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1.
Epilepsia ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if routine electroencephalography (EEG) in seizure-naive infants with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) can predict epilepsy and subsequent neurocognitive outcomes. METHODS: Forty infants 7 months of age or younger and meeting the genetic or clinical diagnostic criteria for tuberous sclerosis were enrolled. Exclusion criteria included prior history of seizures or treatment with antiseizure medications. At each visit, seizure history and 1-hour awake and asleep video-EEG, standardized across all sites, were obtained until 2 years of age. Developmental assessments (Mullen and Vineland-II) were completed at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. RESULTS: Of 40 infants enrolled (mean age of 82.4 days), 32 completed the study. Two were lost to follow-up and six were treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) due to electrographic seizures and/or interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) on their EEG studies prior to the onset of clinical seizures. Seventeen of the 32 remaining children developed epilepsy at a mean age of 7.5 months (standard deviation [SD] = 4.4). Generalized/focal slowing, hypsarrhythmia, and generalized/focal attenuation were not predictive for the development of clinical seizures. Presence of IEDs had a 77.3% positive predictive value and absence a 70% negative predictive value for developing seizures by 2 years of age. IEDs preceded clinical seizure onset by 3.6 months (mean). Developmental testing showed significant decline, only in infants with ongoing seizures, but not infants who never developed seizures or whose seizures came under control. SIGNIFICANCE: IEDs identify impending epilepsy in the majority (77%) of seizure-naive infants with TSC. The use of a 1-hour awake and asleep EEG can be used as a biomarker for ongoing epileptogenesis in most, but not all, infants with TSC. Persistent seizures, but not history of interictal epileptiform activity or history of well-controlled seizures, correlated with low scores on the Vineland and Mullen tests at 2 years of age.

2.
Mol Genet Metab ; 128(1-2): 84-91, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide recommendations for managing hypersensitivity adverse events (HAEs) to an injectable enzyme substitution therapy (pegvaliase, a PEGylated phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme) in adult patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). METHODS: Eight European academic immunology experts with a broad range of experience in hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis, and/or drug reactions, and two geneticists from the USA with pegvaliase experience convened for two advisory board meetings. Efficacy, safety, and immunological profile of pegvaliase were discussed with the objective of developing recommendations for the clinical management of HAEs associated with pegvaliase treatment. RESULTS: Based on available immunogenicity data, it was concluded that pegvaliase induces a Type III hypersensitivity reaction, causing HAEs with peak event rates during induction/titration and a decline over time during maintenance therapy. The decline in HAEs with longer duration of therapy was considered to likely be driven by anti-drug antibody affinity maturation, reduced immune complex formation, and decreased complement activation over time. Immunology and PKU experts unanimously supported that the use of an induction, titration, and maintenance dosing regimen and implementation of several risk mitigation strategies contributed to the improvement of tolerability over time. Key risk mitigation strategies utilized in the Phase 3 clinical trials such as premedication with H1-receptor antagonists, allowance for a longer titration period after an HAE, patient education, and requirement to carry auto-injectable adrenaline (epinephrine) should be continued in clinical practice. A tool for administration of auto-injectable adrenaline in patients using pegvaliase was suggested. It was added that after the occurrence of a severe HAE a temporary dose reduction is more likely to improve tolerability than treatment interruption. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, it was agreed that pegvaliase has a generally tolerable safety profile in adults with PKU. Importantly, the risk mitigation strategies utilized in the clinical trials were considered to support the continued use of key strategies for management in the commercial setting, such as a slow induction/titration dosing paradigm and premedication with H1-receptor antagonists. However, physicians and patients need to be aware of the risk of HAEs associated with pegvaliase; presence of a trained observer during early treatment may be beneficial in certain circumstances, and a requirement to carry auto-injectable adrenaline is recommended. Because pegvaliase offers the possibility to normalize diet, while maintaining blood phenylalanine within the recommended therapeutic range, safe use of this medication in the clinical setting is important. Ongoing monitoring of long-term clinical safety of patients on pegvaliase treatment in the commercial setting was recommended.

3.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(18): 1356-1364, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have systematically evaluated birth defect co-occurrence patterns, perhaps, in part, due to the lack of software designed to implement large-scale, complex analytic methods. METHODS: We created an R-based platform, "co-occurring defect analysis" (CODA), designed to implement analyses of birth defect co-occurrence patterns in birth defect registries. CODA uses an established algorithm for calculating the observed-to-expected ratio of a given birth defect combination, accounting for the known tendency of birth defects to co-occur nonspecifically. To demonstrate CODA's feasibility, we evaluated the computational time needed to assess 2- to 5-way combinations of major birth defects in the Texas Birth Defects Registry (TBDR) (1999-2014). We report on two examples of pairwise patterns, defects co-occurring with trisomy 21 or with non-syndromic spina bifida, to demonstrate proof-of-concept. RESULTS: We evaluated combinations of 175 major birth defects among 206,784 infants in the TBDR. CODA performed efficiently in the data set, analyzing 1.5 million 5-way combinations in 18 hr. As anticipated, we identified large observed-to-expected ratios for the birth defects that co-occur with trisomy 21 or spina bifida. CONCLUSIONS: CODA is available for application to birth defect data sets and can be used to better understand co-occurrence patterns. Co-occurrence patterns elucidated by using CODA may be helpful for identifying new birth defect associations and may provide etiological insights regarding potentially shared pathogenic mechanisms. CODA may also have wider applications, such as assessing patterns of additional types of co-occurrence patterns in other large data sets (e.g., medical records).

4.
Epilepsia ; 60(8): 1721-1732, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify whether abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) connectivity is present before the onset of epileptic spasms (ES) in infants with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). METHODS: Scalp EEG recordings were collected prospectively in infants diagnosed with TSC in the first year of life. This study compared the earliest recorded EEG from infants prior to ES onset (n = 16) and from infants who did not develop ES (n = 28). Five minutes of stage II or quiet sleep was clipped and filtered into canonical EEG frequency bands. Mutual information values between each pair of EEG channels were compared directly and used as a weighted graph to calculate graph measures of global efficiency, characteristic path length, average clustering coefficient, and modularity. RESULTS: At the group level, infants who later developed ES had increased EEG connectivity in sleep. They had higher mutual information values between most EEG channels in all frequency bands adjusted for age. Infants who later developed ES had higher global efficiency and average clustering coefficients, shorter characteristic path lengths, and lower modularity across most frequency bands adjusted for age. This suggests that infants who went on to develop ES had increased local and long-range EEG connectivity with less segregation of graph regions into distinct modules. SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that increased neural connectivity precedes clinical ES onset in a cohort of infants with TSC. Overconnectivity may reflect progressive pathologic network synchronization culminating in generalized ES. Further research is needed before scalp EEG connectivity measures can be used as a potential biomarker of ES risk and treatment response in pre-symptomatic infants with TSC.

5.
J Neuroimaging ; 29(6): 750-759, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are no published studies examining resting state networks (RSNs) and their relationship with neurodevelopmental metrics in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). We aimed to identify major resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) networks in infants with TSC and correlate network analyses with neurodevelopmental assessments, autism diagnosis, and seizure history. METHODS: Rs-fMRI data from 34 infants with TSC, sedated with propofol during the scan, were analyzed to identify auditory, motor, and visual RSNs. We examined the correlations between auditory, motor, and visual RSNs at approximately 11.5 months, neurodevelopmental outcome at approximately 18.5 months, and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders at approximately 36 months of age. RESULTS: RSNs were obtained in 76.5% (26/34) of infants. We observed significant negative correlations between auditory RSN and auditory comprehension test scores (p = .038; r = -.435), as well as significant positive correlations between motor RSN and gross motor skills test scores (p = .023; r = .564). Significant positive correlations between motor RSNs and gross motor skills (p = .012; r = .754) were observed in TSC infants without autism, but not in TSC infants with autism, which could suggest altered motor processing. There were no significant differences in RSNs according to seizure history. CONCLUSIONS: Negative correlation between auditory RSN, as well as positive correlation between motor RSN and developmental outcome measures might reflect different brain mechanisms and, when identified, may be helpful in predicting later function. A larger study of TSC patients with a healthy control group is needed before auditory and motor RSNs could be considered as neurodevelopmental outcome biomarkers.

6.
Am Psychol ; 74(3): 356-367, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945897

RESUMO

The Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Autism Center of Excellence Network (TACERN) is a 6-site collaborative conducting longitudinal research on infants with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), focused on identifying early biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multidisciplinary research team that includes the specialties of psychology, neurology, pediatrics, medical genetics, and speech-language pathology, its members work together to conduct studies on neurological status, brain structure and function, neurodevelopmental phenotype, and behavioral challenges in this population. This article provides insights into the roles of the multidisciplinary multisite team and lessons learned from the collaboration, in terms of research as well as training of future researchers and clinicians. In addition, the authors detail the major findings to date, including those related to the identification and measurement of early symptoms of ASD, relationship between seizures and early development, and early biomarkers for epilepsy and developmental delay in infants and young children with TSC. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

7.
Pediatr Neurol ; 96: 58-63, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), caused by pathogenic variants in TSC1/TSC2, are at risk for intellectual disability. TSC2 pathogenic variants appear to increase the risk, compared with TSC1. However, the effect of TSC2 pathogenic variants on early and specific domains of development hasn't been studied. Using an extensively phenotyped group, we aimed to characterize differences in early intellectual development between genotypes. METHODS: The study group (n = 92) included participants with TSC enrolled in a multicenter study involving genetic testing and detailed prospective phenotyping including the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, a validated measure of cognition, language, and motor development in babies and preschool children. Mean T-scores at 24 months for each Mullen Scales of Early Learning domain were calculated for children with, versus without, a TSC2 pathogenic variant. Multivariable linear regression models were used to compare the groups, adjusting for seizures. RESULTS: T-scores on every Mullen Scales of Early Learning domain were significantly worse in the TSC2 group. Below average composite scores were present in three-fourths of the TSC2 group, compared with one-fourth of those without TSC2. Having a TSC2 pathogenic variant was associated with lower composite Mullen Scales of Early Learning scores, even when corrected for seizures. CONCLUSIONS: In a well-characterized patient population with standardized assessment of multiple aspects of development, we found that having a TSC2 pathogenic variant was associated with significantly lower Mullen Scales of Early Learning scores at age 24 months, independent of seizures. These data suggest that a baby with a TSC2 pathogenic variant is at high risk for significant developmental delays by 24 months.

8.
Pediatr Neurol ; 91: 41-49, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem, neurocutaneous disorder with a spectrum of TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders. The most common neuropsychiatric manifestations in the pediatric and adult populations are cognitive concerns, depression, and anxiety. Previous research suggests that while 90% of individuals with TSC have some TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders features, only 20% receive treatment, leading to a 70% treatment gap. METHODS: This web-based study used validated measures in conjunction with researcher-designed questions to evaluate perception of disease severity, presence of anxiety and depression, and the utilization and barriers toward mental health services among adults with TSC. RESULTS: The Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire indicated that our overall study population had mild symptoms of anxiety, minimal depression, and a moderate perception of disease severity. Notably, the difference between the median depression score for men and women was statistically significant with men scoring higher than women (P = 0.02). Of 69 respondents, 57% (n = 39) reported receiving mental health treatment at some point over their lifetime. In both the mental health treatment group and the nonmental health treatment group, cost was more often indicated as a barrier to accessing mental health resources (treatment group: cost = 51% and stigma = 21%; nontreatment group: cost = 27% and stigma = 20%). CONCLUSIONS: TSC disease severity had a moderate and low-moderate association with anxiety and depression, respectively. Regardless of past utilization, respondents had a positive outlook towards the use of mental health services with the major barrier being cost.

9.
Genet Med ; 21(8): 1851-1867, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546086

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare metabolic disorder that requires life-long management to reduce phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations within the recommended range. The availability of pegvaliase (PALYNZIQ™, an enzyme that can metabolize Phe) as a new therapy necessitates the provision of guidance for its use. METHODS: A Steering Committee comprising 17 health-care professionals with experience in using pegvaliase through the clinical development program drafted guidance statements during a series of face-to-face meetings. A modified Delphi methodology was used to demonstrate consensus among a wider group of health-care professionals with experience in using pegvaliase. RESULTS: Guidance statements were developed for four categories: (1) treatment goals and considerations prior to initiating therapy, (2) dosing considerations, (3) considerations for dietary management, and (4) best approaches to optimize medical management. A total of 34 guidance statements were included in the modified Delphi voting and consensus was reached on all after two rounds of voting. CONCLUSION: Here we describe evidence- and consensus-based recommendations for the use of pegvaliase in adults with PKU. The manuscript was evaluated against the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument and is intended for use by health-care professionals who will prescribe pegvaliase and those who will treat patients receiving pegvaliase.

10.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2018: 3116-3119, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30441054

RESUMO

High frequency oscillations (HFOs) > 80 Hz are a promising biomarker of epileptic tissue. Recent evidence has shown that spontaneous HFOs can be recorded from the scalp, but detection of these electrographic events remains a challenge. Here, we modified a simple automatic detector, used originally for intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings, to detect ripples and fast ripples in scalp EEG. We analyzed scalp EEG recordings of seven subjects and validated our detector and artifact rejection algorithm via visual review. Of the candidate events marked by the detector, 40% and 60% were confirmed to be ripples and fast ripples, respectively, by human visual review, making this algorithm suitable for supervised detection. Detected HFOs occurred at a rate of <1/min in most channels, and the average duration was 47 and 24 ms for ripples and fast ripples, respectively. The simplicity of the algorithm, with only a single parameter, enables the consistent application of automatic detection across recording modalities, and it could therefore be a tool for the assessment and localization of epileptic activity.

11.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 178(3): 274-277, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325570
12.
Drugs R D ; 18(4): 295-302, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous neurofibromas cause disfigurement and discomfort in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). METHODS: The primary objective of this phase II, open-label, single-arm trial was to assess whether orally administered everolimus reduced the surface volume of cutaneous neurofibromas in patients with NF-1. RESULTS: Of 22 patients who took the study drug, 17 completed the trial; 5 patients withdrew due to adverse events. Sixteen patients had photographs of sufficient quality for assessment of the primary outcome. A significant reduction in lesion surface volume, defined as an end of trial volume > 2 standard errors (SE) less than baseline volume, was observed for 4/31 lesions (13%) from 3/16 patients (19%). Additionally, a statistically significant absolute change in average height for paired lesions was observed (p = 0.048). Although not a prespecified outcome measure, a dramatic reduction in the size of 3 large plexiform neurofibromas with a cutaneous component was also noted and documented by measurement of maximum circumference or magnetic resonance imaging-based volumetric analysis. Adverse events were common in this trial, but no serious adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Although this was a small, exploratory trial that was not powered for significance, the reduction in surface volume observed in this study is noteworthy assuming that the natural course for untreated lesions is to maintain or increase in volume. Future studies are needed with larger study populations that incorporate longer durations of treatment and better standardization of volumetric measurements. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02332902.

13.
Epilepsy Res ; 148: 1-7, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296632

RESUMO

After initially successful treatment of infantile spasms, the long-term cumulative risk of relapse approaches 50%, and there is no established protocol to mitigate this risk. Although vigabatrin may be an effective means to prevent relapse, there is little guidance as to ideal duration and dosage. Using a cohort of children with infantile spasms and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), we evaluated the potential association of post-response VGB treatment and the rate of infantile spasms relapse. Patients with infantile spasms and clinical response to vigabatrin were identified among a multicenter prospective observational cohort of children with TSC. For each patient we recorded dates of infantile spasms onset, response to vigabatrin, relapse (if any), and quantified duration and dosage of vigabatrin after response. Time to relapse as a function of vigabatrin exposure was evaluated using survival analyses. We identified 50 children who responded to VGB. During a median follow-up of 16.6 months (IQR 10.3-22.9), 12 (24%) patients subsequently relapsed after a median of 7.8 months (IQR 3.1-9.6). Relapse occurred after VGB discontinuation in four patients, and during continued VGB treatment in the remaining eight cases. In survival analyses, risk of relapse was unaffected by the presence or absence of VGB treatment (HR 0.31, 95%CI 0.01-28.4, P = 0.61), but weighted-average dosage was associated with marked reduction in relapse risk: Each 50 mg/kg/d increment in dosage was associated with 61% reduction in risk (HR 0.39, 95%CI 0.17 - 0.90, P = 0.026). This study suggests that the risk of infantile spasms relapse in TSC may be reduced by high-dose vigabatrin treatment.

14.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 178(3): 281-290, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255984

RESUMO

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a multisystem autosomal dominant condition caused by inactivating pathogenic variants in either the TSC1 or the TSC2 gene, leading to hyperactivation of the mTOR pathway. Here, we present an update on the genetic and genomic aspects of TSC, with a focus on clinical and laboratory practice. We briefly summarize the structure of TSC1 and TSC2 as well as their protein products, and discuss current diagnostic testing, addressing mosaicism. We consider genotype-phenotype correlations as an example of precision medicine, and discuss genetic counseling in TSC, with the aim of providing geneticists and health care practitioners involved in the care of TSC individuals with useful tools for their practice.

15.
JAMA Dermatol ; 154(7): 773-780, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800048

RESUMO

Importance: Facial angiofibromas occur in approximately 75% of individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), causing substantial morbidity and disfigurement. Current therapies are partially effective, uncomfortable, produce scarring, and need repeating to treat recurrence. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical rapamycin for TSC-related facial angiofibromas. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial with 6 monthly clinic visits enrolled 179 patients with TSC-related facial angiofibromas not treated within 6 months from May 2012 to March 2014 in 9 clinical sites in the United States and 1 in Australia. Interventions: Patients were randomized (1:1:1) to topical formulation containing 0.3 g per 30 g (1%) rapamycin, 0.03 g per 30 g (0.1%) rapamycin, or vehicle alone. Participants applied 1.0 mL to designated areas daily at bedtime. Main Outcomes and Measures: Angiofibroma Grading Scale (AGS) change from baseline scored from photographs by independent masked dermatologists. Safety analyses included adverse events (AEs) and serum rapamycin levels. Results: All 179 patients randomized (99 [55.3%] female) comprised the primary analysis population (59 in the 1% rapamycin group, 63 in the 0.1% rapamycin group, and 57 in the vehicle-only group). The mean age was 20.5 years (range 3-61 years). Clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvement in facial angiofibromas was observed for both 1% and 0.1% rapamycin relative to the vehicle-only control group, and for 1% vs 0.1% rapamycin, with most of the improvement realized within the first month. At 6 months, AGS mean improvement for 1% rapamycin was 16.7 points compared with 11.0 for 0.1% rapamycin and 2.1 points for vehicle only (P < .001 for 1% and 0.1% vs vehicle only). Compared with baseline, end-of-treatment photos were rated "better" for 81.8% of patients in the 1% rapamycin group, compared with 65.5% for those in the 0.1% rapamycin group and 25.5% for those in the vehicle-only group (P < .001, all 3 pairwise comparisons). Topical rapamycin was generally well-tolerated, with no measurable systemic absorption. Apparent drug-related adverse effects were limited to 10% or less incidence of application site discomfort and/or pain, pruritus, erythema, and irritation. Nearly all AEs were mild, with no drug-related moderate, severe, or serious events. Conclusions and Relevance: Topical rapamycin appears effective and safe for treatment of TSC-related facial angiofibromas. In this trial, the preferred dose was 1% once daily. Future studies are needed to evaluate prophylactic, early, and long-term use of topical rapamycin, durability of response, and combination therapy with oral mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01526356.

16.
Mol Genet Metab ; 124(1): 27-38, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency that results in phenylalanine (Phe) accumulation. Pegvaliase, PEGylated recombinant Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), converts Phe to trans-cinnamic acid and ammonia, and is a potential enzyme substitution therapy to lower blood Phe in adults with PKU. METHODS: Two Phase 3 studies, PRISM-1 and PRISM-2, evaluated the efficacy and safety of pegvaliase treatment using an induction, titration, and maintenance dosing regimen in adults with PKU. In PRISM-1, pegvaliase-naïve participants with blood Phe >600 µmol/L were randomized 1:1 to a maintenance dose of 20 mg/day or 40 mg/day of pegvaliase. Participants in PRISM-1 continued pegvaliase treatment in PRISM-2, a 4-part clinical trial that includes an ongoing, open-label, long-term extension study of pegvaliase doses of 5 mg/day to 60 mg/day. RESULTS: Of 261 participants who received pegvaliase treatment, 72.0% and 32.6% reached ≥12 months and ≥ 24 months of study treatment, respectively, and 65% are still actively receiving treatment. Mean (SD) blood Phe was 1232.7 (386.4) µmol/L at baseline, 564.5 (531.2) µmol/L at 12 months, and 311.4 (427) µmol/L at 24 months, a decrease from baseline of 51.1% and 68.7%, respectively. Within 24 months, 68.4% of participants achieved blood Phe ≤600 µmol/L, 60.7% of participants achieved blood Phe ≤360 µmol/L, below the upper limit recommended in the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics PKU management guidelines, and 51.2% achieved blood Phe ≤120 µmol/L, below the upper limit of normal in the unaffected population. Improvements in neuropsychiatric outcomes were associated with reductions in blood Phe and were sustained with long-term pegvaliase treatment. Adverse events (AEs) were more frequent in the first 6 months of exposure (early treatment phase) than after 6 months of exposure (late treatment phase); 99% of AEs were mild or moderate in severity and 96% resolved without dose interruption or reduction. The most common AEs were arthralgia (70.5%), injection-site reaction (62.1%), injection-site erythema (47.9%), and headache (47.1%). Acute systemic hypersensitivity events consistent with clinical National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network anaphylaxis criteria were observed in 12 participants (17 events); of these, 6 participants remained on treatment. Acute systemic hypersensitivity events including potential events of anaphylaxis were not associated with immunoglobulin E, and all events resolved without sequelae. CONCLUSION: Results from the PRISM Phase 3 program support the efficacy of pegvaliase for the treatment of adults with PKU, with a manageable safety profile in most participants. The PRISM-2 extension study will continue to assess the long-term effects of pegvaliase treatment.

18.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 129(7): 1458-1466, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29673547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aim to establish that interictal fast ripples (FR; 250-500 Hz) are detectable on scalp EEG, and to investigate their association to epilepsy. METHODS: Scalp EEG recordings of a subset of children with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-associated epilepsy from two large multicenter observational TSC studies were analyzed and compared to control children without epilepsy or any other brain-based diagnoses. FR were identified both by human visual review and compared with semi-automated review utilizing a deep learning-based FR detector. RESULTS: Seven out of 7 children with TSC-associated epilepsy had scalp FR compared to 0 out of 4 children in the control group (p = 0.003). The automatic detector has a sensitivity of 98% and false positive rate with average of 11.2 false positives per minute. CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive detection of interictal scalp FR was feasible, by both visual and semi-automatic detection. Interictal scalp FR occurred exclusively in children with TSC-associated epilepsy and were absent in controls without epilepsy. The proposed detector achieves high sensitivity of FR detection; however, expert review of the results to reduce false positives is advised. SIGNIFICANCE: Interictal FR are detectable on scalp EEG and may potentially serve as a biomarker of epilepsy in children with TSC.

19.
Case Rep Pediatr ; 2018: 8516285, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29527379

RESUMO

Distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMN) are a rare heterogeneous group of inherited disorders specifically affecting the motor axons, leading to distal limb neurogenic muscular atrophy. The GARS gene has been identified as a causative gene responsible for clinical features of dHMN type V in families from different ethnic origins and backgrounds. We present the first cohort of family members of Nigerian descent with a novel heterozygous p.L272R variant on the GARS gene. We postulate that this variant is the cause of dHMN-V in this family, leading to variable phenotypical expressions that are earlier than reported in previous cases. The exact cause for the observed clinical heterogeneity within the family is unknown. One explanation is that there are modifier genes that affect the phenotype. These cases highlight the possibility of considering pathogenic variants in the GARS gene as a potential cause of early onset axonal polyneuropathy with atypical presentation.

20.
J Genet Couns ; 27(1): 169-176, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803392

RESUMO

Type 1 Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal storage disorder. Previously, treatment for GD was limited to intravenous enzyme replacement therapies (ERTs). More recently, oral substrate reduction therapies (SRTs) were approved for treatment of GD. Although both therapies alleviate disease symptoms, attitudes toward SRTs and patient perceptions of health while using SRT have not been well established. Electronic surveys were administered to adults with GD and asked about treatment history, attitudes toward SRTs, and perception of health while using SRTs as compared to ERTs, if applicable to the participant. ERT users that were offered treatment with SRTs cited potential side effects, wanting more research on SRTs, and satisfaction with their current treatment regimen as reasons for declining SRTs. SRT users expressed convenience and less invasiveness as reasons for choosing SRTs. Additionally, those using SRTs most often perceived their health to be similar to when they previously used ERT. Participant responses illustrate that attitudes toward SRTs can be variable and that one particular treatment may not be ideal for all patients with GD depending on individual perceptions of factors such as convenience, invasiveness, or side effects. Thus, individuals with GD should be counseled adequately by healthcare providers about both ERTs and SRTs for treatment of GD now that SRTs are clinically available.

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