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1.
Am J Cardiol ; 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147090

RESUMO

Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) improves outcomes compared with medical treatment alone. Risk stratification for outcomes following AF ablation remains an important area of uncertainty. This analysis evaluated the association between frailty and outcomes following AF ablation. We evaluated US inpatients receiving AF ablation between January 1, 2016 and December 1, 2016 using Medicare fee-for-service billing codes. Diagnosis codes were used to calculate patients' Hospital Frailty Risk Score, with the cohort divided according to established cut-points of low (<5), intermediate (5 to 15), and high (>15) risk for frailty. The primary outcome was survival. Among 5,070 in patients treated with catheter ablation (mean age 74.9 ± 6.8 years, 51.1% female), 38.6% were defined as frail with a Hospital Frailty Risk Score >5, including 8.3% at high risk. Mortality rates (up to 630 days) were 5.8% in the low-risk group, 23.4% in the intermediate-risk group, and 42.2% in the high-risk group (log-rank p values <0.001 for comparison between categories). In restricted cubic spline regression analysis, the adjusted hazard ratios for long-term mortality monotonically increased with increasing values of the Hospital Frailty Risk Score (adjusted hazard ratio 1.065, 95% confidence interval 1.054 to 1.077). In secondary end points, frailty was independently associated with length of stay, postprocedure 30-day mortality, 30-day readmission and postdischarge 30-day mortality rates. In conclusion, frailty as assessed by a claims-based score is common in inpatient recipients of AF ablation, and provides risk stratification for mortality and other key clinical outcomes.

2.
Circulation ; : CIR0000000000000748, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148086

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, is associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and healthcare use. Great strides have been made in stroke prevention and rhythm control strategies, yet reducing the incidence of AF has been slowed by the increasing incidence and prevalence of AF risk factors, including obesity, physical inactivity, sleep apnea, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and other modifiable lifestyle-related factors. Fortunately, many of these AF drivers are potentially reversible, and emerging evidence supports that addressing these modifiable risks may be effective for primary and secondary AF prevention. A structured, protocol-driven multidisciplinary approach to integrate lifestyle and risk factor management as an integral part of AF management may help in the prevention and treatment of AF. However, this aspect of AF management is currently underrecognized, underused, and understudied. The purpose of this American Heart Association scientific statement is to review the association of modifiable risk factors with AF and the effects of risk factor intervention. Implementation strategies, care pathways, and educational links for achieving impactful weight reduction, increased physical activity, and risk factor modification are included. Implications for clinical practice, gaps in knowledge, and future directions for the research community are highlighted.

4.
Heart Rhythm ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the CASTLE-AF trial, catheter ablation reduced the risk of death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and HF by 40%. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to assess the generalizability of CASTLE-AF to routine clinical practice. METHODS: Using a large US administrative database, we identified 289,831 patients with AF and HF treated with ablation (N=7,465) or medical therapy alone (N=282,366) from 1/1/2008-8/31/2018. Patients were divided into three groups based on trial eligibility: (1) eligible for CASTLE-AF; (2) failing to meet the inclusion criterion; and (3) meeting ≥1 of the exclusion criteria. Propensity score overlap weighting was used to balance ablated and drug-treated patients on 90 baseline characteristics. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compare ablation to medical therapy for the primary outcome, a composite endpoint of all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization. RESULTS: Only 7.8% of patients would have been eligible for the trial, 91.0% failed to meet the trial inclusion criteria, and 15.5% met the exclusion criteria. Ablation was associated with a lower risk of the primary outcome in the overall cohort (hazard ratio [HR] 0.81 [0.76-0.87], p<0.001), in the trial-eligible cohort (HR 0.82 [0.70-0.96], p=0.01), and in patients who failed to meet inclusion criteria (HR 0.79 [0.73-0.86], p<0.001), but not in patients who met exclusion criteria (HR 0.97 [0.81-1.17]). The relative risk reduction was consistent regardless of whether patients had HFrEF. CONCLUSIONS: The benefit associated with ablation appears to be more modest in practice than that reported in the CASTLE-AF trial.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191539

RESUMO

Background - The optimal timing of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) in reference to the time of diagnosis is unknown. We sought to assess the impact of the duration between first diagnosis of AF and ablation, or diagnosis-to-ablation time (DAT), on AF recurrence following catheter ablation. Methods - We conducted a systematic electronic search for observational studies reporting the outcomes associated with catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation stratified by diagnosis-to-ablation time. The primary meta-analysis using a random effects model assessed AF recurrence stratified by DAT ≤ 1 year versus = 1 year. A secondary analysis assessed outcomes stratified by DAT ≤ 3 years versus = 3 years. Results - Of the 632 screened studies, 6 studies met inclusion criteria for a total of 4,950 participants undergoing AF ablation for symptomatic AF. A shorter DAT ≤ 1 year was associated with a lower relative risk (RR) of AF recurrence compared to DAT = 1 year (RR 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 0.82, p<0.001). Heterogeneity was moderate (I2=51%). When excluding the one study consisting of only persistent AF patients, the heterogeneity improved substantially (I2=0%, Cochran's Q p=0.55) with a similar estimate of effect (RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.85, p<0.001). Conclusions - Duration between time of first AF diagnosis and AF ablation is associated with an increased likelihood of ablation procedural success. Additional study is required to confirm these results and to explore implementation of earlier catheter AF ablation and patient outcomes within the current AF care pathway.

8.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(3): e007988, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep learning algorithms derived in homogeneous populations may be poorly generalizable and have the potential to reflect, perpetuate, and even exacerbate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. In this study, we aimed to (1) assess whether the performance of a deep learning algorithm designed to detect low left ventricular ejection fraction using the 12-lead ECG varies by race/ethnicity and to (2) determine whether its performance is determined by the derivation population or by racial variation in the ECG. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis that included 97 829 patients with paired ECGs and echocardiograms. We tested the model performance by race/ethnicity for convolutional neural network designed to identify patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% from the 12-lead ECG. RESULTS: The convolutional neural network that was previously derived in a homogeneous population (derivation cohort, n=44 959; 96.2% non-Hispanic white) demonstrated consistent performance to detect low left ventricular ejection fraction across a range of racial/ethnic subgroups in a separate testing cohort (n=52 870): non-Hispanic white (n=44 524; area under the curve [AUC], 0.931), Asian (n=557; AUC, 0.961), black/African American (n=651; AUC, 0.937), Hispanic/Latino (n=331; AUC, 0.937), and American Indian/Native Alaskan (n=223; AUC, 0.938). In secondary analyses, a separate neural network was able to discern racial subgroup category (black/African American [AUC, 0.84], and white, non-Hispanic [AUC, 0.76] in a 5-class classifier), and a network trained only in non-Hispanic whites from the original derivation cohort performed similarly well across a range of racial/ethnic subgroups in the testing cohort with an AUC of at least 0.930 in all racial/ethnic subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that while ECG characteristics vary by race, this did not impact the ability of a convolutional neural network to predict low left ventricular ejection fraction from the ECG. We recommend reporting of performance among diverse ethnic, racial, age, and sex groups for all new artificial intelligence tools to ensure responsible use of artificial intelligence in medicine.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(7): 722-733, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an uncommon but important cause of sudden cardiac death. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to develop an artificial intelligence approach for the detection of HCM based on 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG). METHODS: A convolutional neural network (CNN) was trained and validated using digital 12-lead ECG from 2,448 patients with a verified HCM diagnosis and 51,153 non-HCM age- and sex-matched control subjects. The ability of the CNN to detect HCM was then tested on a different dataset of 612 HCM and 12,788 control subjects. RESULTS: In the combined datasets, mean age was 54.8 ± 15.9 years for the HCM group and 57.5 ± 15.5 years for the control group. After training and validation, the area under the curve (AUC) of the CNN in the validation dataset was 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94 to 0.97) at the optimal probability threshold of 11% for having HCM. When applying this probability threshold to the testing dataset, the CNN's AUC was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.95 to 0.96) with sensitivity 87% and specificity 90%. In subgroup analyses, the AUC was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.94 to 0.97) among patients with left ventricular hypertrophy by ECG criteria and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.90 to 1.00) among patients with a normal ECG. The model performed particularly well in younger patients (sensitivity 95%, specificity 92%). In patients with HCM with and without sarcomeric mutations, the model-derived median probabilities for having HCM were 97% and 96%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ECG-based detection of HCM by an artificial intelligence algorithm can be achieved with high diagnostic performance, particularly in younger patients. This model requires further refinement and external validation, but it may hold promise for HCM screening.

12.
ASAIO J ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977352

RESUMO

Refractory ventricular tachycardia (VT) and electrical storm are frequently associated with hemodynamic compromise requiring mechanical support. This study sought to review the current literature on the use of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) for hemodynamic support during VT ablation. This was a systematic review of all published literature from 2000 to 2019 evaluating patients with VT undergoing ablation with VA-ECMO support. Studies that reported mortality, safety, and efficacy outcomes in adult (>18 years) patients were included. The primary outcome was short-term mortality (intensive care unit stay, hospital stay, or ≤30 days). The literature search identified 4,802 citations during the study period, of which seven studies comprising 867 patients met the inclusion criteria. Periprocedural VA-ECMO was used in 129 (15%) patients and all were placed peripherally. Average inducible VTs were 2-3 per procedure and ablation time varied between 34 mins and 4.7 hours. Median ages were between 61 and 68 years with 93% males. Median duration of VA-ECMO varied between 140 minutes and 6 days. Short-term mortality was 15% (19 patients), with the most frequent causes being refractory VT, cardiac arrest, and acute heart failure. All-cause mortality at the longest follow-up was 25%. Major bleeding, vascular/access complications, limb ischemia, stroke, and acute kidney injury were reported with varying frequency of 1-6%. In conclusion, VA-ECMO is used infrequently for hemodynamic support for VT ablation. Further data on patient selection, procedural optimization, and clinical outcomes are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this strategy.

13.
Am Heart J ; 219: 31-36, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A deep learning algorithm to detect low ejection fraction (EF) using routine 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) has recently been developed and validated. The algorithm was incorporated into the electronic health record (EHR) to automatically screen for low EF, encouraging clinicians to obtain a confirmatory transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) for previously undiagnosed patients, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively evaluate a novel artificial intelligence (AI) screening tool for detecting low EF in primary care practices. DESIGN: The EAGLE trial is a pragmatic two-arm cluster randomized trial (NCT04000087) that will randomize >100 clinical teams (i.e., clusters) to either intervention (access to the new AI screening tool) or control (usual care) at 48 primary care practices across Minnesota and Wisconsin. The trial is expected to involve approximately 400 clinicians and 20,000 patients. The primary endpoint is newly discovered EF ≤50%. Eligible patients will include adults who undergo ECG for any reason and have not been previously diagnosed with low EF. Data will be pulled from the EHR, and no contact will be made with patients. A positive deviance qualitative study and a post-implementation survey will be conducted among select clinicians to identify facilitators and barriers to using the new screening report. SUMMARY: This trial will examine the effectiveness of the AI-enabled ECG for detection of asymptomatic low EF in routine primary care practices and will be among the first to prospectively evaluate the value of AI in real-world practice. Its findings will inform future implementation strategies for the translation of other AI-enabled algorithms.

14.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 29(1): 1-4, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825681

RESUMO

Introduction: Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) can be very bothersome and may potentially lead to considerable health-care utilization. Non-parenteral medication is currently unavailable for the rapid termination of paroxysmal SVT. However, an intranasal spray formulation of etripamil, a short-acting calcium-channel blocker, is under investigation as a convenient, safe, and rapidly efficacious means to terminate paroxysmal SVT.Areas covered: This review summarizes the clinical rationale, potential benefit, and clinical trials safety and efficacy data for the use of etripamil nasal spray to terminate paroxysmal SVT.Expert opinion: Based on the efficacy and tolerability demonstrated in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials, etripamil nasal spray is a potential convenient, safe, and effective means for patients to terminate paroxysmal SVT. It has the potential to improve quality of life, reduce health-care burden, and alter the current management paradigm for many patients with SVT. Further ongoing evaluation in ambulatory patients will help to determine its real-life practicality, safety, and effectiveness.


Assuntos
Taquicardia Paroxística/tratamento farmacológico , Taquicardia Supraventricular/tratamento farmacológico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Humanos , Sprays Nasais , Qualidade de Vida , Taquicardia Paroxística/fisiopatologia , Taquicardia Supraventricular/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(2): 337-346.e19, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The safety of different antithrombotic strategies for patients with 1 or more indication for antithrombotic drugs has not been determined. We investigated the risk and time frame for gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in patients prescribed different antithrombotic regimens. We proposed that risk would increase over time and with combination regimens, especially among elderly patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of nationwide claims data from privately insured and Medicare Advantage enrollees who received anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet agents from October 1, 2010, through May 31, 2017. Patients were stratified by their prescriptions (anticoagulant alone, antiplatelet alone, or a combination) and by their primary diagnosis (atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, or venous thromboembolism). The 1-year GIB risk was estimated using parametric time-to-event survival models and expressed as annualized risk and number needed to harm (NNH). RESULTS: Our final analysis included 311,211 patients (mean ages, 67 years for monotherapy and 69.8 years for combination antithrombotic therapy). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with bleeding after anticoagulant or antiplatelet monotherapy (∼3.5%/year). Combination antithrombotic therapy increased GIB risk compared with anticoagulant (NNH, 29) or antiplatelet (NNH, 31) monotherapy, regardless of the patients' diagnosis or time point analyzed. Advancing age was associated with increasing 1-year probability of GIB. Patients prescribed combination therapy were at the greatest risk for GIB, especially after the age of 75 years (GIB occurred in 10%-17.5% of patients/y). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of nationwide insurance and Medicare claims data, we found GIB to occur in a higher proportion of patients prescribed combinations of anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents compared with monotherapy. Among all drug exposure categories and cardiovascular conditions, the risk of GIB increased with age, especially among patients older than 75 years.

16.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(1): 185-195, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The accurate separation of undifferentiated wide complex tachycardias (WCTs) into ventricular tachycardia (VT) or supraventricular wide complex tachycardia (SWCT) using conventional, manually-applied 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation methods is difficult. PURPOSE: We sought to devise a new WCT differentiation method that operates solely on automated measurements routinely provided by computerized ECG interpretation software. METHODS: In a two-part analysis, we developed and validated a logistic regression model (ie, VT Prediction Model) that utilizes routinely available computerized measurements derived from patients' paired WCT and baseline ECGs. RESULTS: The derivation cohort consisted of 601 paired WCT (273 VT, 328 SWCT) and baseline ECGs from 421 patients. The VT Prediction Model, composed of WCT QRS duration (ms) (P < .0001), QRS duration change (ms) (P < .0001), QRS axis change (°) (P < .0001) and T axis change (°) (P < .0001), yielded effective VT and SWCT differentiation (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.924; confidence interval [CI]: 0.903-0.944) for the derivation cohort. The validation cohort comprised 241 paired WCT (97 VT, 144 SWCT) and baseline ECGs from 177 patients. The VT Prediction Model's implementation on the validation cohort yielded effective WCT differentiation (AUC: 0.900; CI: 0.862-0.939) with overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 85.0%, 80.4%, and 88.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The VT Prediction Model is an example of how readily available ECG measurements may be used to distinguish VT and SWCT effectively. Further study is needed to develop and refine newer WCT differentiation approaches that utilize computerized measurements provided by ECG interpretation software.

17.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; : 1074248419887710, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707834

RESUMO

Sotalol, a Vaughan-Williams Class III antiarrhythmic medication, is used to manage atrial arrhythmias. Due to its QT-prolonging effect and subsequent increased risk of torsade de pointes, many centers admit patients during the initial dosing period. Despite its widespread use, little information is available regarding dosing protocols during this period. In this multicenter investigation, dosing protocols in patients initiating sotalol therapy were examined to identify predictors of successful sotalol initiation. Over a 4-year period, patients admitted to 5 hospitals in the United States for inpatient telemetry monitoring during initiation for nonresearch purposes were enrolled. A 3-day course of 5 of 6 doses of sotalol was considered successful completion of the loading protocol. Of the 213 enrolled patients, over 90% were successfully discharged on sotalol. Significant bradycardia, ineffectiveness, and excessive QT prolongation were reasons for failed completion. Absence of a dose adjustment was a strong predictor of successful initiation (odds ratio: 6.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-32.7, P = .02). Hypertension, use of a calcium channel blocker, use of a separate ß-blocker, and presence of a pacemaker were predictors of dose adjustments. Marginal structural models (ie, inverse probability weighting based on probability of a dose adjustment) verified that these factors also predicted successful initiation via preventing any dose adjustment and suggests that considering these factors may result in a higher likelihood of successful initiation in future investigations. In conclusion, we found that the majority of patients admitted for sotalol initiation are successfully discharged on the medication. The study findings suggest that factors predicting need for dose adjustment can be used to identify patients who could undergo outpatient initiation. Prospective studies are needed to verify this approach.

18.
Circulation ; 140(25): e944-e963, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694402

RESUMO

The widespread use of cardiac implantable electronic devices and wearable monitors has led to the detection of subclinical atrial fibrillation in a substantial proportion of patients. There is evidence that these asymptomatic arrhythmias are associated with increased risk of stroke. Thus, detection of subclinical atrial fibrillation may offer an opportunity to reduce stroke risk by initiating anticoagulation. However, it is unknown whether long-term anticoagulation is warranted and in what populations. This scientific statement explores the existing data on the prevalence, clinical significance, and management of subclinical atrial fibrillation and identifies current gaps in knowledge and areas of controversy and consensus.

19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(19): e012065, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566106

RESUMO

Background The American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association periodically revise clinical practice guidelines. We evaluated changes in the evidence underlying guidelines published over a 10-year period. Methods and Results Thirty-five American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines were divided into 2 time periods: 2008 to 2012 and 2013 to 2017. Guidelines were categorized into the following topic areas: arrhythmias, prevention, acute and stable ischemia, heart failure, valvular heart disease, and vascular medicine. Changes in recommendations were assessed for each topic area. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association designated class of recommendation as level I, II, or III (I represented "strongly recommended") and levels of evidence (LOE) as A, C, or C (A represented "highest quality"). The median number of recommendations per each topic area was 281 (198-536, interquartile range) in 2008 to 2012 versus 247 (190-451.3, interquartile range) in 2013 to 2017. The median proportion of class of recommendation I was 49.3% and 44.4% in the 2 time periods, 38.0% and 44.5% for class of recommendation II, and 12.5% and 11.2% for class of recommendation III. Median proportions for LOE A were 15.7% and 14.1%, 41.0% and 52.8% for LOE B, and 46.9% and 32.5% for LOE C. The decrease in the proportion of LOE C was highest in heart failure (24.8%), valvular heart disease (22.3%), and arrhythmia (19.2%). An increase in the proportion of LOE B was observed for these same areas: 31.8%, 23.8%, and 19.2%, respectively. Conclusions There has been a decrease in American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommendations, driven by removal of recommendations based on lower quality of evidence, although there was no corresponding increase in the highest quality of evidence.

20.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(12): 2920-2928, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST) remains a clinical challenge because patients often are highly symptomatic and not responsive to medical therapy. OBJECTIVE: To study the safety and efficacy of stellate ganglion (SG) block and cardiac sympathetic denervation (CSD) in patients with IST. METHODS: Twelve consecutive patients who had drug-refractory IST (10 women) were studied. According to a prospectively initiated protocol, five patients underwent an electrophysiologic study before and after SG block (electrophysiology study group). The subsequent seven patients had ambulatory Holter monitoring before and after SG block (ambulatory group). All patients underwent SG block on the right side first, and then on the left side. Selected patients who had heart rate reduction ≥15 beats per minute (bpm) were recommended to consider CSD. RESULTS: The mean (SD) baseline heart rate (HR) was 106 (21) bpm. The HR significantly decreased to 93 (20) bpm (P = .02) at 10 minutes after right SG block and remained significantly slower at 97(19) bpm at 60 minutes. Left SG block reduced HR from 99 (21) to 87(16) bpm (P = .02) at 60 minutes. SG block had no significant effect on blood pressure or HR response to isoproterenol or exercise (all P > .05). Five patients underwent right (n = 4) or bilateral (n = 1) CSD. The clinical outcomes were heterogeneous: one patient had complete and two had partial symptomatic relief, and two did not have improvement. CONCLUSION: SG blockade modestly reduces resting HR but has no significant effect on HR during exercise. Permanent CSD may have a modest role in alleviating symptoms in selected patients with IST.

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