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1.
Phys Rev E ; 105(1-2): 015210, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193236

RESUMO

In this article, the stability of a complex plasma monolayer levitating in the sheath of the powered electrode of an asymmetric capacitively coupled radio-frequency argon discharge is studied. Compared to earlier studies, a better integration of the experimental results and theory is achieved by operating with actual experimental control parameters such as the gas pressure and the discharge power. It is shown that for a given microparticle monolayer at a fixed discharge power there exist two threshold pressures: (i) above a specific pressure p_{cryst}, the monolayer always crystallizes; (ii) below a specific pressure p_{MCI}, the crystalline monolayer undergoes the mode-coupling instability and the two-dimensional complex plasma crystal melts. In between p_{MCI} and p_{cryst}, the microparticle monolayer can be either in the fluid phase or the crystal phase: when increasing the pressure from below p_{MCI}, the monolayer remains in the fluid phase until it reaches p_{cryst} at which it recrystallizes; when decreasing the pressure from above p_{cryst}, the monolayer remains in the crystalline phase until it reaches p_{MCI} at which the mode-coupling instability is triggered and the crystal melts. A simple self-consistent sheath model is used to calculate the rf sheath profile, the microparticle charges, and the microparticle resonance frequency as a function of power and background argon pressure. Combined with calculation of the lattice modes the main trends of p_{MCI} as a function of power and background argon pressure are recovered. The threshold of the mode-coupling instability in the crystalline phase is dominated by the crossing of the longitudinal in-plane lattice mode and the out-of plane lattice mode induced by the change of the sheath profile. Ion wakes are shown to have a significant effect too.

2.
Phys Rev E ; 97(4-1): 043206, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758736

RESUMO

The full melting of a two-dimensional plasma crystal was induced in a principally stable monolayer by localized laser stimulation. Two distinct behaviors of the crystal after laser stimulation were observed depending on the amount of injected energy: (i) below a well-defined threshold, the laser melted area recrystallized; (ii) above the threshold, it expanded outwards in a similar fashion to mode-coupling instability-induced melting, rapidly destroying the crystalline order of the whole complex plasma monolayer. The reported experimental observations are due to the fluid mode-coupling instability, which can pump energy into the particle monolayer at a rate surpassing the heat transport and damping rates in the energetic localized melted spot, resulting in its further growth. This behavior exhibits remarkable similarities with impulsive spot heating in ordinary reactive matter.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(7): 075002, 2017 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28256868

RESUMO

The wake-mediated propulsion of an "extra" particle in a channel of two neighboring rows of a two-dimensional plasma crystal, observed experimentally by Du et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 021101(R) (2014)PRESCM1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.89.021101], is explained in simulations and theory. We use the simple model of a pointlike ion wake charge to reproduce this intriguing effect in simulations, allowing for a detailed investigation and a deeper understanding of the underlying dynamics. We show that the nonreciprocity of the particle interaction, owing to the wake charges, is responsible for a broken symmetry of the channel that enables a persistent self-propelled motion of the extra particle. We find good agreement of the terminal extra-particle velocity with our theoretical considerations and with experiments.

4.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 12(1): 157, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28249369

RESUMO

The influence of calcination temperature on copper spatial localization in Y-stabilized ZrO2 powders was studied by attenuated total reflection, diffuse reflectance, electron paramagnetic resonance, transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopies. It was found that calcination temperature rise in the range of 500-700 °C caused the increase of copper concentration in the volume of ZrO2 nanocrystals. This increase was due to Cu in-diffusion from surface complexes that contained copper ions linked with either water molecules or OH groups. This copper in-diffusion led also to an enhancement of absorption band peaked at ~270 nm that was ascribed to the formation of additional oxygen vacancies in nanocrystal volume. Further increasing of calcination temperature from 800 up to 1000 °C resulted in outward Cu diffusion accompanied by a decrease of the intensity of the 270-nm absorption band (i.e., oxygen vacancies' number), the transformation of ZrO2 tetragonal (cubic) phase to monoclinic one as well as the enhancement of absorption band of dispersed and crystalline CuO in the 600-900 nm range.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(25): 255001, 2017 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29303297

RESUMO

We report an experimental observation of the coupling of the transverse vertical and longitudinal in-plane dust-lattice wave modes in a two-dimensional complex plasma crystal in the absence of mode crossing. A new large-diameter rf plasma chamber was used to suspend the plasma crystal. The observations are confirmed with molecular dynamics simulations. The coupling manifests itself in traces of the transverse vertical mode appearing in the measured longitudinal spectra and vice versa. We calculate the expected ratio of the trace to the principal mode with a theoretical analysis of the modes in a crystal with finite temperature and find good agreement with the experiment and simulations.

6.
Phys Rev E ; 96(1-1): 011201, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29347228

RESUMO

Spontaneous formation of spinning pairs of particles, or torsions, is studied in a single-layer complex plasma crystal by reducing the discharge power at constant neutral gas pressure. At higher gas pressures, torsions spontaneously form below a certain power threshold. Further reduction of the discharge power leads to the formation of multiple torsions. However, at lower gas pressures the torsion formation is preceded by mode-coupling instability (MCI). The crystal dynamics are studied with the help of the fluctuation spectra of crystal particles' in-plane velocities. Surprisingly, the spectra of the crystal with torsions and MCI are rather similar and contain hot spots at similar locations on the (k,ω) plane, despite very different appearances of the respective particle trajectories. The torsion rotation speed is close (slightly below) to the maximum frequency of the in-plane compressional mode. When multiple torsions form, their rotation speeds are distributed in a narrow range slightly below the maximum frequency.

7.
Klin Khir ; (1): 70-3, 2017.
Artigo em Ucraniano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272926

RESUMO

The results of training in Odessa National Medical University 36 students on the virtual endoscopy simulator "Basic laparoscopic skills" were generalized. We determined self-learner ratio of the questionnaires, practical skills coefficient estimated check-lists, the resulting ratio of practical skills for each group. These coefficients were effective for the overall assessment and reliable calculations of long-term survival skills.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Laparoscopia/educação , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Anatômicos , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 87(9): 093505, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27782568

RESUMO

New complex-plasma facility, Plasmakristall-4 (PK-4), has been recently commissioned on board the International Space Station. In complex plasmas, the subsystem of µm-sized microparticles immersed in low-pressure weakly ionized gas-discharge plasmas becomes strongly coupled due to the high (103-104 e) electric charge on the microparticle surface. The microparticle subsystem of complex plasmas is available for the observation at the kinetic level, which makes complex plasmas appropriate for particle-resolved modeling of classical condensed matter phenomena. The main purpose of PK-4 is the investigation of flowing complex plasmas. To generate plasma, PK-4 makes use of a classical dc discharge in a glass tube, whose polarity can be switched with the frequency of the order of 100 Hz. This frequency is high enough not to be felt by the relatively heavy microparticles. The duty cycle of the polarity switching can be also varied allowing to vary the drift velocity of the microparticles and (when necessary) to trap them. The facility is equipped with two videocameras and illumination laser for the microparticle imaging, kaleidoscopic plasma glow observation system and minispectrometer for plasma diagnostics and various microparticle manipulation devices (e.g., powerful manipulation laser). Scientific experiments are programmed in the form of scripts written with the help of specially developed C scripting language libraries. PK-4 is mainly operated from the ground (control center CADMOS in Toulouse, France) with the support of the space station crew. Data recorded during the experiments are later on delivered to the ground on the removable hard disk drives and distributed to participating scientists for the detailed analysis.

9.
Phys Rev E ; 93(5): 053202, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27300990

RESUMO

A unique type of quasi-two-dimensional complex plasma system was observed which consisted of monodisperse microspheres and their binary agglomerations (dimers). The particles and their dimers levitated in a plasma sheath at slightly different heights and formed two distinct sublayers. The system did not crystallize and may be characterized as a disordered solid. The dimers were identified based on their characteristic appearance in defocused images, i.e., rotating interference fringe patterns. The in-plane and interplane particle separations exhibit nonmonotonic dependence on the discharge pressure.

10.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 87(3): 033505, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27036775

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging of a single-layer plasma crystal was performed using a commercial plenoptic camera. To enhance the out-of-plane oscillations of particles in the crystal, the mode-coupling instability (MCI) was triggered in it by lowering the discharge power below a threshold. 3D coordinates of all particles in the crystal were extracted from the recorded videos. All three fundamental wave modes of the plasma crystal were calculated from these data. In the out-of-plane spectrum, only the MCI-induced hot spots (corresponding to the unstable hybrid mode) were resolved. The results are in agreement with theory and show that plenoptic cameras can be used to measure the 3D dynamics of plasma crystals.

11.
Phys Rev E ; 93(3): 031201, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27078284

RESUMO

An interferometric imaging technique has been proposed to instantly measure the diameter of individual spherical dust particles suspended in a gas discharge plasma. The technique is based on the defocused image analysis of both spherical particles and their binary agglomerates. Above a critical diameter, the defocused images of spherical particles contain stationary interference fringe patterns and the fringe number increases with particle diameters. Below this critical diameter, the particle size has been measured using the rotational interference fringe patterns which appear only on the defocused images of binary agglomerates. In this case, a lower cutoff limit of particle diameter has been predicted, below which no such rotational fringe patterns are observed for the binary agglomerates. The method can be useful as a diagnostics for complex plasma experiments on earth as well as under microgravity conditions.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26172809

RESUMO

A theory of wave modes in shear-deformed two-dimensional plasma crystals is presented. Modification of the dispersion relations upon the pure and simple shear, and the resulting effect on the onset of the mode-coupling instability, are studied. In particular, it is explained why the velocity fluctuation spectra measured in experiments with sheared crystals exhibit asymmetric "hot spots": It is shown that the coupling of the in-plane compressional and the out-of-plane modes, leading to the formation of an unstable hybrid mode and generation of the hot spots, is enhanced in a certain direction determined by deformation.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25353582

RESUMO

The observation is presented of naturally occurring pairing of particles and their cooperative drift in a two-dimensional plasma crystal. A single layer of plastic microspheres was suspended in the plasma sheath of a capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge in argon at a low pressure of 1 Pa. The particle dynamics were studied by combining the top-view and side-view imaging of the suspension. Cross-analysis of the particle trajectories allowed us to identify naturally occurring metastable pairs of particles. The lifetime of pairs was long enough for their reliable identification.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25353583

RESUMO

Network analysis was used to study the structure and time evolution of driven three-dimensional complex plasma clusters. The clusters were created by suspending micron-size particles in a glass box placed on top of the rf electrode in a capacitively coupled discharge. The particles were highly charged and manipulated by an external electric field that had a constant magnitude and uniformly rotated in the horizontal plane. Depending on the frequency of the applied electric field, the clusters rotated in the direction of the electric field or remained stationary. The positions of all particles were measured using stereoscopic digital in-line holography. The network analysis revealed the interplay between two competing symmetries in the cluster. The rotating cluster was shown to be more cylindrical than the nonrotating cluster. The emergence of vertical strings of particles was also confirmed.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25353905

RESUMO

The kinematics of dust particles during the early stage of mode-coupling induced melting of a two-dimensional plasma crystal is explored. It is found that the formation of the hybrid mode causes the particle vibrations to partially synchronize at the hybrid frequency. Phase- and frequency-locked hybrid particle motion in both vertical and horizontal directions (hybrid mode) is observed. The system self-organizes in a rhythmic pattern of alternating in-phase and antiphase oscillating chains of particles. The spatial orientation of the synchronization pattern correlates well with the directions of the maximal increment of the shear-free hybrid mode.


Assuntos
Cristais Líquidos/química , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Oscilometria/métodos , Reologia/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Movimento (Física)
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23679537

RESUMO

A two-dimensional plasma crystal was melted by suddenly applying localized shear stress. A stripe of particles in the crystal was pushed by the radiation pressure force of a laser beam. We found that the response of the plasma crystal to stress and the eventual shear melting depended strongly on the crystal's angular orientation relative to the laser beam. Shear stress and strain rate were measured, from which the spatially resolved shear viscosity was calculated. The latter was shown to have minima in the regions with highest strain rate, thus demonstrating shear thinning. Shear-induced reordering was observed in the steady-state flow, where particles formed strings aligned in the flow direction.

17.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 86(4 Pt 2): 046401, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23214694

RESUMO

Melting of a two-dimensional plasma crystal occurring due to a mode-coupling instability is studied using particle tracking and particle image velocimetry techniques. By combining these techniques, it is possible to identify the location of a propagating melting front and find a characteristic scale length for the temperature gradient across the front. It is found that the measurements of heat transport are consistent with a simple two-dimensional model allowing us to estimate the thermal diffusivity. The measured values for the thermal diffusivity are consistent with previously measured values.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(13): 135005, 2012 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22540710

RESUMO

The microstructure of a strongly coupled liquid undergoing a shear flow was studied experimentally. The liquid was a shear melted two-dimensional plasma crystal, i.e., a single-layer suspension of micrometer-size particles in a rf discharge plasma. Trajectories of particles were measured using video microscopy. The resulting microstructure was anisotropic, with compressional and extensional axes at around ±45° to the flow direction. Corresponding ellipticity of the pair correlation function g(r) or static structure factor S(k) gives the (normalized) shear rate of the flow.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 106(15): 155002, 2011 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21568566

RESUMO

The speed-stress relation for gliding edge dislocations was experimentally measured for the first time. The experimental system used, a two-dimensional plasma crystal, allowed observation of individual dislocations at the "atomistic" level and in real time. At low applied stress dislocations moved subsonically, at higher stress their speed abruptly increased to 1.9 times the speed of shear waves, then slowly grew with stress. There is evidence that immediately after nucleation dislocations can move faster than pressure waves.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 104(19): 195001, 2010 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20866969

RESUMO

Dedicated experiments on melting of two-dimensional plasma crystals were carried out. The melting was always accompanied by spontaneous growth of the particle kinetic energy, suggesting a universal plasma-driven mechanism underlying the process. By measuring three principal dust-lattice wave modes simultaneously, it is unambiguously demonstrated that the melting occurs due to the resonance coupling between two of the dust-lattice modes. The variation of the wave modes with the experimental conditions, including the emergence of the resonant (hybrid) branch, reveals exceptionally good agreement with the theory of mode-coupling instability.

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