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1.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(3): 226-239, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068424

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Repetitive negative thinking (RNT; e.g., worry and rumination) is common across emotional disorders, as is the tendency to generate negative interpretations (interpretation bias). Ameliorating negative interpretations via cognitive bias modification of interpretations (CBM-I) reduces worry/rumination, and improves mood in people diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or depression. We investigated whether these findings generalize to high worry or rumination populations, irrespective of diagnosis, and whether effects are increased by enhancing emotional engagement with training with active generation of positive resolutions of ambiguity and imagery. METHOD: Community volunteers with excessive worry and/or rumination, who were above clinical cut-off on anxiety and/or depression measures, were allocated to an active control condition (n = 54), interpretation training condition with prior activation of RNT (CBM_RNT; n = 54), or training condition augmented with positive outcome generation and imagery (CBM_ENH; n = 53). Interpretation bias, RNT, and mood were assessed before and following 10 Internet-based sessions completed within a 1-month period. RNT and mood questionnaires were also completed at 1-month follow-up. RESULTS: After training, both forms of CBM-I (vs. control) facilitated more positive interpretations and reduced negative intrusions during a worry task. At 1-month follow-up, anxiety, depression, RNT, and worry in the past week were lower in the CBM-I than control conditions, but not rumination or trait worry. Compared with standard CBM-I, the augmented form facilitated more positive interpretations, reduced negative intrusions after training, and reduced trait rumination at 1-month follow-up, but it did not augment effects on trait worry, anxiety or depression. CONCLUSIONS: Interpretation bias maintains transdiagnostic RNT and Internet-based CBM-I can reduce longer-term RNT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
J Psychosom Res ; 132: 109969, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative contribution of demographic variables, objective testing and psychological factors in explaining the variance in dizziness severity and handicap. METHODS: One-hundred and eighty-five consecutive patients on the waiting list to attend a diagnostic appointment in a tertiary neuro-otology clinic with a primary complaint of vertigo or dizziness completed a cross-sectional survey. Primary outcomes were the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the vertigo subscale of the Vertigo Symptom Scale-Short Form. Psychological questionnaires assessed anxiety and depressive symptoms, illness perceptions, cognitive and behavioural responses to symptoms, beliefs about emotions and psychological vulnerability. Patients also underwent standardised audio-vestibular investigations and tests to reach a diagnosis at appointment. RESULTS: Objective disease characteristics were not associated with handicap and only the presence of vestibular dysfunction on one test (caloric) was associated with symptom severity. Almost all the psychological factors were correlated with dizziness outcomes. The total hierarchical regression model explained 63% of the variance in dizziness handicap, and 53% was explained by the psychological variables. The regression model for symptom severity explained 36% of the variance, and 30% was explained by the psychological factors. In adjusted models, factors associated with dizziness handicap included age, female gender, distress, symptom focusing, embarrassment, avoidance, and beliefs about negative consequences. Fear avoidance was the only independent correlate in the fully adjusted model of symptom severity. CONCLUSION: Self-reported dizziness severity and handicap are not correlated with clinical tests of vestibular deficits but are associated with psychological factors including anxiety, depression, illness perceptions, cognitive and behavioural responses.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine secular trends in the progression of clinical and patient-reported outcomes in early RA. METHODS: A total of 2701 patients recruited to the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Study or Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network with year of diagnosis from 1986 to 2011. The 5-year progression rates for patients diagnosed at different points in time were modelled using mixed-effects regression; 1990, 2002 and 2010, were compared. Clinical markers of disease included the 28-joint count DAS and the ESR. Patient-reported markers included the HAQ, visual analogue scale of pain and global health, and the Short-Form 36. RESULTS: Statistically significant improvements in both 28-joint count DAS and ESR were seen over the 5 years in patients diagnosed with RA compared with those diagnosed earlier. By 5 years, 59% of patients with diagnosis in 2010 were estimated to reach low disease activity compared with 48% with diagnosis in 2002 and 32% with diagnosis in 1990. Whilst HAQ demonstrated statistically significant improvements, these improvements were small, with similar proportions of patients achieving HAQ scores of ≤1.0 by 5 years with a diagnosis in 1990 compared with 2010. Levels of the visual analogue scale and the Mental Component Scores of the Short-Form 36 indicated similar, statistically non-significant levels over the 5 years, irrespective of year diagnosed. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates improvements in inflammatory markers over time in early RA, in line with improved treatment strategies. These have not translated into similar improvements in patient-reported outcomes relating to either physical or mental health.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate drug survival with monotherapy compared with combination therapy with MTX in RA older adults. METHODS: Patients from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register, a prospective observational cohort, who were biologic naïve and commencing their first TNF inhibitors (TNFi) were included. The cohort was stratified according to age: <75 and ≥75. Cox-proportional hazards models compared the risk of TNFi discontinuation from (i) any-cause, (ii) inefficacy and (iii) adverse events, between patients prescribed TNFi-monotherapy compared with TNFi MTX combination. RESULTS: The analysis included 15 700 patients. Ninety-five percent were <75 years old. Comorbidity burden and disease activity were higher in the ≥75 cohort. Fifty-two percent of patients discontinued TNFi therapy during the follow-up period. Persistence with therapy was higher in the <75 cohort. Patients receiving TNFi monotherapy were more likely to discontinue compared with patients receiving concomitant MTX [hazard rate 1.12 (1.06-1.18) P <0.001]. This finding only held true in patients <75 [hazard rate (HR) 1.11 (1.05-1.17) vs ≥75 [HR 1.13 (0.90-1.41)]. Examining TNFi discontinuation by cause revealed patients ≥75 receiving TNFi monotherapy were less likely to discontinue TNFi due to inefficacy [HR 0.66 (0.43-0.99) P=0.04] and more likely to discontinue therapy from adverse events [HR 1.41(1.02-1.96) P =0.04]. These results were supported by the multivariate adjustment in complete case and imputed analyses. CONCLUSION: TNFi monotherapy is associated with increased treatment failure. In older adults, the disadvantage of TNFi monotherapy on drug survival is no longer seen. Patients ≥75 have fewer discontinuations due to inefficacy than adverse events compared with younger patients. This likely reflects greater disposition to toxicity but perhaps also a decline in immunogenicity associated with immunosenescence.

5.
Arch Sex Behav ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907696

RESUMO

This study examined adolescent sexual behaviors patterns, and the consistency between sexual behavior and sexual orientation, in a prospective birth cohort. We used data on 5150 young people from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Sexual orientation was assessed using a 5-point scale of sexual attraction at 15.5 years. Fourteen sexual activities were assessed using the Adolescent Sexual Activities Index at 13.5 and 15.5 years. Latent class analysis suggested four subgroups of adolescent sexual behaviors at 13.5: a "high-intensity sexual behaviors exclusively with other-sex, no same-sex intimacy" group (3.87%); a "moderate-intensity sexual behaviors exclusively with other-sex, no same-sex intimacy" group (16.57%); a "low-intensity sexual behaviors exclusively with other-sex, no same-sex intimacy" group (34.21%); and a "no sexual behavior" group (45.35%). There were five subgroups at 15.5 where four of them (23.42%, 18.37%, 28.12%, and 24.52%, respectively) were interpreted the same as at 13.5 years and a new "high-intensity sexual behaviors, some same-sex intimacy" subgroup (5.57%). Latent transition analysis showed approximately half the adolescents moved toward greater engagement in higher intensity sexual activities with other-sex at 15.5. Boys and girls who were in groups without same-sex intimacy were predominantly attracted to the other-sex, whereas there were moderate consistencies between same-sex intimacy and same-sex attraction for boys and low consistency for girls. Findings suggest that it may be important to include low-intensity sexual behaviors when assigning adolescents to sexual orientation groupings (via sexual behaviors) in order to reduce selection biases and increase statistical power via the increase in sample size.

6.
Arch Sex Behav ; 49(2): 413-420, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975035

RESUMO

A cross-sex shift model of human sexual orientation differences predicts that homosexual men should perform or score in the direction of heterosexual women, and homosexual women in the direction of heterosexual men, in behavioral domains such as cognition and personality. In order to test whether homosexual men and women's cognitive performance was closer to that of heterosexual men or that of heterosexual women (i.e., sex-atypical for their sex and closer to that of the opposite-sex), we conducted a multivariate meta-analysis based on data from our previous meta-analysis (Xu, Norton, & Rahman, 2017). A subset of this data was used and comprised 30 articles (and 2 unpublished datasets) and 244,434 participants. The multivariate meta-analysis revealed that homosexual men were sex-atypical in mental rotation (Hedges' g = -0.36) and the water level test (Hedges' g = -0.55). In mental rotation, homosexual men were in-between heterosexual men and women. There was no significant group difference on spatial location memory. Homosexual men were also sex-atypical on male-favoring spatial-related tasks (Hedges' g = -0.54), and female-favoring spatial-related tasks (Hedges' g = 0.38). Homosexual women tended to be sex-typical (similar to heterosexual women). There were no significant group differences on male-favoring "other" tasks or female-favoring verbal-related tasks. Heterosexual men and women differed significantly on female-favoring "other" tasks. These results support the cross-sex shift hypothesis which predicts that homosexual men perform in the direction of heterosexual women in sex differentiated cognitive domains. However, the type of task and cognitive domain tested is critical.

7.
Dev Psychobiol ; 62(1): 5-20, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378935

RESUMO

This study tested whether previously reported associations between early life factors and later adolescent sexual orientation could be replicated in another prospective birth cohort, the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). We used data on 9,795 youth from the MCS. Emerging sexual orientation was assessed using measures of sexual attraction to males and females in separate items at 14 years. Factors including birthweight, breastfeeding, sibling composition, parental ages, maternal psychopathology, parent-child relationship, and contextual risks were separated into three developmental periods: prenatal (n = 5 factors), before 7 years (n = 6 factors), and after 7 years (n = 5 factors). We controlled for handedness as a putative marker of prenatal androgen exposure and the possibility of mischievous responding statistically. Girls with greater maternal psychological distress since age 7 and greater pubertal body mass index were more likely to be nonheterosexual but the effect sizes were very small. Among boys there were no significant associations between any early life conditions and later sexual orientation. However, focusing on effect sizes rather than significance levels, there were small associations between preterm birth and nonheterosexuality. The results offer further evidence that psychosocial influences in the development of adolescent sexual orientation are weak or non-existent.

8.
Br J Health Psychol ; 25(1): 61-88, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fatigue is common and debilitating among dialysis patients. The aim of this study was to understand the longitudinal trajectory of fatigue and consider sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological factors that are related to variation in fatigue levels over time. DESIGN: A prospective study of fatigue with yearly assessments over 3 years among prevalent in-centre haemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS: Fatigue severity was measured using the Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire and fatigue-related functional impairment using the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. The trajectories of fatigue outcomes were examined using piecewise growth models, using length of time on dialysis as time. Sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological predictors of fatigue were assessed using linear growth models, using follow-up time. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-four prevalent HD patients completed baseline measures, 118 at 12 months, 84 at 24 months, and 66 at 36 months. Fatigue severity scores decreased by 0.15 each year. Fatigue-related functional impairment increased by 1.17 each year. In adjusted linear growth models, non-white ethnicity was a significant predictor of lower initial fatigue severity (B = -2.95, 95% CI -5.51 to -0.40) and a greater reduction in fatigue severity of 1.60 each year (95% CI 0.35-2.36). A one-point increase in damage beliefs was associated with a 0.36 increase in fatigue-related functional impairment each year (95% CI -0.61 to -0.01). CONCLUSION: Damage beliefs predicted an increase in fatigue-related functional impairment over time. However, the data strongly suggested that fatigue outcomes vary by length of time on dialysis. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? At least 1 in 2 haemodialysis (HD) patients are clinically fatigued. Growing evidence is available on the important role of psychological factors in fatigue across chronic conditions. The contribution of psychological factors, beyond distress, to fatigue in HD has not been examined to date. What does this study add? Ethnicity played a role in the initial level of fatigue severity and over time. Damage beliefs predicted an increase in fatigue-related impairment over time. Data strongly suggested that fatigue outcomes vary by length of time on dialysis.

9.
J Rheumatol ; 47(1): 28-34, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043548

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Understanding the placebo response is critical to interpreting treatment efficacy, particularly for agents with a ceiling to their therapeutic effect, where an increasing placebo response makes it harder to detect potential benefit. The objective of this study is to assess the change in placebo responses over time in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCT) for drug licensing authorization. METHODS: The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register database was searched to identify RCT of biological or targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) in RA. Studies were excluded if patients were conventional synthetic DMARD (csDMARD)-naive, not receiving background csDMARD therapy, or were biologic experienced. Metaregression model was used to evaluate changes in American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20, ACR50, and ACR70 treatment response over time. RESULTS: There were 32 trials in total: anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy (n = 15), tocilizumab (n = 4), abatacept (n = 2), rituximab (n = 2), and Janus kinase inhibitors (n = 9). From 1999 to 2018, there was no significant trend in the age or sex of patients in the placebo arm. Disease duration, swollen joint count, and 28-joint count Disease Activity Score using erythrocyte sedimentation rate at baseline all significantly declined over time. There was a statistically significant increase in placebo ACR50 and ACR70 responses (ACR50 ß = 0.41, 95% CI 0.09-0.74, p = 0.01; ACR70 ß = 0.18, 95% CI 0.04-0.31, p = 0.01) that remained significant after controlling for potential confounders. CONCLUSION: There has been a rise in the placebo response in RA clinical trials over the last 2 decades. Shifting RA phenotype, changes in trial design, and expectation bias are possible explanations for this phenomenon. This observation has important implications when evaluating newer novel agents against established therapies.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Trial data have provided an evidence base to guide early treatment in RA. Few studies have investigated rheumatologists' adherence to guidelines, and subsequent impact on outcomes. The objectives of this study are to characterize baseline prescribing for patients with RA across the National Health Service, identifying treatment decisions that associate with patient outcomes. METHODS: A nationwide audit of RA collected information on treatment choices, DAS and sociodemographic factors at baseline. Treatment response was assessed at 3 months. Multilevel regression models were used to characterize departmental variations in prescribing. Heat maps were used to visualize geographical variation. Mixed effects regression models were constructed to assess the relationship between treatment decisions and disease outcomes, adjusting for patient and department level covariates. RESULTS: A total of 7154 patients with a diagnosis of RA were recruited from 136 departments. There was broad variation in prescribing choices, even between departments close to one another, with evidence of substantial deviation from guidelines. Over 75% of patients received glucocorticoids, fewer than half received combination conventional DMARDs. Early glucocorticoid therapy associated with achieving a good treatment response [odds ratio 1.93 (95% CI 1.31, 2.84), P-value = 0.001]. The association was maintained following propensity modelling and imputation. CONCLUSION: Guideline adherence varies between departments and cannot be explained by case-mix alone. Departments that prescribe early adjunctive steroid achieve better short-term outcomes. Further research should work to ensure that the early arthritis evidence base translates into better outcomes for patients.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Depression and anxiety are the most prevalent mental health problems in youth, yet almost nothing is known about what outcomes are to be expected at the individual level following routine treatment. This paper sets out to address this gap by undertaking a systematic review of outcomes following treatment as usual (TAU) with a particular focus on individual-level outcomes. METHOD: MEDLINE, Embase and PsycInfo were searched for articles published between 1980 and January 2019 that assessed TAU outcomes for youth depression and anxiety accessing specialist mental healthcare. Meta-analysis considered change at both group-level pre-post effect size (ES) and individual-level recovery, reliable change and reliable recovery. Temporal analysis considered stability of primary and secondary outcomes over time. Sub-group analysis considered the moderating effect of informant; presenting problem; study design; study year; mean age of youth; use of medication; intervention dosage and type of treatment offered on outcomes. A protocol was pre-registered on PROSPERO (CRD42017063914). RESULTS: Initial screening of 6,350 publications resulted in 38 which met the inclusion criteria, and which were subsequently included in meta-analyses. This resulted in a final full pooled sample of 11,739 young people (61% of which were female, mean age 13.8 years). The pre-post ES (Hedges' g) at first/final outcome (13/ 26 weeks) was -0.74/- 0.87. The individual-level change on measures of self-report was 38% reliable improvement, 44% no reliable change and 6% reliable deterioration. Outcomes varied according to moderators, informant, problem type and dosage. CONCLUSION: Poor data quantity and quality are limitations, but this is the first study that indicates likely rates of reliable improvement for those accessing TAU. We propose the need for improved reporting of both individual-level metrics and details of TAU to enable greater understanding of likely current outcomes from routine care for youth with depression and anxiety in order to allow the potential for further improvement of impact.

12.
Behav Res Ther ; : 103464, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780252

RESUMO

Fatigue is a common and highly debilitating symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). This meta-analytic systematic review with detailed narrative synthesis examined randomised-controlled (RCTs) and controlled trials of behavioural and exercise interventions targeting fatigue in adults with MS to assess which treatments offer the most promise in reducing fatigue severity/impact. Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo electronic databases, amongst others, were searched through to August 2018. Thirty-four trials (12 exercise, 16 behavioural and 6 combined; n = 2,434 participants) met inclusion criteria. Data from 31 studies (n = 1,991 participants) contributed to the meta-analysis. Risk of bias (using the Cochrane tool) and study quality (GRADE) were assessed. The pooled (SMD) end-of-treatment effects on self-reported fatigue were: exercise interventions (n = 13) -.84 (95% CI -1.20 to -.47); behavioural interventions (n = 16) -.37 (95% CI -.53 to -.22); combined interventions (n = 5) -.16 (95% CI: -.36 to .04). Heterogeneity was high overall. Study quality was very low for exercise interventions and moderate for behavioural and combined interventions. Considering health care professional time, subgroup results suggest web-based cognitive behavioural therapy for fatigue, balance and/or multicomponent exercise interventions may be the cost-efficient therapies. These need testing in large RCTs with long-term follow-up to help define an implementable fatigue management pathway in MS.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between function, quality of life and structural outcomes in patients achieving remission vs low disease activity in early RA. METHODS: Demographic, clinical and radiographic variables were collected at baseline and then annually from the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Study (ERAS) and Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network (ERAN) inception cohorts in routine care from 1986 to 2012. Disease activity was categorized: mean DAS28 score between years 1 and 5: remission [mean remission DAS (mRDAS) <2.6] or low [mean low DAS (mLDAS) 2.6-3.2]; sustained low/remission DAS28 (sLDAS/sRDAS) at years 1 and 2; and sustained Boolean remission (sBR) at years 1 and 2. Changes in HAQ and Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire [SF-36; physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component score]) and total Sharp van der Heijde (SvdH) scores for each disease activity category were modelled using multi-level models. Covariates included year of onset, age, gender and DMARD use at first visit. RESULTS: Of 2701 patients, 562 (21%) were categorized mRDAS, 330 (12%) mLDAS, 279 (10%) sRDAS, 203 (7.5%) sLDAS and 93 (3%) sBR. Patients categorized as mRDAS had increasingly divergent improved HAQ, SF-36 PCS, MCS and total SvdH scores compared with mLDAS (P-values 0.001 to <0.0001, all time points). Patients categorized as sRDAS had better HAQ, SF-36 PCS and MCS scores (P-values 0.05 to <0.0001, all time points) and SvdH scores (P = 0.05, years 3-5) over sLDAS. sBR was associated with better HAQ, and SF-36 PCS and MCS scores over sLDAS (P-values 0.002 to <0.0001, all time points). CONCLUSION: These findings from routine care support ACR/EULAR guidelines that remission is a preferable goal over low disease activity in early RA.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Adherence to photoprotection is the only way to prevent skin cancers and eye disease in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). No validated self-report questionnaire exists for assessing adherence to photoprotection practices in individuals with XP. We sought to validate a self-reported measure of adherence to face photoprotection in this population. METHODS: Sixty six XP patients recruited from the patient list of the XP specialist service in London, UK, completed a questionnaire of adherence to specific photoprotection behaviours. We measured objective ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure to the face continuously for 21 days with a wristworn UVR electronic dosimeter combined with a daily photoprotection diary. Reliability and convergent validity of the questionnaire were tested in relation to overall UVR exposure, UVR dose to the face, daily photoprotection activities, other self-reported photoprotection practices and clinical ratings of patient's protection. RESULTS: Internal consistency of the questionnaire was satisfactory. Questionnaire total scores were concordant with objective UVR exposure and UVR dose to the face. However, not all participants who reported good/excellent face photoprotection on the questionnaire recorded high levels of photoprotection in the daily diary. Correlations between the questionnaire and other practices and the clinical rating ranged from small to large in size. There was no correlation between the level of face photoprotection and self-reported avoidance of going outside. CONCLUSIONS: Our questionnaire was reliable and had good convergent validity with other indicators of photoprotection. This questionnaire could assist clinicians to detect low levels of adherence, and the methodology used to develop validated questionnaires for other photosensitive conditions.

15.
Child Dev ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625602

RESUMO

This study tested whether associations between childhood maltreatment and adolescent sexual orientation were accounted for by childhood gender nonconforming behavior (GNCB) in a prospective birth cohort (N = 5,007). Childhood parental maltreatment (physical and emotional) and GNCB were assessed on multiple occasions up to age 6 years, and sexual orientation at 15.5 years. Boys with a history of maltreatment were significantly more likely to be nonheterosexual. Using propensity score weighting, maltreatment was associated with a 3.5% (p = .03) increase in the prevalence of nonheterosexuality accounting for confounders not including GNCB, and by 2.9% (p = .06) when also accounting for GNCB. These findings suggest that maltreatment is associated with an increased prevalence of nonheterosexuality in boys but may be explained by confounding factors including GNCB.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between occurrence of serious infection (SI) and lymphocyte counts in patients with RA using data from a single centre. METHODS: We used routinely captured data from a single tertiary rheumatology centre to explore the relationship between lymphopenia and SI risk. Adult RA patients were included over a 5-year follow-up period. Admissions due to confirmed SI were considered. SI rate with 95% confidence intervals was calculated. The association between SI with baseline lymphocyte counts, time-averaged lymphocyte counts throughout all follow-up, and a nadir lymphocyte count was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. The relationship between lymphopenia over time and SI was analysed using a mixed-effect model of lymphocyte counts prior to SI. RESULTS: This analysis included 1095 patients with 205 SIs during 2016 person-years of follow-up. The SI rate was 4.61/100 patient-years (95% CI: 3.76, 5.65). Compared with patients with nadir lymphocyte counts >1.5 × 109 cells/l, nadir lymphopenia <1 × 109 cells/l was significantly associated with higher SI risk (HR 3.28; 95% CI: 1.59, 6.76), increasing to HR 8.08 (95% CI: 3.74, 17.44) in patients with lymphopenia <0.5 × 109 cells/l. Lymphocyte counts were observed to be reduced in the 30-day period prior to SI. CONCLUSION: Lymphocyte counts below <1.0 × 109 cells/l were associated with higher SI risk in RA patients; the strongest association between lymphopenia and SI was observed when lymphocyte counts were below <0.5 × 109 cells/l. Lymphopenia may be used as a measure to stratify patients at risk of SI.

17.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e028577, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320353

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Poor adherence to photoprotection for people with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) can be life-threatening. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) is being conducted to test the efficacy of a personalised adherence intervention (XPAND) to reduce the level of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) reaching the face, by improving photoprotection activities in adults with XP. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A two-armed parallel groups RCT, where we randomised 24 patients with suboptimal adherence to either an intervention group who received XPAND in 2018 or a delayed intervention group who will receive XPAND in 2019. XPAND involves seven sessions, one-to-one with a facilitator, using behaviour change techniques and specially designed materials to target barriers to photoprotection. Following baseline assessment in April 2018 (t0) and intervention, the primary outcome will be measured across 21 consecutive days in June and July 2018 (t1). The primary outcome is the average daily UVR dose to the face (D-to-F), calculated by combining objective UVR exposure at the wrist (measured by a dosimeter) with face photoprotection activities recorded on a daily UVR protection diary. Secondary outcomes include average daily UVR D-to-F across 21 days in August (t2); psychosocial process variables measured by daily questions (t0, t1, t2) and self-report questionnaires (t0, t1, t2, December 2018 (t3)). Intervention cost-utility is assessed by service use and personal cost questionnaires (t0, t3). The delayed intervention control arm participants will complete three further assessments in April 2019 (t4) and June-July 2019 (t5), and December 2019 (t6) with dosimetry and UVR protection diary completed for 21 days at t4 and t5. A process evaluation will be conducted using mixed methods. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been received from West London & GTAC REC 17/LO/2110. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and at conferences. This study tests a novel intervention, which, if successful, will be integrated into routine care. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03445052; Pre-results.

18.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(11): 1991-1999, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329968

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Observational cohort studies in early RA are a key source of evidence, despite inconsistencies in methodological approaches. This narrative review assesses the spectrum of methodologies used in addressing centre-level effect and case-mix adjustment in early RA observational cohort studies. METHODS: An electronic search was undertaken to identify observational prospective cohorts of >100 patients recruited from two or more centres, within 2 years of an RA or early inflammatory arthritis diagnosis. References and author publication lists of all studies from eligible cohorts were assessed for additional cohorts. RESULTS: Thirty-four unique cohorts were identified from 204 studies. Seven percent of studies considered centre in their analyses, most commonly as a fixed effect in regression modelling. Reporting of case-mix variables in analyses varied widely. The number of variables considered in case-mix adjustment was higher following publication of the STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement in 2007. CONCLUSION: Centre effect is unreported or inadequately accounted for in the majority of RA observational cohorts, potentially leading to spurious inferences and obstructing comparisons between studies. Inadequate case-mix adjustment precludes meaningful comparisons between centres. Appropriate methodology to account for centre and case-mix adjustment should be considered at the outset of analyses.

19.
Health Psychol ; 38(10): 888-899, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown that up to 50% of breast cancer survivors prescribed tamoxifen do not take it as recommended, which is associated with increased risk of recurrence and mortality. Little research has attempted to identify modifiable psychosocial factors associated with tamoxifen nonadherence. This study aimed to examine how tamoxifen adherence rates change over a year and to identify modifiable predictors of nonadherence. METHOD: Three hundred and forty-five breast cancer survivors who were in their first year of tamoxifen prescription were sent questionnaires at 4 points over a 12-month period. Questionnaires assessed demographic and clinical factors, side effects, beliefs about the illness and medication, social support, distress and tamoxifen adherence. Adherence was assessed using the Medication Adherence Rating Scale. Latent Growth Modeling was used to identify predictors of tamoxifen nonadherence. RESULTS: Reported rates of nonadherence increased over time (37-48%). Several demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables were associated with nonadherence. Women who were nonadherent were more likely to be from a minority ethnic group, to have more negative medication beliefs and to have lower confidence in their ability to take tamoxifen. CONCLUSIONS: These demographic and clinical variables can be used to identify women at higher risk of nonadherence. The modifiable psychosocial variables can be used as the basis for psychological interventions to improve adherence in this population. Interventions should focus on both intentional and unintentional nonadherence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Antagonistas de Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Antagonistas de Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Br J Health Psychol ; 24(3): 668-686, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an extremely rare genetic disorder (approximately 100 known cases in the United Kingdom), where DNA damage caused by ultraviolet radiation in daylight cannot be repaired. Adherence to photoprotection is essential to prevent skin cancer. We investigated psychological correlates of photoprotection in the XP population of Western Europe and the United States. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of adults with XP and caregivers of patients <16 years and those with cognitive impairment in the United Kingdom, Germany, the United States, and France (n = 156). METHODS: Photoprotection activities to protect the face and body when outdoors; avoidance of going outside during daylight hours; intention; self-efficacy; and social support were assessed using measures developed for this study. Participants answered questions about their illness representations of XP (BIPQ); beliefs about photoprotection (BMQ); automaticity (i.e., without conscious effort) (SRBAI); clinical and demographic characteristics. Ordinal logistic regressions determined factors associated with photoprotection. RESULTS: One third did not achieve optimal face photoprotection. After controlling for demographic and clinical factors, modifiable correlates of higher photoprotection included greater perceived control of XP, stronger beliefs in necessity and effectiveness of photoprotection, and higher intention. Avoidance of going outside was associated with greater photoprotection concerns, more serious illness consequences, and higher XP-related distress. Greater automaticity and higher self-efficacy were associated with better protection across all outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half of all known cases across three European countries participated. Identified modifiable predictors of photoprotection may be targeted by interventions to reduce the incidence of skin cancers in the immediate future, when a treatment breakthrough is unlikely. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Adherence to photoprotection in other populations at elevated risk from skin cancer is poor; however, the level in XP is unknown. Research across chronic conditions shows that adherence to treatment and lifestyle recommendations are influenced by illness perceptions, self-efficacy, and treatment beliefs. Studies on photoprotection conducted with the general population have found that perceived risk, perceptions of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) protection, self-efficacy for the behaviour, and automaticity (behaviours that are enacted with little conscious awareness) are related to better photoprotection. What does this study add? This is the first international survey to examine adherence and its correlates in people with XP (an under-researched group at very high risk of fatal skin cancer). Adherence varies and at least one third have potential for improvement. Perceptions about XP, photoprotection beliefs, self-efficacy, intention, and automaticity were associated with photoprotection of the face and body when outdoors. Negative emotional representations of XP were associated with avoidance of going outside during daylight hours.


Assuntos
Proteção Radiológica , Autoeficácia , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Raios Ultravioleta , Xeroderma Pigmentoso , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Alemanha , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Doenças Raras , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Reino Unido , Xeroderma Pigmentoso/terapia
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