHDs were defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) and Tenth (ICD-10) codes and categorized as those compromising systemic output, causing sustained cyanosis, or resulting in congestive heart failure. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were neonatal brain injury, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and retinopathy of prematurity. Adjusted and propensity score-matched odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. Analyses were stratified by type of CHD, gestational age, and network. A total of 609 (0.77%) infants had severe CHD and 76 371 without any malformation served as controls. The mean gestational age and birth weight were 27.8 weeks and 1018 g, respectively. The mortality rate was 18.6% in infants with CHD and 8.9% in controls (propensity score-matched OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.61-3.27). Severe CHD was not associated with neonatal brain injury, necrotizing enterocolitis, or retinopathy of prematurity, whereas the OR for bronchopulmonary dysplasia increased. Mortality was higher in all types, with the highest propensity score-matched OR (4.96; 95% CI, 2.11-11.7) for CHD causing congestive heart failure. While mortality did not differ between groups at <27 weeks' gestational age, adjusted OR for mortality in infants with CHD increased to 10.9 (95% CI, 5.76-20.70) at 31 weeks' gestational age. Rates of CHD and mortality differed significantly between networks. Conclusions Severe CHD is associated with significantly increased mortality in very preterm infants.

5.
J Pediatr ; 215: 32-40.e14, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587861

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcome trends of neonates born very preterm in 11 high-income countries participating in the International Network for Evaluating Outcomes of neonates. STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort study, we included 154 233 neonates admitted to 529 neonatal units between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2015, at 240/7 to 316/7 weeks of gestational age and birth weight <1500 g. Composite outcomes were in-hospital mortality or any of severe neurologic injury, treated retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD); and same composite outcome excluding BPD. Secondary outcomes were mortality and individual morbidities. For each country, annual outcome trends and adjusted relative risks comparing epoch 2 (2012-2015) to epoch 1 (2007-2011) were analyzed. RESULTS: For composite outcome including BPD, the trend decreased in Canada and Israel but increased in Australia and New Zealand, Japan, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. For composite outcome excluding BPD, the trend decreased in all countries except Spain, Sweden, Tuscany, and the United Kingdom. The risk of composite outcome was lower in epoch 2 than epoch 1 in Canada (adjusted relative risks 0.78; 95% CI 0.74-0.82) only. The risk of composite outcome excluding BPD was significantly lower in epoch 2 compared with epoch 1 in Australia and New Zealand, Canada, Finland, Japan, and Switzerland. Mortality rates reduced in most countries in epoch 2. BPD rates increased significantly in all countries except Canada, Israel, Finland, and Tuscany. CONCLUSIONS: In most countries, mortality decreased whereas BPD increased for neonates born very preterm.

6.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593283

RESUMO

Advances in perinatal intensive care have resulted in increased survival of the most immature preterm infants (born before 28 gestational weeks) and these new survivors are now entering school. While the clear majority of all children born preterm have a normal development, the extremely preterm infant is at a considerable risk for long term disabilities and rates of adverse development increase at lower gestational ages. Lung function is commonly affected in children born extremely preterm, and many have treatment for obstructive symptoms. The incidences of major neuromotor impairments, i.e. cerebral palsy, are low, but there is an increasing awareness of common cognitive and neuropsychiatric problems in extremely preterm children and their special needs in school. Extremely preterm children therefore need follow up of lung function and neurodevelopment at least until school start.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Assistência ao Convalescente/organização & administração , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Lactente , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tempo
7.
Acta Paediatr ; 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630444

RESUMO

AIM: We surveyed care practices for critically ill very preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the International Network for Evaluating Outcomes in Neonates (iNeo) to identify differences relevant to outcome comparisons. METHODS: We conducted an online survey on care practices for critically ill very preterm infants and infants with severe intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). The survey was distributed in 2015 to representatives of 390 NICUs in 11 countries. Survey replies were compared with network incidence of death and severe ICH for infants born between 230/7 and 286/7  weeks of gestation from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2015. RESULTS: Most units in Israel, Japan and Tuscany, Italy, favoured withholding care when care was considered futile, whereas most units in other networks favoured redirection of care. For infants with bilateral grade 4 ICH, redirection of care was very frequently (≥90% of cases) offered in the majority of units in Australia and New Zealand and Switzerland, but rarely in other networks. Networks where redirection of care was frequently offered for severe ICH had lower rates of survivors with severe ICH. CONCLUSION: We identified marked inter-network differences in care approaches that need to be considered when comparing outcomes.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(21): e012629, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615305

RESUMO

Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been associated with higher blood pressure and autonomic imbalance in the offspring. However, it has been difficult to determine the selective prenatal and postnatal contributions as children frequently have been exposed to smoking both before and after birth. The specific role of nicotine is also unclear. We aimed to determine whether exclusive prenatal exposure to nicotine from maternal use of smokeless tobacco (Swedish snus) in pregnancy was associated with blood pressure and autonomic heart rate control in their children. Methods and Results We measured oscillometric blood pressures in forty 5- to 6-year-old children with snus exposure in fetal life (n=21) and in tobacco-free controls (n=19). Taking the child's age and height into account, snus-exposed children had 4.2 (95% CI, 0.2-8.1) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure than controls (P=0.038). The corresponding sex-, age-, and height-standardized systolic blood pressure centiles were 61 and 46 (95% CI of the difference, 2-28) (P=0.029). Heart rate variability was tested in 30 of the children. The spectral heart rate variability variable low-frequency/high-frequency ratio was higher (median, 0.69; interquartile range, 0.45-1.21) in snus-exposed children than in controls (median, 0.21; interquartile range, 0.32-0.57; P=0.034). Conclusions Prenatal snus exposure was associated with higher systolic blood pressure and altered heart rate variability at 6 years of age. These findings may indicate adverse prenatal programming of nicotine, but implications for cardiovascular health in later life remain to be studied. Meanwhile, women should be recommended to abstain from all types of tobacco and nicotine products during pregnancy.

9.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e031086, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) prevention practices and NEC associated factors between units from eight countries of the International Network for Evaluation of Outcomes of Neonates, and to assess their association with surgical NEC rates. DESIGN: Prospective unit-level survey combined with retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Neonatal intensive care units in Australia/New Zealand, Canada, Finland, Israel, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Tuscany (Italy). PATIENTS: Extremely preterm infants born between 240 to 286 weeks' gestation, with birth weights<1500 g, and admitted between 2014-2015. EXPOSURES: NEC prevention practices (probiotics, feeding, donor milk) using responses of an on-line pre-piloted questionnaire containing 10 questions and factors associated with NEC in literature (antenatal steroids, c-section, indomethacin treated patent ductus arteriosus and sepsis) using cohort data. OUTCOME MEASURES: Surgical NEC rates and death following NEC using cohort data. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 91% (153 units). Both probiotic provision and donor milk availability varied between 0%-100% among networks whereas feeding initiation and advancement rates were similar in most networks. The 9792 infants included in the cohort study to link survey results and cohort outcomes, revealed similar baseline characteristics but considerable differences in factors associated with NEC between networks. 397 (4.1%) neonates underwent NEC surgery, ranging from 2.4%-8.4% between networks. Standardised ratios for surgical NEC were lower for Australia/New Zealand, higher for Spain, and comparable for the remaining six networks. CONCLUSIONS: The variation in implementation of NEC prevention practices and in factors associated with NEC in literature could not be associated with the variation in surgical NEC incidence. This corroborates the current lack of consensus surrounding the use of preventive strategies for NEC and emphasises the need for research.

10.
Acta Paediatr ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557349

RESUMO

AIM: Children born preterm are at increased risk of reduced lung function. The aim was to test whether lung function was associated with pulmonary vascular resistance. METHODS: Participants were recruited from a population-based cohort born in 2004-2007. Lung function was assessed with spirometry after administration of a beta2-agonist. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ) were determined. Estimations of pulmonary vascular resistance, arterial dimensions, right ventricular wall thickness, sphericity, and systolic (TAPSE) and diastolic functions were performed with echocardiography. Adjusted regression analyses were used to study associations. RESULTS: Sixty-six children (33 boys) born at 22-26 weeks of gestational age (birthweights 460-1134 g) were assessed at a mean age of 6.7 years. Despite large variations in lung function with FVC z-scores ranging from -4.6 to +2.8, there were no associations between lung function and pulmonary arterial pressure, right ventricular structure or function. Children with higher FVC z-scores (r = .52, ß = .55 mm, P = .015) and higher FEV1 z-scores (r = .58, ß = .73 mm, P = .001) exhibited larger pulmonary arteries. CONCLUSION: In children born extremely preterm, lung function was not associated with pulmonary vascular resistance. Routine echocardiographic evaluation of extremely preterm children may not be indicated at age 6.5 years.

11.
Transl Pediatr ; 8(3): 170-181, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413951

RESUMO

Neonates born very preterm (before 32 weeks' gestational age), are a significant public health concern because of their high-risk of mortality and life-long disability. In addition, caring for very preterm neonates can be expensive, both during their initial hospitalization and their long-term cost of permanent impairments. To address these issues, national and regional neonatal networks around the world collect and analyse data from their constituents to identify trends in outcomes, and conduct benchmarking, audit and research. Improving neonatal outcomes and reducing health care costs is a global problem that can be addressed using collaborative approaches to assess practice variation between countries, conduct research and implement evidence-based practices. The International Network for Evaluating Outcomes (iNeo) of neonates was established in 2013 with the goal of improving outcomes for very preterm neonates through international collaboration and comparisons. To date, 10 national or regional population-based neonatal networks/datasets participate in iNeo collaboration. The initiative now includes data on >200,000 very preterm neonates and has conducted important epidemiological studies evaluating outcomes, variations and trends. The collaboration has also surveyed >320 neonatal units worldwide to learn about variations in practices, healthcare service delivery, and physical, environmental and manpower related factors and support services for parents. The iNeo collaboration serves as a strong international platform for Neonatal-Perinatal health services research that facilitates international data sharing, capacity building, and global efforts to improve very preterm neonate care.

12.
Acta Paediatr ; 108(8): 1411-1418, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006126

RESUMO

AIM: To describe the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register (SNQ) and to determine its completeness and agreement with other registers. METHODS: SNQ collects data for infants admitted to neonatal units during the first four postnatal weeks. Completeness and registers' agreement were determined cross-linking SNQ data with Swedish population registers (the Inpatient, Medical Birth and Cause of Death Registers) for a study period of five years. RESULTS: In total, 84 712 infants were hospitalised. A total of 52 806 infants occurred in both SNQ and the population registers; 28 692 were only found in the population registers, and 3214 infants were only found in SNQ. Between gestational weeks 24-34, completeness of SNQ was 98-99%. Below and above these gestational ages, completeness was lower. Infants missing in SNQ were term or near-term in 99% of the cases, and their diagnoses indicated conditions managed in maternity units, or re-admissions for acute infections, managed in paediatric units. For most diagnoses, the agreement between SNQ and population registers was high, but some (bronchopulmonary dysplasia and grade of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy) were often missing in the population registers. CONCLUSION: SNQ completeness and agreement against other registers, especially for preterm infants, is excellent. SNQ is a valid tool for benchmarking, quality improvement and research.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215866, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002705

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) may predict an increased risk of an adverse cardiometabolic profile later in life, but long-term effects in different populations and birth weight strata are still unclear. We explored laboratory markers of cardiometabolic risk in children born with marginally LBW (2000-2500 g). METHODS: This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study including 285 Swedish marginally LBW children and 95 normal birth weight (NBW, 2501-4500 g) controls. At 3.5 and 7 years of age, blood samples for glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), cholesterol, triglycerides, high- and low density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) were assessed and compared between the groups. RESULTS: No significant differences in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP or blood lipids were observed between marginally LBW and NBW children. At 7 years there was a higher proportion of marginally LBW children with elevated levels of insulin, defined as above the 90th percentile of the control group (21% vs 8.6%, p = 0.038). This association was, however, confounded by maternal ethnicity. In marginally LBW children born small for gestational age (SGA), mean fasting glucose was significantly higher compared to controls (4.7 vs 4.5 mmol/L, p = 0.020). CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences in insulin, insulin resistance, hs-CRP or blood lipids between the marginally LBW children and controls. The subgroup of marginally LBW children born SGA may present early signs of glucose imbalance already at school age.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/sangue , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteína B-100/sangue , Peso ao Nascer , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Resistência à Insulina , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Suécia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
14.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 221(3): 247.e1-247.e9, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Guideline for postoperative care in cesarean delivery will provide best practice, evidenced-based recommendations for postoperative care with primarily a maternal focus. OBJECTIVE: The pathway process for scheduled and unscheduled cesarean delivery for this Enhanced Recovery After Surgery cesarean delivery guideline will consider time from completion of cesarean delivery until maternal hospital discharge. STUDY DESIGN: The literature search (1966-2017) used Embase and PubMed to search medical subject headings that included "Cesarean Section," "Cesarean Delivery," "Cesarean Section Delivery," and all postoperative Enhanced Recovery After Surgery items. Study selection allowed titles and abstracts to be screened by individual reviewers to identify potentially relevant articles. Metaanalyses, systematic reviews, randomized controlled studies, nonrandomized controlled studies, reviews, and case series were considered for each individual topic. Quality assessment and data analyses evaluated the quality of evidence, and recommendations were evaluated according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system as used and described in previous Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Guidelines. RESULTS: The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery cesarean delivery guideline/pathway has created a pathway for postoperative care. Specifics include sham feeding, nausea and vomiting prevention, postoperative analgesia, nutritional care, glucose control, thromboembolism prophylaxis, early mobilization, urinary drainage, and discharge counseling. A number of elements of postoperative care of women who undergo cesarean delivery are recommended, based on the evidence. CONCLUSION: As the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery cesarean delivery pathway (elements/processes) are studied, implemented, audited, evaluated, and optimized by the maternity care teams, there will be an opportunity for focused and optimized areas of care and recommendations to be further enhanced.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(3): e190858, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901042

RESUMO

Importance: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia can cause lifelong neurodevelopmental impairment (kernicterus) even in high-resource settings. A better understanding of the incidence and processes leading to kernicterus may help in the design of preventive measures. Objectives: To determine incidence rates of hazardous hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus among near-term to term newborns and to evaluate health care professional adherence to best practices. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based nationwide cohort study used prospectively collected data on the highest serum bilirubin level for all infants born alive at 35 weeks' gestation or longer and admitted to neonatal care at all 46 delivery and 37 neonatal units in Sweden from 2008 to 2016. Medical records for newborns with hazardous hyperbilirubinemia were evaluated for best neonatal practices and for a diagnosis of kernicterus up to 2 years of age. Data analyses were performed between September 2017 and February 2018. Exposures: Extreme (serum bilirubin levels, 25.0-29.9 mg/dL [425-509 µmol/L]) and hazardous (serum bilirubin levels, ≥30.0 mg/dL [≥510 µmol/L]) neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was kernicterus, defined as hazardous neonatal hyperbilirubinemia followed by cerebral palsy, sensorineural hearing loss, gaze paralysis, or neurodevelopmental retardation. Secondary outcomes were health care professional adherence to national guidelines using a predefined protocol with 10 key performance indicators for diagnosis and treatment as well as assessment of whether bilirubin-associated brain damage might have been avoidable. Results: Among 992 378 live-born infants (958 051 term births and 34 327 near-term births), 494 (320 boys; mean [SD] birth weight, 3505 [527] g) developed extreme hyperbilirubinemia (50 per 100 000 infants), 6.8 per 100 000 infants developed hazardous hyperbilirubinemia, and 1.3 per 100 000 infants developed kernicterus. Among 13 children developing kernicterus, brain injury was assessed as potentially avoidable for 11 children based on the presence of 1 or several of the following possible causes: untimely or lack of predischarge bilirubin screening (n = 6), misinterpretation of bilirubin values (n = 2), untimely or delayed initiation of treatment with intensive phototherapy (n = 1), untimely or no treatment with exchange transfusion (n = 6), or lack of repeated exchange transfusions despite indication (n = 1). Conclusions and Relevance: Hazardous hyperbilirubinemia in near-term or term newborns still occurs in Sweden and was associated with disabling brain damage in 13 per million births. For most of these cases, health care professional noncompliance with best practices was identified, suggesting that a substantial proportion of these cases might have been avoided.


Assuntos
Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal , Kernicterus , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/epidemiologia , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/terapia , Recém-Nascido , Kernicterus/diagnóstico , Kernicterus/epidemiologia , Kernicterus/terapia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Suécia
16.
JAMA ; 321(12): 1188-1199, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912837

RESUMO

Importance: Since 2004-2007, national guidelines and recommendations have been developed for the management of extremely preterm births in Sweden. If and how more uniform management has affected infant survival is unknown. Objective: To compare survival of extremely preterm infants born during 2004-2007 with survival of infants born during 2014-2016. Design, Setting and Participants: All births at 22-26 weeks' gestational age (n = 2205) between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2007, and between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016, in Sweden were studied. Prospective data collection was used during 2004-2007. Data were obtained from the Swedish pregnancy, medical birth, and neonatal quality registries during 2014-2016. Exposures: Delivery at 22-26 weeks' gestational age. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was infant survival to the age of 1 year. The secondary outcome was 1-year survival among live-born infants who did not have any major neonatal morbidity (specifically, without intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3-4, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity stage 3-5, or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Results: During 2004-2007, 1009 births (3.3/1000 of all births) occurred at 22-26 weeks' gestational age compared with 1196 births (3.4/1000 of all births) during 2014-2016 (P = .61). One-year survival among live-born infants at 22-26 weeks' gestational age was significantly lower during 2004-2007 (497 of 705 infants [70%]) than during 2014-2016 (711 of 923 infants [77%]) (difference, -7% [95% CI, -11% to -2.2%], P = .003). One-year survival among live-born infants at 22-26 weeks' gestational age and without any major neonatal morbidity was significantly lower during 2004-2007 (226 of 705 infants [32%]) than during 2014-2016 (355 of 923 infants [38%]) (difference, -6% [95% CI, -11% to -1.7%], P = .008). Conclusions and Relevance: Among live births at 22-26 weeks' gestational age in Sweden, 1-year survival improved between 2004-2007 and 2014-2016.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Feminino , Viabilidade Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suécia/epidemiologia
17.
Pediatr Res ; 86(1): 115-121, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse developmental programming by early-life exposures might account for higher blood pressure (BP) in children born extremely preterm. We assessed associations between nutrition, growth and hyperglycemia early in infancy, and BP at 6.5 years of age in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Data regarding perinatal exposures including nutrition, growth and glycemia status were collected from the Extremely Preterm Infants in Sweden Study (EXPRESS), a population-based cohort including infants born <27 gestational weeks during 2004-2007. BP measurements were performed at 6.5 years of age in a sub-cohort of 171 children (35% of the surviving children). RESULTS: Higher mean daily protein intake (+1 g/kg/day) during postnatal weeks 1-8 was associated with 0.40 (±0.18) SD higher diastolic BP. Higher mean daily carbohydrate intake (+1 g/kg/day) during the same period was associated with 0.18 (±0.05) and 0.14 (±0.04) SD higher systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. No associations were found between infant growth (weight, length) and later BP. Hyperglycemia and its duration during postnatal weeks 1-4 were associated primarily with higher diastolic BP z-scores. CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the importance of modifiable early-life exposures, such as nutrition and hyperglycemia, in determining long-term outcomes in children born extremely preterm.

19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(1): e186801, 2019 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646195

RESUMO

Importance: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) can cause severe visual disability even in high-resource settings. A better understanding of the prevalence and processes leading to ROP-induced severe visual impairment may help health care professionals design preventive measures. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of severe visual disability among children born preterm in Sweden, evaluate adherence to best practice, and determine the health system's structural capacity. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based, nationwide cohort study of 1 310 227 children born between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2015, in Sweden, of whom 17 588 (1.3%) were born very preterm (<32 weeks of gestation). Children born preterm with a verified diagnosis of severe visual disability had their medical records reviewed for evaluation of ROP screening, diagnosis, and treatment. In addition, a questionnaire on structural capacity was sent to all ophthalmology departments. Exposures: Stages 4 and 5 ROP. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was prevalence of severe visual disability (visual acuity ≤20/200 for both eyes) associated with ROP stages 4 and 5. Secondary outcomes included adherence to national ROP guidelines using a predefined protocol with 15 key performance indicators for screening, diagnosis, and treatment; assessment of whether visual disability was deemed avoidable; and examination of structural capacity, including information on equipment and facilities, staffing, and patients. Results: Seventeen children (10 boys; mean [range] birth weight, 756 [454-1900] g; mean [range] gestational age, 25 [22-33] weeks) became severely visually disabled because of ROP, corresponding to a prevalence of 1 in 1000 very preterm infants (<32 weeks of gestational age) and 1 in 77 000 for all live births. Severe visual impairment was considered potentially avoidable in 11 of 17 affected children (65%) owing to untimely or no screening, missed diagnosis, or untimely and suboptimal treatment. Large variations in infrastructure (facilities, guidelines, staffing, and annual patient numbers) were also identified as potential contributors to these findings. Conclusions and Relevance: Retinopathy of prematurity still causes severe visual disability in Sweden, resulting in 1 affected infant per 1000 very preterm births. In most of these infants, noncompliance with best practice was identified, indicating that a significant proportion could have been avoided.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Retinopatia da Prematuridade , Transtornos da Visão , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/complicações , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/diagnóstico , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Suécia/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle
20.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 234: 96-102, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Caesarean section (CS) may reduce mortality and morbidity for very preterm breech infants, but evidence is inconclusive. We evaluated neonatal outcomes for singleton breech infants by mode of delivery in a European cohort. STUDY DESIGN: Data come from the EPICE population-based cohort of very preterm births in 19 regions in 11 European countries (7770 live births). The study population was singleton spontaneous-onset breech births at 24-31 weeks gestational age (GA) without antenatal medical complications requiring caesarean delivery (N = 572). Mixed-effects regression models adjusting for maternal and pregnancy covariates and propensity score matching was used to examine the effect of (1) CS and (2) a unit policy of systematic CS for breech presentation by GA. The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality, intraventricular haemorrhage grades III & IV or cystic periventricular leukomalacia. Secondary outcomes were each component separately, five minute Apgar score below seven and mortality within six hours of delivery. RESULTS: 64.4% of infants were delivered by CS with a range across regions from 41% to 100%; these infants had higher GA and were more likely to be small for gestational age, receive antenatal steroids, and have mothers who were hospitalised for more than one day before delivery compared to those delivered vaginally. CS was associated with lower risks of all outcomes in mixed-effects adjusted models (odds ratio (OR) for the composite outcome: 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.30-0.81), but not in propensity score matched models (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.41; 1.29). A systematic CS policy was associated with lower mortality and morbidity in unadjusted, but not adjusted models (OR for composite outcome: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.44; 1.28). 35% of births 24-25 weeks were delivered by CS and protective effects were consistently stronger, but not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Point estimates indicated protective effects of caesarean delivery for very preterm breech infants in conventional statistical models. However, analyses using propensity scores and based on unit policies did not confirm statistically significant associations. Prospective large-scale studies are needed to establish best practice and could be implemented in European regions where vaginal delivery remains an option.


Assuntos
Apresentação Pélvica/mortalidade , Cesárea/mortalidade , Mortalidade Perinatal , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
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