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1.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770165

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Congenital chloride diarrhoea (CLD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the solute family carrier 26 member 3 (SLC26A3) gene. Patients suffer from life-long watery diarrhea and chloride loss. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been reported in individual patients with CLD and in scl26a3-deficient mice. METHODS: We performed an international multicentre analysis to build a CLD cohort and to identify cases with IBD. We assessed clinical and genetic characteristics of subjects and studied the cumulative incidence of CLD-associated IBD. RESULTS: In a cohort of 72 patients with CLD caused by 17 different SLC26A3 mutations, we identified 12 patients (17%) diagnosed with IBD. Nine patients had Crohn's disease, two ulcerative colitis, and one IBD-unclassified (IBD-U). Prevalence of IBD in our cohort of CLD is higher than the highest prevalence of IBD in Europe (p < 0.0001). The age of onset was variable (13.5 years, IQR: 8.5 - 23.5 years). Patients with CLD and IBD had lower z-score for height than those without IBD. 4/12 patients had required surgery (ileostomy formation n=2, ileocaecal resection due to ileocaecal valve stenosis n=1, and colectomy due to stage II transverse colon cancer n=1). At last follow-up, 5/12 were on biologics (adalimumab, infliximab, or vedolizumab), 5/12 on immunosuppressant (azathioprine or mercaptopurine), one on 5-ASA and one off-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of patients with CLD develop IBD. This suggests potential involvement of SL26A3-mediated anion transport in IBD pathogenesis. Patients with CLD-associated IBD may require surgery for treatment failure or colon cancer.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720094

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Childhood obesity has high societal and economic impact, but current treatment approaches are sub-optimal. In the last decade important studies have been conducted aiming to identify strategies to prevent obesity during critical periods of life. Updated recommendations for childhood obesity prevention are needed.We present data from systematic reviews and meta- analysis, RCTs and large observational studies, published from 2011 onwards, that consider the possible role of the following factors in obesity development: breastfeeding; macronutrient composition and method of complementary feeding; parenting style; dietary patterns; sugar-sweetened beverage consumption; eating behaviour (e.g. skipping breakfast, family dinners etc.); meal frequency and composition (fast foods, snacking), portion size; dietary modulators of gut microbiota (including pre-, pro-, and synbiotics); physical activity and sedentary behaviour. We used the Medline database and the Cochrane Library to search for relevant publications. Important research gaps were also identified.This position paper provides recommendations on dietary factors, food habits and lifestyle to prevent childhood obesity development, based on the available literature and expert opinion. Clinical research and high-quality trials are urgently needed to resolve numerous areas of uncertainty.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES AND STUDY: There are a large interobserver variability in evaluating mucosal lesions of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially in pediatric patients. This multicenter prospective observational study aims to evaluate interobserver agreement (IOA) among pediatric endoscopists in assigning validated IBD endoscopic scores in children. METHODS: Fifteen videos of follow-up ileocolonoscopies in children with IBD were recorded and selected as cases. Eleven pediatric endoscopists from different centers blindly evaluated all videos and calculated scores: either Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity (UCEIS) or simple endoscopic score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD). Scores from all reviewer were compared in order to calculate IOA for general videos and specific sections. Scores from an expert adult reader were used to calculate possible reviewer's characteristics affecting scores reliability. RESULTS: Intraclass correlation was 0.298 (95% CI: 0.13-0.55) for UC and 0.266 (0.11-0.52) for CD. When a disease activity categorization was adopted (remission, mild, moderate, severe activity) Fleiss' kappa coefficient was 0.408 (0.29-0.53) for UC and 0.552 (0.43-0.73) for CD. When stratified by item, vascular pattern of UC was the most reliable item IC: 0.624 (0.321-0.854). In multivariable analysis none of the reviewer's characteristics affected the readers' errors. CONCLUSION: This multicenter study shows low agreement among pediatric endoscopists in evaluating endoscopic scores in children with IBD. By using disease activity categorization, agreement slightly increased, mostly for CD. All readers showed a low-grade concordance with the expert adult gastroenterologist's evaluations. Future specific training programs should be considered to increase interobserver agreement in using IBD endoscopic activity scores.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605663

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The nutritional management of critically ill term neonates and preterm infants varies widely, and controversies exist in regard to when to initiate nutrition, mode of feeding, energy requirements, and composition of enteral and parenteral feeds. Recommendations for nutritional support in critical illness are needed. METHODS: The ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition (ESPGHAN-CoN) conducted a systematic literature search on nutritional support in critically ill neonates, including studies on basic metabolism. The Medline database and the Cochrane Library were used in the search for relevant publications. The quality of evidence was reviewed and discussed before voting on recommendations, and a consensus of 90% or more was required for the final approval. Important research gaps were also identified. RESULTS: This position paper provides clinical recommendations on nutritional support during different phases of critical illness in preterm and term neonates based on available literature and expert opinion. CONCLUSION: Basic research along with adequately powered trials are urgently needed to resolve key uncertainties on metabolism and nutrient requirements in this heterogeneous patient population.

5.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(3): 283-288, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IBD management has been significantly affected during the COVID-19 lockdown with potential clinical issues. AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the Italian paediatric IBD cohort. METHODS: This was a multicentre, retrospective, cohort investigation including 21 different Italian IBD referral centres. An electronic data collection was performed among the participating centres including: clinical characteristics of IBD patients, number of COVID-19 cases and clinical outcomes, disease management during the lockdown and the previous 9 weeks. RESULTS: 2291 children affected by IBD were enrolled. We experienced a significant reduction of the hospital admissions [604/2291 (26.3%) vs 1281/2291 (55.9%); p < 0.001]. More specifically, we observed a reduction of hospitalizations for new diagnosis (from n = 44 to n = 27) and endoscopic re-evaluations (from n = 46 to n = 8). Hospitalization for relapses and surgical procedures remained substantially unchanged. Biologic infusions did not significantly vary [393/2291 (17.1%) vs 368/2291 (16%); p = 0.3]. Telemedicine services for children with IBD were activated in 52.3% of the centres. In 42/2291(1.8%) children immunosuppressive therapies were adapted due to the concurrent COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: Due to the several limitations of the lockdown, cares for children with IBD have been kept to minimal standards, giving priorities to the urgencies and to biologics' infusions and implementing telemedicine services.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/tendências , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização/tendências , Telemedicina/tendências , Adolescente , Criança , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Recidiva
6.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adult patients with both inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease (CeD) have peculiar phenotypic features. This study aimed at describing the characteristics and natural history of children with both IBD and CeD. METHODS: This was a case-control study based on a national registry. Cases included children diagnosed with both IBD and CeD. Two matched IBD controls without CeD, and 2 matched CeD controls were selected for each case. Inflammatory bowel disease phenotype and natural history, comprising growth and pubertal development, were compared between groups. RESULTS: Forty-nine (1.75%) patients with IBD and CeD were identified out of 2800 patients with IBD. Compared with patients with IBD alone, patients with IBD and CeD presented more frequently with autoimmune diseases (odds ratio, 2.81; 95% CI, 0.97-8.37; P = 0.04). Ileocolonic localization (46.1% vs 73.1%), treatment with azathioprine (46.2% vs 71.2%), and anti-TNF biologics (46.2% vs 69.2%) were less common in patients with Crohn's disease and CeD than in patients with Crohn's disease alone. Patients with ulcerative colitis and CeD had an increased risk of colectomy despite similar medical treatments compared with patients with ulcerative colitis alone (13.0% vs 0%). Pubertal delay was more common in patients with IBD and CeD compared with patients with IBD alone (14.9% vs 3.2%; odds artio, 5.24; 95% CI, 1.13-33.0; P = 0.02) and CeD alone (14.9% vs 1.1%; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Children with IBD and CeD may have peculiar features with a higher risk for autoimmune diseases, colectomy, and pubertal delay compared with IBD alone.

7.
Gastroenterology ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484692
8.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159926
9.
Dig Liver Dis ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132063

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, spreading in Italy during the first months of 2020, abruptly changed the way of practicing medicine in this country. As a consequence of the lockdown, the diagnostic and therapeutic management of paediatric chronic conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been affected. During the peak of COVID-19 pandemic, elective visits, endoscopies and infusions have been postponed, with potential clinical and psychological impact on disease course and a high likelihood of increasing waiting lists. While slowly moving back towards normality, clinicians need to recognize the best ways to care for patients with IBD, carefully avoiding risk factors for new potential epidemic outbreaks. In this uncertain scenario until the development and spread of COVID-19 vaccine, it is necessary to continue to operate with caution. Hereby we provide useful indications for a safer and gradual restarting of routine clinical activities after COVID-19 peak in Italy.

10.
Dig Liver Dis ; 52(10): 1131-1136, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868212

RESUMO

In 2019 the Italian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (SIGENP) and the Italian Society of Artificial Nutrition and Metabolism (SINPE) created a joint panel of experts with the aim of preparing an official statement on transition in Chronic Intestinal Failure (CIF). The transition from pediatric to adult care has a key role in managing all chronic diseases and in optimizing the compliance to care. Thus SIGENP and SINPE, in light of the growing number of patients with IF who need long-term Parenteral Nutrition (PN) and multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs throughout adulthood, shared a common protocol to provide an accurate and timely process of transition from pediatric to adult centers for CIF. The main objectives of the transition process for CIF can be summarized as the so-called "acronym of the 5 M": 1)Motivate independent choices which are characteristics of the adult world; 2)Move towards adult goals (e.g. self-management of his pathology and sexual issues); 3)Maintain the habitual mode of care; 4) Minimize the difficulties involved in the transition process and 5)Modulate the length of the transition so as to fully share with the adult's team the children's peculiarities.

11.
Dig Liver Dis ; 52(11): 1266-1281, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782094

RESUMO

Foreign body and caustic ingestions in children are usually the most common clinical challenges for emergency physicians, general pediatricians and pediatric gastroenterologists. Management of these conditions often requires different levels of expertise and competence. Endoscopy is often necessary but there is a high risk of misusing this tool with incorrect timing and indications. The imprecise clinical history frequently leaves clinicians uncertain about timing and nature of the ingestion. Few clinical guidelines regarding management of these ingestions in children have been published, none of which from the Italian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (SIGENP). An expert panel of Italian endoscopists was convened by the SIGENP Endoscopy Working Group to produce the present article that outlines practical clinical approaches to the pediatric patient with a variety of foreign body and caustic ingestions. The Italian Association of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Endoscopists (AIGO) has also endorsed the project since many adult endoscopists usually manage children with these conditions. Differently from the other published guidelines, the proposed one focuses on the role of the endoscopists (regardless of whether they are adult or pediatric gastroenterologists) in the diagnostic process of children with foreign body and caustic ingestions.

13.
Eur J Pediatr ; 179(12): 1935-1944, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813123

RESUMO

Infliximab (IFX) is administered intravenously using weight-based dosing (5 mg/kg) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Our hypothesis is that especially young children need a more intensive treatment regimen than the current weight-based dose administration. We aimed to assess IFX pharmacokinetics (PK), based on existing therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data in IBD patients < 10 years. TDM data were collected retrospectively in 14 centres. Children treated with IFX were included if IFX was started as IBD treatment at age < 10 years (young patients, YP) and PK data were available. Older IBD patients aged 10-18 years were used as controls (older patients, OP). Two hundred and fifteen paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD) patients were eligible for the study (110 < 10 year; 105 ≥ 10 years). Median age was 8.3 years (IQR 6.9-8.9) in YP compared with 14.3 years (IQR 12.8-15.6) in OP at the start of IFX. At the start of maintenance treatment, 72% of YP had trough levels below therapeutic range (< 5.4 µg/mL). After 1 year of scheduled IFX maintenance treatment, YP required a significantly higher dose per 8 weeks compared with OP (YP; 9.0 mg/kg (IQR 5.0-12.9) vs. OP; 5.5 mg/kg (IQR 5.0-9.3); p < 0.001). The chance to develop antibodies to infliximab was relatively lower in OP than YP (0.329 (95% CI - 1.2 to - 1.01); p < 0.001), while the overall duration of response to IFX was not significantly different (after 2 years 53% (n = 29) in YP vs. 58% (n = 45) in OP; p = 0.56).Conclusion: Intensification of the induction scheme is suggested for PIBD patients aged < 10 years. What is Known? •Infliximab trough levels of paediatric IBD patients are influenced by several factors as dosing scheme, antibodies and inflammatory markers. •In 4.5-30% of the paediatric IBD patients, infliximab treatment was stopped within the first year. What is New? •The majority of young PIBD (< 10 years) have inadequate IFX trough levels at the start of maintenance treatment. •Young PIBD patients (< 10 years) were in need of a more intensive treatment regimen compared with older paediatric patients during 1 year of IFX treatment. •The chance to develop antibodies to infliximab was relatively higher in young PIBD patients (< 10 years).

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Crohn disease (CD) can affect patient's quality of life (QOL) with physical, social, and psychological impacts. This study aimed to investigate the QOL of children with CD and its relationship with patient and disease characteristics. METHODS: Children ages from 10 to 17 years with diagnosed CD for more than 6 months were eligible to this cross-sectional study conducted in 35 French pediatric centers. QOL was assessed by the IMPACT-III questionnaire. Patient and disease characteristics were collected. RESULTS: A total of 218 children (42% of girls) were included at a median age of 14 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 13--16). Median duration of CD was 3.2 years (IQR: 1.7-5.1) and 63% of children were in clinical remission assessed by wPCDAI. Total IMPACT-III score was 62.8 (±11.0). The lowest score was in "emotional functioning" subdomain (mean: 42.8 ±â€Š11.2). Clinical remission was the main independent factor associated with QOL of children with CD (5.74 points higher compared with those "with active disease", 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.77--8.70, P < 0.001). Age of patient at the evaluation was found negatively correlated with QOL (-0.76 per year, 95% CI: -1.47 to -0.06, P = 0.009). Presence of psychological disorders was associated with a lower QOL (-9.6 points lower to those without, 95% CI: -13.34 to -5.86, P < 0.0001). Total IMPACT-III and its subdomains scores were not related to sex, disease duration, or treatments. CONCLUSIONS: These results not only confirm that clinical remission is a major issue for the QOL of patients, but also highlights the importance of psychological care.

16.
Endosc Int Open ; 8(7): E969-E973, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617400

RESUMO

Background and study aims The real burden of urgent endoscopy in children has not been studied yet. Our aim was to evaluate the need for urgent endoscopy in children. Patients and methods Information was collected about all the calls that were received during the 24 hour on-call shift for pediatric endoscopy in the region of Ile-de-France (12.1 million inhabitants) during a 6 months period (February-July 2017). Results A total of 237 calls (19 calls/y/100,000 children) were collected regarding children of an average age of 3.2 years (range 2 days-18 years). Most of the calls (68 %) were for foreign body ingestions. Gastroscopy was required in 32 % of children: 24 % of those calling for foreign body ingestion, 48 % for gastrointestinal bleeding, 63 % for caustic ingestions ( P  = 0.01). The average time between the call and the urgent endoscopy were below the international recommendations for each situation. Conclusions Calling the endoscopist seems to have become a recurrent practice, although in most cases, urgent endoscopy did not appear necessary, especially for foreign body ingestion. This organization of pediatric endoscopy on call was able to guarantee the performance of urgent endoscopy in adequate timing for a highly populated region.

19.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 70(6): 873-881, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443051

RESUMO

Assessment of vitamin and trace element status (VTE) is important in the clinical management of the sick child. In this position paper, we present the various assessment methods available to the clinical practitioner, and critically discuss pitfalls with interpretation of their results. There are 4 main approaches to assess the VTE body status of an individual patient including clinical examination, dietary assessment, and measurement of direct and indirect biomarkers of VTE in biological samples. Clinical signs of VTE deficiencies usually present only when body stores are substantially depleted and are often difficult to detect or differentiate from other nonnutrient-related causes. In isolation, dietary assessment of micronutrients can be inaccurate and imprecise, in disease and in individual patient assessment but may be useful to complement findings from other VTE assessment methods. Use of biomarkers is the most common approach to assess VTE status in routine practice but in the presence of systemic inflammatory response and in the absence of appropriate paediatric reference intervals, interpretation of biomarker results might be challenging and potentially mislead clinical practice. The use of a multimodal approach, including clinical examination, dietary assessment, and laboratory biomarkers is proposed as the optimal way to ascertain the VTE status of individual patients. In the presence of acute inflammatory conditions, VTE measurements in plasma should be replaced by biomarkers not affected by systemic inflammatory response or delayed until inflammatory state is resolved.

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