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2.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2100179, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871101

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to explore the potential role and safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in tumor shrinkage and resultant mandibular preservation in oral cancers compared with conventional surgical treatment. METHODS: This study was a single-center, randomized, phase II trial of treatment-naive histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity with cT2-T4 and N0/N+, M0 (American Joint Committee on Cancer, seventh edition) stage, necessitating resection of the mandible for paramandibular disease in the absence of clinicoradiologic evidence of bone erosion. The patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either upfront surgery (segmental resection) followed by adjuvant treatment (standard arm [SA]) or two cycles of NACT (docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil) at 3-week intervals (intervention arm [IA]), followed by surgery dictated by postchemotherapy disease extent. All patients in the IA received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and patients in the SA were treated as per final histopathology report. The primary end point was mandible preservation rate. The secondary end points were disease-free survival and treatment-related toxicity. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients were enrolled over 3 years and randomly assigned to either SA (34 patients) or IA (34 patients). The median follow-up was 3.6 years (interquartile range 0.95-7.05 years). Mandibular preservation was achieved in 16 of 34 patients (47% [95% CI, 31.49 to 63.24]) in the IA. The disease-free survival (P = .715, hazard ratio 0.911 [95% CI, 0.516 to 1.607]) and overall survival (P = .747, hazard ratio 0.899 [95% CI, 0.510 to 1.587]) were similar in both the arms. Complications were similar in both arms, but chemotherapy-induced toxicity was observed in the majority of patients (grade III: 14, 41.2%; grade IV: 11, 32.4%) in the IA. CONCLUSION: NACT plays a potential role in mandibular preservation in oral cancers with acceptable toxicities and no compromise in survival. However, this needs to be validated in a larger phase III randomized trial.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751432

RESUMO

The real-world data on short course of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) use are sparse and merit exploration. A multicentric observational study on the safety and efficacy of ICI in oncology patients between August 2014 and October 2020 involves 1011 patients across 13 centers in India. The median age was 59 (min 16-max 98) years with male preponderance (77.9%). The predominant cohort received short-course ICI therapy; the median number of cycles was 5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1-27), and the median duration of therapy was 3 (95% CI 0.5-13) months. ICIs were used commonly in the second and third line setting in our study (66.4%, n = 671). Objective response rate (complete or partial response) was documented in 254 (25.1%) of the patients, 202 (20.0%) had stable disease, and 374 (37.0%) had progressive disease. The clinical benefit rate was present in 456 (45.1%). Among the patients whom ICI was stopped (n = 906), the most common reason for cessation of ICI was disease progression (616, 68.0%) followed by logistic reasons like financial constraints (234, 25.82%). With a median follow-up of 14.1 (95% CI 12.9-15.3) months, there were 616 events of progression and 443 events of death, and the median progression free survival and overall survival were 6.4 (95% CI 5.5-7.3) and 13.6 (95% CI 11.6-15.7) months, respectively, in the overall cohort. Among the immune-related adverse events, autoimmune pneumonitis (29, 3.8%) and thyroiditis (24, 2.4%) were common. Real-world multicentric Indian data predominantly with short-course ICI therapy have comparable efficacy/safety to international literature with standard ICI therapy.

4.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 15: 1274, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567259

RESUMO

Background: A significant proportion of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients present with poor performance status (PS) at baseline are almost always excluded from the clinical trials leading to availability of only limited data in this subgroup. Patients and methods: This was an observational single institutional study. The eligibility criteria for inclusion were a histologic or cytologic diagnosis of advanced NSCLC and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS 3 or 4. All patients coming between June 2015 and December 2018 were evaluated for inclusion in this study. Results: A total of 245 patients were enrolled in the study. The median age of the patients was 63 years (range 25-89), 142 (58%) were male, 196 (80%) had adenocarcinoma histology and 192 (78.4%) has PS 3 while rest (21.6%) had PS 4. Out of 245 patients, 192 (78.4%) received oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and supportive care, 45 (18.4%) received supportive care alone, while 8 (3.2%) patients received chemotherapy along with supportive care. Median overall survival (OS) was 3 months (95% CI: 1.8-4.2) in patients who received oral TKI versus 1 month (1.0-2.9) in patients who received supportive care alone (log-rank p = 0.013). The median OS for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant patients who received oral TKI was 12 months (95% CI: 7.7-16.3), while it was 3 months (95% CI: 1.5-4.5) for patients who were EGFR wild-type and received TKI on compassionate basis (HR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.32-0.77; p = 0.001). Conclusions: The use of oral TKI on a compassionate basis led to improvement in survival in the overall cohort of the patients; this was principally driven by EGFR-mutated patients.

5.
Front Oncol ; 11: 710585, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568037

RESUMO

Background: Treatment of malignant melanoma has undergone a paradigm shift with the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and targeted therapies. However, access to ICI is limited in low-middle income countries (LMICs). Patients and Methods: Histologically confirmed malignant melanoma cases registered from 2013 to 2019 were analysed for pattern of care, safety, and efficacy of systemic therapies (ST). Results: There were 659 patients with a median age of 53 (range 44-63) years; 58.9% were males; 55.2% were mucosal melanomas. Most common primary sites were extremities (36.6%) and anorectum (31.4%). Nearly 10.8% of the metastatic cohort were BRAF mutated. Among 368 non-metastatic patients (172 prior treated, 185 de novo, and 11 unresectable), with a median follow-up of 26 months (0-83 months), median EFS and OS were 29.5 (95% CI: 22-40) and 33.3 (95% CI: 29.5-41.2) months, respectively. In the metastatic cohort, with a median follow up of 24 (0-85) months, the median EFS for BSC was 3.1 (95% CI 1.9-4.8) months versus 3.98 (95% CI 3.2-4.7) months with any ST (HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.52-0.92; P = 0.011). The median OS was 3.9 (95% CI 3.3-6.4) months for BSC alone versus 12.0 (95% CI 10.5-15.1) months in any ST (HR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.28-0.50; P < 0.001). The disease control rate was 51.55%. Commonest grade 3-4 toxicity was anemia with chemotherapy (9.5%) and ICI (8.8%). In multivariate analysis, any ST received had a better prognostic impact in the metastatic cohort. Conclusions: Large real-world data reflects the treatment patterns adopted in LMIC for melanomas and poor access to expensive, standard of care therapies. Other systemic therapies provide meaningful clinical benefit and are worth exploring especially when the standard therapies are challenging to administer.

6.
South Asian J Cancer ; 10(2): 92-96, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568222

RESUMO

Introduction TFE Translocation renal cell carcinoma (TRCC) represents 1 to 5% of all cases of renal cell carcinoma, with the highest frequency among children and young adults. Management of these tumors is not very well defined in literature. Although in pediatric age group it has favorable prognosis, in adults it has an aggressive nature, with poor outcome. This is a retrospective analysis of treatment outcome in adult patient 18 years or above treated at our hospital between January 2013 and November 2018. Material and Methods Clinical and pathological data of 26 patients from a single institution diagnosed with TRCC between January 2013 and November 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. All cases of TRCC were confirmed with immunohistochemistry or fluorescence in situ hybridization. We analyzed our data of patients treated with surgery only or who progressed after surgery and treated with systemic therapy or who presented with upfront unresectable or metastatic disease treated with systemic therapy with respect to event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Between January 2013 and November 2018, 26 adult patients who were treated at our center were eligible for this analysis as per our criteria. Out of 26 patients, 25 patients had radical surgery after evaluation and 1 had metastatic disease who was started on systemic therapy. Out 25 patients who were treated with radical surgery, 16 patients progressed and they were started on systemic therapy except for 1 patient who defaulted. Median time to start systemic therapy among patient treated with curative nephrectomy was 13 months. Median EFS and median OS among overall population were 22 and 30 months, respectively. Among 16 patients who were treated with systemic therapy, median EFS to first-line therapy was 8 months and to second-line therapy was 2.5 months. Median OS was 17 months in patients treated with systemic therapy. Conclusion TRCC is rare in adult population but carries significant risk of disease progression even after initial curative treatment with potential response to targeted therapy for short duration.

7.
Cancer Med ; 10(19): 6725-6735, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data from low- to middle-income countries (LMIC) on the incidence, risk factors, treatment outcomes, and antibiotic susceptibility spectrum of aspiration pneumonia (AsP). METHODS: We conducted a post hoc analysis of a randomized control trial in which adult patients with locally advanced head and neck cancers had received 66-70 Gy of radiation combined with cisplatin 30 mg/m2 weekly for 6-7 weeks or cisplatin at the same dose with nimotuzumab 200 mg once weekly till the completion of radiation. The following data were extracted and analyzed-the incidence of AsP, time to the onset of AsP, risk factors, treatment outcomes of AsP, and its impact on progression-free survival (PFS), locoregional control (LRC) rates, and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Out of 536 patients enrolled in the study, 151 (28.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 24.5-2.1) patients developed AsP. The median time to develop AsP was 39 days (95% CI 34-44). Only baseline dysphagia (odds ratio = 3.76, 95% CI 1.05-13.51, p = 0.042) was associated with a significant risk of development of AsP. Among the patients in which pathogenic organism was isolated (69 patients), gram-negative species was isolated in 63 patients (89%). Cisplatin at 200 mg/m2 or more was delivered in 312 (81%) patients in the non-AsP cohort versus 107 (70.9%) patients in AsP cohort (p = 0.014). There was no statistical difference in LRC (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.057; 95% CI 0.771-1.448), PFS (HR = 1.176; 95% CI 0.89-1.553), and OS (HR = 1.233; 95% CI 0.939-1.618) between the two cohorts. CONCLUSION: Aspiration pneumonia is a common complication in head and neck malignancies and patients with baseline dysphagia are at high risk. Gram-negative bacteria are the predominant causative agents. The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics results in resolution of symptoms.

8.
Oral Oncol ; 122: 105522, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight loss during chemotherapy and its impact on the cancer outcomes have been invariably reported in the literature. We also did a post-hoc analysis of a randomized phase III trial to see the same. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The database of a recently published randomized study comparing cisplatin-radiation with nimotuzumab cisplatin-radiation was used for this analysis. Week-wise weight loss during the course of treatment was noted. The impact of severe weight loss (grade 2-3) on progression-free survival (PFS), locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) was studied using the Kaplan Meier method. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to see the effect of various factors. RESULTS: Out of a total of 536 patients, weight loss was captured in 524. Out of these 524 patients, any degree of weight loss was seen in 293 (55.91%) patients. Grade 1 weight loss was noted in 192 (36.6%) patients, grade 2 in 96 (18.3%) and grade 3 in 5 (1%) patients. The 2-year PFS was 53% and 57.1% in severe and non-severe weight loss groups respectively (p-value = 0.36). The 2-year LRC was 60% in patients with severe weight loss, while it was 63.5% in those with non-severe weight loss (p-value = 0.47). The 2-year OS was 59.3% versus 62.2% in severe and non-severe weight loss cohorts respectively (p-value = 0.21). None of the factors was found to be associated with severe weight loss. CONCLUSION: Severe weight loss was uncommon in our patients. Weight loss during treatment was not associated with poor survival outcomes.

9.
Oral Oncol ; 122: 105517, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560383

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The addition of Nimotuzumab to radical chemoradiation (CRT) improved outcomes in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LAHNSCC) undergoing radical CRT in a phase 3 randomized trial. The current study focuses on the quality of life (QoL) of patients in this trial. METHODS: In this phase III randomized trial, patients with newly diagnosed, nonmetastatic, stage III/IV LAHNSCC of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx were randomized to receive cisplatin 30 mg/m2 or cisplatin 30 mg/m2 with nimotuzumab once a week with curative radiotherapy. The primary end point of the trial was PFS. The aim of the current study was to compare the QoL between the two arms. QoL was assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 (v3.0) and HN-35 (v1.0). The linear mixed-effects model was used for longitudinal analysis of QoL. RESULTS: 536 patients were randomized in this trial (268 in each arm) and 423 patients were included for QoL analysis. There was a significant change in the global health status QoL scores over time (p = 0.0016) with no difference between the two arms (p = 0.396). On longitudinal analysis there was a significant difference in the QoL scores in most of the function & symptom scales over time, but there was no significant difference in these scores between the two arms. QoL scores for most symptom scales worsened during treatment and improved thereafter in both arms. CONCLUSION: The addition of nimotuzumab to cisplatin based chemoradiation in LAHNSCC improved PFS, LRC and DFS without negatively impacting QoL.

10.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 22(15): 2007-2018, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187268

RESUMO

Introduction: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and is a leading cause for cancer-related mortality. This review attempts to give a comprehensive summary of the recent developments in pharmacotherapeutic options for locally advanced/metastatic HNSCC.Areas covered: In this review, the authors conducted a systematic literature search for published articles on HNSCC in the PubMed database using the keywords 'head and neck squamous cell carcinoma or HNSCC,' 'targeted therapy,' 'immunotherapy.' The search was restricted to meta-analyses, clinical trials, practice guidelines, and abstract presentations at international meetings. The final search encompassed articles published from 2010 to 2021. Articles published in languages other than English were excluded.Expert opinion: Immune checkpoint inhibition has been the most significant advance in the treatment of R/M HNSCC. Oral metronomic therapy has emerged as an important therapeutic option for low to middle-income countries. H-RAS inhibition is one of the most promising areas of research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunoterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Cancer Med ; 10(14): 4948-4956, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacokinetics (PK) of docetaxel is characterized by high inter-individual variability (IIV). While covariate models that explain the PK variability of docetaxel exist, not much is known about the effects of genetic variations on docetaxel disposition. METHODS: Fifty patients with head and neck or prostate cancer were enrolled of whom two patients withdrew consent before the start of the study. Docetaxel was administered at either 50 or 75 mg/m2 as intravenous infusion over 1 h. One pharmacogenetic sample and a series of PK samples, either intensive (N = 5; 13 samples each) or sparse (N = 43; 6 samples each), were collected from each patient. Docetaxel levels were estimated using a validated HPLC method. Polymorphic loci on the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination (ADME) genes were identified using the PharmacoScan array platform. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was carried out using NONMEM v7.2. RESULTS: Docetaxel PK was well characterized by a three-compartment model. Clearance (Cl) was found to be 18 L/h with an IIV of 45.3%. None of the genetic variants showed significant covariate effect on the Cl of docetaxel. Patients with abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were found to have 25% lower Cl as compared to patients with normal ALT values. However, the covariate effect could not be established in the final model possibly due to lack of adequate number of patients with abnormal ALT. CONCLUSION: Genetic polymorphisms in the ADME gene do not explain the IIV in PK of docetaxel. However, patients with abnormal liver function might require dose reduction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable since participants in this study received treatment that was standard of care.

12.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 53: 151763, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary mediastinal germ tumours (PMGCT) constitute, a mere 3-4% of all germ cell tumours (GCT). Although they account for approximately 16% of mediastinal tumours in adults and 19-25% in children as per western literature, there is hardly any large series on PMGCT reported from the Indian subcontinent. DESIGN: We have retrospectively analysed clinicopathological features of 98 cases of PMGCT diagnosed over 10 years (2010-2019) from a tertiary-care oncology centre. RESULTS: The study group (n = 98) comprised predominantly of males (n = 92) (M:F ratio-15:1), with an age range between 3 months to 57 years (median: 25 years). The tumours were predominantly located in the anterior mediastinum (n = 96). Broadly, Non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) were more common (n = 73, 74%) compared to pure seminoma (n = 25, 26%). Mixed NSGCT was the most common histological subtype (n = 30) followed by pure mature teratoma (n = 18), pure Yolk sac tumour (n = 13), mixed seminoma and NSGCT (n = 5), pure immature teratoma (n = 3) and GCT; NOS (n = 4). Interestingly, all female patients had exclusive teratomas. Nine cases revealed secondary somatic malignancy (5 carcinomas and 4 sarcomas). The majority of patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 71). Surgical excision was performed in 60 patients. Follow up was available in 68 patients. NSGCT showed a poor prognosis as compared to seminoma (p value = 0.03) and tumours with somatic malignancies had a more aggressive clinical course. CONCLUSION: PMGCT was seen predominantly in young adult males and somatic malignancies were noted in as high as 9% of cases. Patient with somatic malignancy have aggressive clinical course, hence, extensive sampling and careful histopathological evaluation are recommended for the identification and definitive characterization.

13.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst ; 33(1): 12, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute oral mucositis has been infrequently studied in the patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) receiving once-weekly cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Hence, this analysis was conducted to explore the various aspects of the same. RESULTS: The overall incidence of mucositis was 96.9% (n = 508) and of grade 3-5 mucositis was 61.3% (n = 321). The overall incidence of oral mucositis was similar in both the arms (CCRT and NCRT) (p value = 0.58) while grade 3-5 mucositis was more common in the NCRT arm (p value = 0.01). Out of all factors listed, the presence of nimotuzumab was the only significant risk factor for the development of grade 3 or more oral mucositis (p value = 0.01); (OR = 1.64, 95%CI 1.15-2.32). Delays in the treatment delivery were similar in both the arms. CONCLUSION: Acute oral mucositis is a common occurrence in locally advanced-HNSCC patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. Nimotuzumab is a significant factor for development of grade 3 and above oral mucositis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Estomatite , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Estomatite/induzido quimicamente , Estomatite/epidemiologia
14.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(9): e29081, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcome and toxicity data in adolescent-adult Ewing sarcoma (AA-ES) patients are sparse and merits exploration. METHODS: Histopathologically confirmed, nonmetastatic AA-ES patients, who received standard institutional combination chemotherapy regimen (Ewing's family of tumors-2001 [EFT-2001]) comprising of ifosfamide plus etoposide and vincristine, doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide, lasting a total of 12 months between 2013 and 2018, were analyzed for treatment-related toxicities, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: There were 235 patients (primary safety cohort [PSC]) with median age of 23 (15-61) years; 159 (67.7%) were males, 155 (65.9%) had skeletal primary and 114 (48.5%) had extremity tumors. One hundred ninety-six (83.4%) were treatment naïve (primary efficacy cohort [PEC]) and of these 119 (60.7%) had surgery. In PEC, at a median follow-up of 36.4 (interquartile range [IQR] 20-55) months, estimated 3-year EFS and OS were 67.3% (95% CI 60.3-75.1%) and 91.1% (95% CI 86.7-95.7%), respectively. Of these, 158 (80.6%) complying with intended treatment, at a median follow-up of 39 (IQR 26-57) months had an estimated 3-year EFS of 68.2% (95% CI 60.3-76.1%). In multivariable analysis, good prognostic factors included longer symptom(s) duration (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86-0.994), ≥99% necrosis (HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.77), and treatment completion (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14-0.74). Among PSC, grade 3-4 toxicities were febrile neutropenia (119, 50.6%), anemia (130, 55.3%), peripheral neuropathy (37, 15.7%), with three (1.3%) chemo-toxic deaths. CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes of AA nonmetastatic ES patients treated with EFT-2001 regimen were comparable to those reported by others, with acceptable toxicity. This regimen can be considered a standard of care in AA-ES.

15.
Transl Oncol ; 14(8): 101111, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993094

RESUMO

The recently conducted ADAURA trial concludes daily dosing of adjuvant osimertinib, a third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), improves disease-free survival with stage IB/II/IIIA EGFR -mutated non-small cell lung cancer patients in comparison to placebo. We have developed a preclinical orthotopic mouse model, using luciferase tagged lung adenocarcinoma cells harboring EGFR TKI sensitive exon 19 deletion to model and extend trial implications comparing a weekly vs daily dosing outcome of osimertinib to a first-generation TKI- erlotinib. We find that 100% of mice in both the groups receiving osimertinib daily or weekly before injection of cells show a complete absence of homing of cells in mice's lungs from day three until day 18 post-injection of cells. On the other hand, 25% and 75% of mice receiving erlotinib daily and weekly before injecting cells show homing of cells to the lungs. The tumors observed in the lungs, when dissected at day 30, confirmed the colonization of the injected cells homing to the organ. Thus, our study establishes the efficacy of pretreatment with osimertinib in reducing tumor cells' homing to mouse lungs in an in vivo mouse model.

16.
Oncotarget ; 12(6): 578-588, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796225

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Unlike lung adenocarcinoma patients, there is no FDA-approved targeted-therapy likely to benefit lung squamous cell carcinoma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed survival analyses of lung squamous cell carcinoma patients harboring therapeutically relevant alterations identified by whole exome sequencing and mass spectrometry-based validation across 430 lung squamous tumors. RESULTS: We report a mean of 11.6 mutations/Mb with a characteristic smoking signature along with mutations in TP53 (65%), CDKN2A (20%), NFE2L2 (20%), FAT1 (15%), KMT2C (15%), LRP1B (15%), FGFR1 (14%), PTEN (10%) and PREX2 (5%) among lung squamous cell carcinoma patients of Indian descent. In addition, therapeutically relevant EGFR mutations occur in 5.8% patients, significantly higher than as reported among Caucasians. In overall, our data suggests 13.5% lung squamous patients harboring druggable mutations have lower median overall survival, and 19% patients with a mutation in at least one gene, known to be associated with cancer, result in significantly shorter median overall survival compared to those without mutations. CONCLUSIONS: We present the first comprehensive landscape of genetic alterations underlying Indian lung squamous cell carcinoma patients and identify EGFR, PIK3CA, KRAS and FGFR1 as potentially important therapeutic and prognostic target.

17.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 41: 1-11, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793315

RESUMO

The overwhelming majority of head and neck cancers and related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, which have challenges related to burden of disease versus access to care. Yet the additional health care burden of the COVID-19 pandemic has also impacted access to care for patients with head and neck cancer in the United States. This article focuses on challenges and innovation in prioritizing head and neck cancer care in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Indian experience of value-added head and neck cancer care in busy and densely populated regions, and strategies to optimize the management of head and neck cancer in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Oncologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Prioridades em Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25115, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787593

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are rapidly being incorporated as treatment option either alone or in combination with chemotherapy in most of the solid tumors. Since there is very limited data of ICI in patients with poor performance status (PS) from the real world settings, we performed a retrospective audit of patients who received ICI and report the analysis based on ECOG PS of these patients.This study is a retrospective audit of a prospectively collected database of patients receiving ICIs for advanced solid tumors in any line between August 2015 and November 2018 at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India. All statistical calculations were performed using SPSS statistical software for windows version 20.0.A total of 155 patients who received ICIs during the specified period were evaluated for this study. Baseline ECOG PS 0-1 (n = 103, 66.4%) patients was associated with median OS 9.1 (95% CI [confidence interval], 4.4-NR) months when compared to ECOG 2-4 (n = 52, 33.5%) which had a median OS of 2.9 (95% CI; 1.8-5.5) months (HR, 1.7, 95% CI, 1.1-2.7, log rank P = .017). The disease control rate for the poor PS group was 34.6%. However, 27.3% patients (95% CI: 20.3-34.3) were still alive at 1 year. Median OS in patients with PS 2 was 3.7 months (95% CI: 0-11.6) as compared to 1.8 months (95% CI: 0.2-3.4) for those with PS 3-4 (HR-2.0; 95% CI: 1.0-3.9, P = .041). The tolerance to ICIs was good with no grade 3/4 toxicities in 44 (84.6%) patients.Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a safe and effective therapeutic option even in solid tumor patients with poor performance status.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Oncologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Auditoria Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e043628, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727268

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Two-phase II randomised studies have shown a significant benefit of local consolidation therapy in oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This phase III randomised controlled trial (RCT) will evaluate the efficacy of local consolidation radiation therapy (RT) in oligometastases (OM) NSCLC after completion of initial systemic therapy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a single-centre phase III RCT of OM NSCLC patients. One hundred and ninety patients will undergo 1:1 randomisation to either standard maintenance therapy (control arm) or local consolidation RT and standard maintenance therapy (experimental arm). Patients will be stratified into the number of OM sites (1-2 vs 3-5), nodal metastases (N0-N1 vs N2-N3) and presence or absence of brain metastases. Stereotactic body radiation therapy to all the oligometastatic sites and definitive RT to primary disease will be given in the experimental arm. The primary endpoint is overall survival and secondary endpoints include progression-free survival, local control of OM sites, new distant metastases free survival, objective response rate, toxicity and quality of life. Translation endpoint include circulating tumour cells and radiomics using texture analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: All patients will be provided with a written informed consent form which needs to be signed before randomisation. The study is approved by the institutional ethics committee-II (project number 3445) and registered with Clinical Trials Registry-India, dated 21 April 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CTRI/2020/04/024761; Pre-Results.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Radiocirurgia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Humanos , Índia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Padrão de Cuidado , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Laryngoscope ; 131(9): 2023-2029, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To estimate the prevalence of baseline clinically significant distress (distress score ≥ 4) in head and neck cancer patients planned and treated with radical intent radiotherapy using the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Thermometer (DT) and assess factors predictive of distress. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study evaluating distress in 600 head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. The DT was used to screen patients for distress at baseline before radiotherapy. RESULTS: The median distress score of the entire cohort was 4 interquartile range (IQR) (IQR: 3-5), and 340 patients (56.7%) had clinically significant distress. On univariate analysis, the causal factors predictive of distress were low socioeconomic status (P = .04), presence of proliferative growth at presentation (P = .008), site of the tumor (oral cavity, P = .02), comorbidity (P = .04), and presence of Ryle's tube or tracheostomy tube at baseline (P = .01). Low socioeconomic status was significant (P = .04) on multivariate analysis for high levels of distress. CONCLUSIONS: Among head and neck cancer patients, 56% of patients had clinically significant baseline distress, and patients with low socioeconomic status had high distress. There is a need for interventions to mitigate distress. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:2023-2029, 2021.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Radioterapia/psicologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Angústia Psicológica , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Classe Social , Escala Visual Analógica
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