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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2773, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235808

RESUMO

Dental caries and periodontitis account for a vast burden of morbidity and healthcare spending, yet their genetic basis remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we identify self-reported dental disease proxies which have similar underlying genetic contributions to clinical disease measures and then combine these in a genome-wide association study meta-analysis, identifying 47 novel and conditionally-independent risk loci for dental caries. We show that the heritability of dental caries is enriched for conserved genomic regions and partially overlapping with a range of complex traits including smoking, education, personality traits and metabolic measures. Using cardio-metabolic traits as an example in Mendelian randomization analysis, we estimate causal relationships and provide evidence suggesting that the processes contributing to dental caries may have undesirable downstream effects on health.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Periodontite/genética , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Genômica , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 437-450, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential micronutrients involved in the donation of methyl groups in cellular metabolism. However, associations between intake of these nutrients and genome-wide DNA methylation levels have not been studied comprehensively in humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether folate and/or vitamin B-12 intake are asssociated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in leukocytes. METHODS: A large-scale epigenome-wide association study of folate and vitamin B-12 intake was performed on DNA from 5841 participants from 10 cohorts using Illumina 450k arrays. Folate and vitamin B-12 intakes were calculated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Continuous and categorical (low compared with high intake) linear regression mixed models were applied per cohort, controlling for confounders. A meta-analysis was performed to identify significant differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and regions (DMRs), and a pathway analysis was performed on the DMR annotated genes. RESULTS: The categorical model resulted in 6 DMPs, which are all negatively associated with folate intake, annotated to FAM64A, WRAP73, FRMD8, CUX1, and LCN8 genes, which have a role in cellular processes including centrosome localization, cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Regional analysis showed 74 folate-associated DMRs, of which 73 were negatively associated with folate intake. The most significant folate-associated DMR was a 400-base pair (bp) spanning region annotated to the LGALS3BP gene. In the categorical model, vitamin B-12 intake was associated with 29 DMRs annotated to 48 genes, of which the most significant was a 1100-bp spanning region annotated to the calcium-binding tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated gene (CABYR). Vitamin B-12 intake was not associated with DMPs. CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel epigenetic loci that are associated with folate and vitamin B-12 intake. Interestingly, we found a negative association between folate and DNA methylation. Replication of these methylation loci is necessary in future studies.

3.
Environ Int ; 132: 104723, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) may contribute to processes that underlie associations between air pollution and poor health. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate associations between DNAm and ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5, ≤10, and 2.5-10 µm in diameter (PM2.5; PM10; PM2.5-10). METHODS: We conducted a methylome-wide association study among twelve cohort- and race/ethnicity-stratified subpopulations from the Women's Health Initiative and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n = 8397; mean age: 61.5 years; 83% female; 45% African American; 9% Hispanic/Latino American). We averaged geocoded address-specific estimates of daily and monthly mean PM concentrations over 2, 7, 28, and 365 days and 1 and 12 months before exams at which we measured leukocyte DNAm in whole blood. We estimated subpopulation-specific, DNAm-PM associations at approximately 485,000 Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) sites in multi-level, linear, mixed-effects models. We combined subpopulation- and site-specific estimates in fixed-effects, inverse variance-weighted meta-analyses, then for associations that exceeded methylome-wide significance and were not heterogeneous across subpopulations (P < 1.0 × 10-7; PCochran's Q > 0.10), we characterized associations using publicly accessible genomic databases and attempted replication in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) study. RESULTS: Analyses identified significant DNAm-PM associations at three CpG sites. Twenty-eight-day mean PM10 was positively associated with DNAm at cg19004594 (chromosome 20; MATN4; P = 3.33 × 10-8). One-month mean PM10 and PM2.5-10 were positively associated with DNAm at cg24102420 (chromosome 10; ARPP21; P = 5.84 × 10-8) and inversely associated with DNAm at cg12124767 (chromosome 7; CFTR; P = 9.86 × 10-8). The PM-sensitive CpG sites mapped to neurological, pulmonary, endocrine, and cardiovascular disease-related genes, but DNAm at those sites was not associated with gene expression in blood cells and did not replicate in KORA. CONCLUSIONS: Ambient PM concentrations were associated with DNAm at genomic regions potentially related to poor health among racially, ethnically and environmentally diverse populations of U.S. women and men. Further investigation is warranted to uncover mechanisms through which PM-induced epigenomic changes may cause disease.

4.
Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet ; 20: 181-200, 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978304

RESUMO

The past decade has seen a technological revolution in human genetics that has empowered population-level investigations into genetic associations with phenotypes. Although these discoveries rely on genetic variation across individuals, association studies have overwhelmingly been performed in populations of European descent. In this review, we describe limitations faced by single-population studies and provide an overview of strategies to improve global representation in existing data sets and future human genomics research via diversity-focused, multiethnic studies. We highlight the successes of individual studies and meta-analysis consortia that have provided unique knowledge. Additionally, we outline the approach taken by the Population Architecture Using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study to develop best practices for performing genetic epidemiology in multiethnic contexts. Finally, we discuss how limiting investigations to single populations impairs findings in the clinical domain for both rare-variant identification and genetic risk prediction.

5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1922: 493-509, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838596

RESUMO

Oral health and disease are known to be influenced by complex interactions between environmental (e.g., social and behavioral) factors and innate susceptibility. Although the exact contribution of genomics and other layers of "omics" to oral health is an area of active research, it is well established that the susceptibility to dental caries, periodontal disease, and other oral and craniofacial traits is substantially influenced by the human genome. A comprehensive understanding of these genomic factors is necessary for the realization of precision medicine in the oral health domain. To aid in this direction, the advent and increasing affordability of high-throughput genotyping has enabled the simultaneous interrogation of millions of genetic polymorphisms for association with oral and craniofacial traits. Specifically, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of dental caries and periodontal disease have provided initial insights into novel loci and biological processes plausibly implicated in these two common, complex, biofilm-mediated diseases. This paper presents a summary of protocols, methods, tools, and pipelines for the conduct of GWAS of dental caries, periodontal disease, and related traits. The protocol begins with the consideration of different traits for both diseases and outlines procedures for genotyping, quality control, adjustment for population stratification, heritability and association analyses, annotation, reporting, and interpretation. Methods and tools available for GWAS are being constantly updated and improved; with this in mind, the presented approaches have been successfully applied in numerous GWAS and meta-analyses among tens of thousands of individuals, including dental traits such as dental caries and periodontal disease. As such, they can serve as a guide or template for future genomic investigations of these and other traits.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Odontopatias/genética , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Cárie Dentária/genética , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/genética , Fenótipo , Software
6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 843, 2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696834

RESUMO

Five sequence variants in SLC16A11 (rs117767867, rs13342692, rs13342232, rs75418188, and rs75493593), which occur in two non-reference haplotypes, were recently shown to be associated with diabetes in Mexicans from the SIGMA consortium. We aimed to determine whether these previous findings would replicate in the HCHS/SOL Mexican origin group and whether genotypic effects were similar in other HCHS/SOL groups. We analyzed these five variants in 2492 diabetes cases and 5236 controls from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), which includes U.S. participants from six diverse background groups (Mainland groups: Mexican, Central American, and South American; and Caribbean groups: Puerto Rican, Cuban, and Dominican). We estimated the SNP-diabetes association in the six groups and in the combined sample. We found that the risk alleles occur in two non-reference haplotypes in HCHS/SOL, as in the SIGMA Mexicans. The haplotype frequencies were very similar between SIGMA Mexicans and the HCHS/SOL Mainland groups, but different in the Caribbean groups. The SLC16A11 sequence variants were significantly associated with risk for diabetes in the Mexican origin group (P = 0.025), replicating the SIGMA findings. However, these variants were not significantly associated with diabetes in a combined analysis of all groups, although the power to detect such effects was 85% (assuming homogeneity of effects among the groups). Additional analyses performed separately in each of the five non-Mexican origin groups were not significant. We also analyzed (1) exclusion of young controls and, (2) SNP by BMI interactions, but neither was significant in the HCHS/SOL data. The previously reported effects of SLC16A11 variants on diabetes in Mexican samples was replicated in a large Mexican-American sample, but these effects were not significant in five non-Mexican Hispanic/Latino groups sampled from U.S. populations. Lack of replication in the HCHS/SOL non-Mexicans, and in the entire HCHS/SOL sample combined may represent underlying genetic heterogeneity. These results indicate a need for future genetic research to consider heterogeneity of the Hispanic/Latino population in the assessment of disease risk, but add to the evidence suggesting SLC16A11 as a potential therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes.

7.
Curr Diab Rep ; 18(12): 145, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456705

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of obesity continues to rise, fueling a global public health crisis characterized by dramatic increases in type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and many cancers. In the USA, several minority populations, who bear much of the obesity burden (47% in African Americans and Hispanic/Latinos, compared to 38% in European descent groups), are particularly at risk of downstream chronic disease. Compounding these disparities, most genome-wide association studies (GWAS)-including those of obesity-have largely been conducted in populations of European or East Asian ancestry. In fact, analysis of the GWAS Catalog found that while the proportion of participants of non-European or non-Asian descent had risen from 4% in 2009 to 19% in 2016, African-ancestry participants are still just 3% of GWAS, Hispanic/Latinos are < 0.5%, and other ancestries are < 0.3% or not represented at all. This review summarizes recent developments in obesity genomics in US minority populations, with the goal of reducing obesity health disparities and improving public health programs and access to precision medicine. RECENT FINDINGS: GWAS of populations with the highest burden of obesity are essential to narrow candidate variants for functional follow-up, to identify additional ancestry-specific variants that contribute to individual genetic susceptibility, and to advance both public health and precision medicine approaches to obesity. Given the global public health burden posed by obesity and downstream chronic conditions which disproportionately affect non-European populations, GWAS of obesity-related traits in diverse populations is essential to (1) locate causal variants in GWAS-identified regions through fine mapping, (2) identify variants which influence obesity across ancestries through generalization, and (3) discover novel ancestry-specific variants which may be low frequency in European populations but common in other groups. Recent efforts to expand obesity genomic studies to understudied and underserved populations, including AAAGC, PAGE, and HISLA, are working to reduce obesity health disparities, improve public health, and bring the promise of precision medicine to all.

8.
Mol Carcinog ; 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30457165

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine 143 diabetes risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified from genome-wide association studies, in association with breast cancer (BC) incidence and subsequent mortality. METHODS: A population-based sample of Caucasian women with first primary invasive BC (n = 817) and controls (n = 1,021) were interviewed to assess diabetes status. Using the National Death Index, women with BC were followed for >18 years during which 340 deaths occurred (139 BC deaths). Genotyping was done using DNA extracted from blood samples. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate age-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BC incidence, and Cox regression to estimate age-adjusted hazard ratios and CIs for all-cause and BC-specific mortality. RESULTS: Twelve SNPs were associated with BC risk in additive genotype models, at α = 0.05. The top three significant SNPs included SLC30A8-rs4876369 (P = 0.0034), HHEX-rs11187146 (P = 0.0086), and CDKN2A/CDKN2B-rs1333049 (P = 0.0086). Diabetes status modified the associations between rs4876369 and rs2241745 and BC incidence, on the multiplicative interaction scale. Six SNPs were associated with all-cause (CDKAL1-rs981042, P = 0.0032; HHEX-rs1111875, P = 0.0361; and INSR-rs919275, P = 0.0488) or BC-specific (CDKN2A/CDKN2B-rs3218020, P = 0.0225; CDKAL1-rs981042, P = 0.0246; and TCF2/HNF1B-rs3094508, P = 0.0344) mortality in additive genotype models, at α = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic polymorphisms that increase the risk of developing diabetes may also increase the risk of developing and dying from BC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Front Genet ; 9: 466, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369944

RESUMO

Background: Genetic research may inform underlying mechanisms for disparities in the burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus among American Indians. Our objective was to assess the association of genetic variants in cardiometabolic candidate genes with B cell dysfunction via HOMA-B, insulin resistance via HOMA-IR, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). Methods and Results: We examined the association of variants, previously associated with cardiometabolic traits (∼200,000 from Illumina Cardio MetaboChip), using mixed models of HOMA-B residuals corrected for HOMA-IR (cHOMA-B), log transformed HOMA-IR, and incident diabetes, adjusted for age, sex, population stratification, and familial relatedness. Center-specific estimates were combined using fixed effect meta-analyses. We used Bonferroni correction to account for multiple testing (P < 4.13 × 10-7). We also assessed the association between variants in candidate diabetes genes with these metabolic traits. We explored the top SNPs in an independent, replication sample from Southwestern Arizona. We identified significant associations with cHOMA-B for common variants at 26 loci of which 8 were novel (PRSS7, FCRL5, PEL1, LRP12, IGLL1, ARHGEF10, PARVA, FLJ16686). The most significant variant association with cHOMA-B was observed on chromosome 5 for an intergenic variant near PARP8 (rs2961831, P = 6.39 × 10-9). In the replication study, we found a signal at rs4607517 near GCK/YKT6 (P = 0.01). Variants near candidate diabetes genes (especially GCK and KCNQ1) were also nominally associated with HOMA-IR and cHOMA-B. Conclusion: We identified variants at novel loci and confirmed those at known candidate diabetes loci associations for cHOMA-B. This study also provided evidence for association of variants at KCNQ2, CTNAA2, and KCNQ1with cHOMA-B among American Indians. Further studies are needed to account for the high heritability of diabetes among the American Indian participants of the SHFS cohort.

10.
BMC Proc ; 12(Suppl 9): 22, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275878

RESUMO

Even though there has been great success in identifying lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the mechanisms through which the SNPs act on each trait are poorly understood. The emergence of large, complex biological data sets in well-characterized cohort studies offers an opportunity to investigate the genetic effects on trait variability as a way of informing the causal genes and biochemical pathways that are involved in lipoprotein metabolism. However, methods for simultaneously analyzing multiple omics, environmental exposures, and longitudinally measured, correlated phenotypes are lacking. The purpose of our study was to demonstrate the utility of the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach to inform our understanding of the pathways by which genetic variants lead to disease risk. With the SEM method, we examine multiple pathways directly and indirectly through previously identified triglyceride (TG)-associated SNPs, methylation, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), including sex, age, and smoking behavior, while adding in biologically plausible direct and indirect pathways. We observed significant SNP effects (P < 0.05 and directionally consistent) on TGs at visit 4 (TG4) for five loci, including rs645040 (DOCK7), rs964184 (ZPR1/ZNF259), rs4765127 (ZNF664), rs1121980 (FTO), and rs10401969 (SUGP1). Across these loci, we identify three with strong evidence of an indirect genetic effect on TG4 through HDL, one with evidence of pleiotropic effect on HDL and TG4, and one variant that acts on TG4 indirectly through a nearby methylation site. Such information can be used to prioritize candidate genes in regions of interest, inform mechanisms of action of methylation effects, and highlight possible genes with pleiotropic effects.

11.
BMC Obes ; 5: 26, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305909

RESUMO

Background: Genome-wide association studies have implicated the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene in type 2 diabetes risk, and more recently, in decreased body mass index. Given the contrary direction of genetic effects on these two traits, it has been suggested that the observed association with body mass index may reflect either selection bias or a complex underlying biology at TCF7L2. Methods: Using 9031 Hispanic/Latino adults (21-76 years) with complete weight history and genetic data from the community-based Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL, Baseline 2008-2011), we estimated the multivariable association between the additive number of type 2 diabetes increasing-alleles at TCF7L2 (rs7903146-T) and body mass index. We then used structural equation models to simultaneously model the genetic association on changes in body mass index across the life course and estimate the odds of type 2 diabetes per TCF7L2 risk allele. Results: We observed both significant increases in type 2 diabetes prevalence at examination (independent of body mass index) and decreases in mean body mass index and waist circumference across genotypes at rs7903146. We observed a significant multivariable association between the additive number of type 2 diabetes-risk alleles and lower body mass index at examination. In our structured modeling, we observed non-significant inverse direct associations between rs7903146-T and body mass index at ages 21 and 45 years, and a significant positive association between rs7903146-T and type 2 diabetes onset in both middle and late adulthood. Conclusions: Herein, we replicated the protective effect of rs7930146-T on body mass index at multiple time points in the life course, and observed that these effects were not explained by past type 2 diabetes status in our structured modeling. The robust replication of the negative effects of TCF7L2 on body mass index in multiple samples, including in our diverse Hispanic/Latino community-based sample, supports a growing body of literature on the complex biologic mechanism underlying the functional consequences of TCF7L2 on obesity and type 2 diabetes across the life course.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199657

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory properties that could benefit adults with comprised pulmonary health. OBJECTIVE: To investigate n-3 PUFA associations with spirometric measures of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and determine underlying genetic susceptibility. METHODS: Associations of n-3 PUFA biomarkers (alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid [DPA], and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) were evaluated with PFTs (forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and [FEV1/FVC]) in meta-analyses across seven cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (N=16,134 of European or African ancestry). PFT-associated n-3 PUFAs were carried forward to genome-wide interaction analyses in the four largest cohorts (N=11,962) and replicated in one cohort (N=1,687). Cohort-specific results were combined using joint 2 degree-of-freedom (2df) meta-analyses of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations and their interactions with n-3 PUFAs. RESULTS: DPA and DHA were positively associated with FEV1 and FVC (P<0.025), with evidence for effect modification by smoking and by sex. Genome-wide analyses identified a novel association of rs11693320-an intronic DPP10 SNP-with FVC when incorporating an interaction with DHA, and the finding was replicated (P2df=9.4×10-9 across discovery and replication cohorts). The rs11693320-A allele (frequency~80%) was associated with lower FVC (PSNP=2.1×10-9; ßSNP= -161.0mL), and the association was attenuated by higher DHA levels (PSNP×DHA interaction=2.1×10-7; ßSNP×DHA interaction=36.2mL). CONCLUSIONS: We corroborated beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs on pulmonary function. By modeling genome-wide n-3 PUFA interactions, we identified a novel DPP10 SNP association with FVC that was not detectable in much larger studies ignoring this interaction.

13.
Br J Nutr ; 120(10): 1159-1170, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205856

RESUMO

The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)-pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D-pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (P race difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (P race difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D-FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.

14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3686, 2018 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206230

RESUMO

There is no agnostic GWAS evidence for the genetic control of IL-1ß expression in periodontal disease. Here we report a GWAS for "high" gingival crevicular fluid IL-1ß expression among 4910 European-American adults and identify association signals in the IL37 locus. rs3811046 at this locus (p = 3.3 × 10-22) is associated with severe chronic periodontitis (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.12-2.00), 10-year incident tooth loss (≥3 teeth: RR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.09-1.62) and aggressive periodontitis (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.01-1.26) in an independent sample of 4927 German/Dutch adults. The minor allele at rs3811046 is associated with increased expression of IL-1ß in periodontal tissue. In RAW macrophages, PBMCs and transgenic mice, the IL37 variant increases expression of IL-1ß and IL-6, inducing more severe periodontal disease, while IL-37 protein production is impaired and shows reduced cleavage by caspase-1. A second variant in the IL37 locus (rs2708943, p = 4.2 × 10-7) associates with attenuated IL37 mRNA expression. Overall, we demonstrate that IL37 variants modulate the inflammatory cascade in periodontal disease.

15.
BMC Genet ; 19(Suppl 1): 69, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance has been posited as a possible contributor to the observed heritability of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Yet the extent to which estimates of epigenetic inheritance for DNA methylation sites are inflated by environmental and genetic covariance within families is still unclear. We applied current methods to quantify the environmental and genetic contributors to the observed heritability and familial correlations of four previously associated MetS methylation sites at three genes (CPT1A, SOCS3 and ABCG1) using real data made available through the GAW20. RESULTS: Our findings support the role of both shared environment and genetic variation in explaining the heritability of MetS and the four MetS cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites, although the resulting heritability estimates were indistinguishable from one another. Familial correlations by type of relative pair generally followed our expectation based on relatedness, but in the case of sister and parent pairs we observed nonsignificant trends toward greater correlation than expected, as would be consistent with the role of shared environmental factors in the inflation of our estimated correlations. CONCLUSIONS: Our work provides an interesting and flexible statistical framework for testing models of epigenetic inheritance in the context of human family studies. Future work should endeavor to replicate our findings and advance these methods to more robustly describe epigenetic inheritance patterns in human populations.

16.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200486, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044860

RESUMO

Current knowledge of the genetic architecture of key reproductive events across the female life course is largely based on association studies of European descent women. The relevance of known loci for age at menarche (AAM) and age at natural menopause (ANM) in diverse populations remains unclear. We investigated 32 AAM and 14 ANM previously-identified loci and sought to identify novel loci in a trans-ethnic array-wide study of 196,483 SNPs on the MetaboChip (Illumina, Inc.). A total of 45,364 women of diverse ancestries (African, Hispanic/Latina, Asian American and American Indian/Alaskan Native) in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study were included in cross-sectional analyses of AAM and ANM. Within each study we conducted a linear regression of SNP associations with self-reported or medical record-derived AAM or ANM (in years), adjusting for birth year, population stratification, and center/region, as appropriate, and meta-analyzed results across studies using multiple meta-analytic techniques. For both AAM and ANM, we observed more directionally consistent associations with the previously reported risk alleles than expected by chance (p-valuesbinomial≤0.01). Eight densely genotyped reproductive loci generalized significantly to at least one non-European population. We identified one trans-ethnic array-wide SNP association with AAM and two significant associations with ANM, which have not been described previously. Additionally, we observed evidence of independent secondary signals at three of six AAM trans-ethnic loci. Our findings support the transferability of reproductive trait loci discovered in European women to women of other race/ethnicities and indicate the presence of additional trans-ethnic associations both at both novel and established loci. These findings suggest the benefit of including diverse populations in future studies of the genetic architecture of female growth and development.

18.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2536, 2018 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959320

RESUMO

We have been alerted that in our recent Article the calculations used to transform the heritability from the observed scale to the liability scale did not take into account the individuals in category 2 of the baldness scale, who were removed in our original analysis. This led to an overestimation of the heritability on the liability scale, which should have been 0.62 instead of 0.94. Moreover, in the Title and in the Abstract, we report that we can explain 38% of the risk, while in fact that is the proportion of heritability explained by the loci we discovered. These errors do not substantially change the paper or its conclusions apart from the statement MBP is therefore probably one of the most heritable complex traits. Genome-wide significant associations and pathway analyses are not affected in any way and male-pattern baldness remains less genetically complex than other complex traits. We wish to thank Yap et al. for bringing this to our attention.

19.
Am J Hematol ; 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905378

RESUMO

Red blood cell (RBC) traits provide insight into a wide range of physiological states and exhibit moderate to high heritability, making them excellent candidates for genetic studies to inform underlying biologic mechanisms. Previous RBC trait genome-wide association studies were performed primarily in European- or Asian-ancestry populations, missing opportunities to inform understanding of RBC genetic architecture in diverse populations and reduce intervals surrounding putative functional SNPs through fine-mapping. Here, we report the first fine-mapping of six correlated (Pearson's r range: |0.04 - 0.92|) RBC traits in up to 19,036 African Americans and 19,562 Hispanic/Latinos participants of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium. Trans-ethnic meta-analysis of race/ethnic- and study-specific estimates for approximately 11,000 SNPs flanking 13 previously identified association signals as well as 150,000 additional array-wide SNPs was performed using inverse-variance meta-analysis after adjusting for study and clinical covariates. Approximately half of previously reported index SNP-RBC trait associations generalized to the trans-ethnic study population (p<1.7x10-4 ); previously unreported independent association signals within the ABO region reinforce the potential for multiple functional variants affecting the same locus. Trans-ethnic fine-mapping did not reveal additional signals at the HFE locus independent of the known functional variants. Finally, we identified a potential novel association in the Hispanic/Latino study population at the HECTD4/RPL6 locus for RBC count (p=1.9x10-7 ). The identification of a previously unknown association, generalization of a large proportion of known association signals, and refinement of known association signals all exemplify the benefits of genetic studies in diverse populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

20.
Ann Epidemiol ; 28(8): 515-520, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29936050

RESUMO

PURPOSE: When conducting analyses of child weight growth trajectories, researchers commonly use Z-scores from a standard instead of the observed weights. However, these Z-scores, calculated from cross-sectional data, may introduce methodological limitations when used in the context of longitudinal analyses. We assessed analytic limitations when analyzing infant growth data with three anthropometric measures: weight and the corresponding Z-scores and percentiles from a standard. METHODS: We undertook a series of Monte Carlo simulations and compared tests of differences in postnatal weight change across time (growth velocity) between two exposure groups. Models with the observed weight outcome were compared to the corresponding weight World Health Organization (WHO) Z-score or weight percentile outcomes. We calculated power, type I error, and median product term coefficient estimates to assess differences between the models. RESULTS: There was lower power to detect velocity differences across exposure groups for WHO Z-scores and percentiles as outcomes compared to the use of observed weight values. We also noted instances in which velocity differences between exposed and unexposed groups were in the opposite direction in analyses with WHO Z-score outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In our simulations of infant weight velocity differences across exposure groups, we observed lower power and effect inconsistencies when applying a standard-derived Z-score transformation. These results emphasize the need for careful consideration of the appropriate scale when assessing infant growth trajectories across categorical groups.

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