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Mol Biol Evol ; 39(2)2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893856


Domestic sheep and their wild relatives harbor substantial genetic variants that can form the backbone of molecular breeding, but their genome landscapes remain understudied. Here, we present a comprehensive genome resource for wild ovine species, landraces and improved breeds of domestic sheep, comprising high-coverage (∼16.10×) whole genomes of 810 samples from 7 wild species and 158 diverse domestic populations. We detected, in total, ∼121.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, ∼61 million of which are novel. Some display significant (P < 0.001) differences in frequency between wild and domestic species, or are private to continent-wide or individual sheep populations. Retained or introgressed wild gene variants in domestic populations have contributed to local adaptation, such as the variation in the HBB associated with plateau adaptation. We identified novel and previously reported targets of selection on morphological and agronomic traits such as stature, horn, tail configuration, and wool fineness. We explored the genetic basis of wool fineness and unveiled a novel mutation (chr25: T7,068,586C) in the 3'-UTR of IRF2BP2 as plausible causal variant for fleece fiber diameter. We reconstructed prehistorical migrations from the Near Eastern domestication center to South-and-Southeast Asia and found two main waves of migrations across the Eurasian Steppe and the Iranian Plateau in the Early and Late Bronze Ages. Our findings refine our understanding of genome variation as shaped by continental migrations, introgression, adaptation, and selection of sheep.

Genoma , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1307, 2021 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795381


The domestication and subsequent development of sheep are crucial events in the history of human civilization and the agricultural revolution. However, the impact of interspecific introgression on the genomic regions under domestication and subsequent selection remains unclear. Here, we analyze the whole genomes of domestic sheep and their wild relative species. We found introgression from wild sheep such as the snow sheep and its American relatives (bighorn and thinhorn sheep) into urial, Asiatic and European mouflons. We observed independent events of adaptive introgression from wild sheep into the Asiatic and European mouflons, as well as shared introgressed regions from both snow sheep and argali into Asiatic mouflon before or during the domestication process. We revealed European mouflons might arise through hybridization events between a now extinct sheep in Europe and feral domesticated sheep around 6000-5000 years BP. We also unveiled later introgressions from wild sheep to their sympatric domestic sheep after domestication. Several of the introgression events contain loci with candidate domestication genes (e.g., PAPPA2, NR6A1, SH3GL3, RFX3 and CAMK4), associated with morphological, immune, reproduction or production traits (wool/meat/milk). We also detected introgression events that introduced genes related to nervous response (NEURL1), neurogenesis (PRUNE2), hearing ability (USH2A), and placental viability (PAG11 and PAG3) into domestic sheep and their ancestral wild species from other wild species.

Domesticação , Fluxo Gênico , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Carneiro da Montanha/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
Genomics ; 113(3): 1407-1415, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705888


Genome-wide pattern of runs of homozygosity (ROH) across ovine genome can provide a useful resource for studying diversity and demography history in sheep. We analyzed 50 k SNPs chip data of 2536 animals to identify pattern, distribution and level of ROHs in 68 global sheep populations. A total of 60,301 ROHs were detected in all breeds. The majority of the detected ROHs were <16 Mb and the average total number of ROHs per individual was 23.8 ± 13.8. The ROHs greater than 1 Mb covered on average 8.2% of the sheep autosomes, 1% of which was related to the ROHs with 1-4 Mb of length. The mean sum of ROH length in two-thirds of the populations was less than 250 Mb ranging from 21.7 to near 570 Mb. The level of genomic inbreeding was relatively low. The average of the inbreeding coefficients based on ROH (FROH) was 0.09 ± 0.05. It was rising in a stepwise manner with distance from Southwest Asia and maximum values were detected in North European breeds. A total of 465 ROH hotspots were detected in 25 different autosomes which partially surrounding 257 Refseq genes across the genome. Most of the detected genes were related to growth, body weight, meat production and quality, wool production and pigmentation. In conclusion, our analysis showed that the sheep genome, compared with other livestock species such as cattle and pig, displays low levels of homozygosity and appropriate genetic diversity for selection response and genetic merit gain.

Genoma , Endogamia , Animais , Bovinos , Genômica , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ovinos/genética , Suínos
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(3): 838-855, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941615


How animals, particularly livestock, adapt to various climates and environments over short evolutionary time is of fundamental biological interest. Further, understanding the genetic mechanisms of adaptation in indigenous livestock populations is important for designing appropriate breeding programs to cope with the impacts of changing climate. Here, we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of diversity, interspecies introgression, and climate-mediated selective signatures in a global sample of sheep and their wild relatives. By examining 600K and 50K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from 3,447 samples representing 111 domestic sheep populations and 403 samples from all their seven wild relatives (argali, Asiatic mouflon, European mouflon, urial, snow sheep, bighorn, and thinhorn sheep), coupled with 88 whole-genome sequences, we detected clear signals of common introgression from wild relatives into sympatric domestic populations, thereby increasing their genomic diversities. The introgressions provided beneficial genetic variants in native populations, which were significantly associated with local climatic adaptation. We observed common introgression signals of alleles in olfactory-related genes (e.g., ADCY3 and TRPV1) and the PADI gene family including in particular PADI2, which is associated with antibacterial innate immunity. Further analyses of whole-genome sequences showed that the introgressed alleles in a specific region of PADI2 (chr2: 248,302,667-248,306,614) correlate with resistance to pneumonia. We conclude that wild introgression enhanced climatic adaptation and resistance to pneumonia in sheep. This has enabled them to adapt to varying climatic and environmental conditions after domestication.

Adaptação Biológica/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Introgressão Genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Variação Genética , Filogeografia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Ovinos/imunologia
Curr Biol ; 30(20): 4085-4095.e6, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822607


The domestication and subsequent global dispersal of livestock are crucial events in human history, but the migratory episodes during the history of livestock remain poorly documented [1-3]. Here, we first developed a set of 493 novel ovine SNPs of the male-specific region of Y chromosome (MSY) by genome mapping. We then conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, and whole-genome sequence variations in a large number of 595 rams representing 118 domestic populations across the world. We detected four different paternal lineages of domestic sheep and resolved, at the global level, their paternal origins and differentiation. In Northern European breeds, several of which have retained primitive traits (e.g., a small body size and short or thin tails), and fat-tailed sheep, we found an overrepresentation of MSY lineages y-HC and y-HB, respectively. Using an approximate Bayesian computation approach, we reconstruct the demographic expansions associated with the segregation of primitive and fat-tailed phenotypes. These results together with archaeological evidence and historical data suggested the first expansion of early domestic hair sheep and the later expansion of fat-tailed sheep occurred ∼11,800-9,000 years BP and ∼5,300-1,700 years BP, respectively. These findings provide important insights into the history of migration and pastoralism of sheep across the Old World, which was associated with different breeding goals during the Neolithic agricultural revolution.

DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variação Genética/genética , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico/classificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54(2): 358-364, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359467


Ovulation rate and prolificacy are the most important reproductive traits that have major impact on the efficiency of lamb meat production. Here, we compared the whole genomes of the Romanov sheep, known as one of the high prolific breeds, and four other sheep breeds namely Assaf, Awassi, Cambridge and British du cher, to identify genetic mechanisms underlying prolificacy in sheep. Selection signature analysis revealed 637 and 477 protein-coding genes under positive selection from FST and nucleotide diversity (Pi) statistics, respectively. Further analysis showed that several candidate genes including LEPR, PDGFRL and KLF5 genes are involved in sheep prolificacy. The identified candidate genes in the selected regions are novel and provide new insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying prolificacy in sheep and can be useful in sheep breeding programmes to develop improved breeds for high reproductive efficiency.

Fertilidade/genética , Ovulação/genética , Seleção Genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Genoma , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Receptores do Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética