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1.
Malar J ; 19(1): 193, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have become the most common diagnostic tool for detection of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, in particular in remote areas. RDT blood spots provide a source of parasite DNA for molecular analysis. In this study, the utility of RDTs for molecular analysis and the performance of different methods for whole genome amplification were investigated. METHODS: Positive P. falciparum RDTs were collected from Kayin, Myanmar from August 2014 to January 2016. The RDT samples were stored for 6 months, 9 months, 20 months, 21 months, and 32 months before DNA extraction and subsequent molecular analysis of P. falciparum kelch 13 (pfkelch13) mutations, P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1), and P. falciparum plasmepsin 2 (pfplasmepsin2) gene amplification. In addition, performance of four whole genome amplification (WGA) kits were compared, including REPLI-g®, MALBACTM, PicoPLEX®, and GenomePlex®, for which DNA quantity and quality were compared between original DNA and post-WGA products. RESULTS: The proportion of successful amplification of the different molecular markers was similar between blood spots analysed from RDTs stored for 6, 9, 20, 21, or 32 months. Successful amplification was dependent on the molecular markers fragment length (p value < 0.05): 18% for a 1245 bp fragment of pfkelch13, 71% for 364 bp of pfkelch13, 81% for 87 bp of pfmdr1, 81% for 108 bp of pfplasmepsin2. Comparison of the four WGA assay kits showed that REPLI-g®, MALBACTM, and PicoPLEX® increased the quantity of DNA 60 to 750-fold, whereas the ratio of parasite DNA amplification over human DNA was most favourable for MALBAC®. Sequencing results of pfkelch13, P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt), P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and six microsatellite markers assessed from the post-WGA product was the same as from the original DNA. CONCLUSIONS: Blood spots from RDTs are a good source for molecular analysis of P. falciparum, even after storage up to 32 months. WGA of RDT-derived parasite DNA reliably increase DNA quantity with sufficient quality for molecular analysis of resistance markers.

2.
PLoS Med ; 17(5): e1003084, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale requires treatment with primaquine or tafenoquine to clear dormant liver stages. Either drug can induce haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, necessitating screening. The reference diagnostic method for G6PD activity is ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry; however, a universal G6PD activity threshold above which these drugs can be safely administered is not yet defined. Our study aimed to quantify assay-based variation in G6PD spectrophotometry and to explore the diagnostic implications of applying a universal threshold. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Individual-level data were pooled from studies that used G6PD spectrophotometry. Studies were identified via PubMed search (25 April 2018) and unpublished contributions from contacted authors (PROSPERO: CRD42019121414). Studies were excluded if they assessed only individuals with known haematological conditions, were family studies, or had insufficient details. Studies of malaria patients were included but analysed separately. Included studies were assessed for risk of bias using an adapted form of the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) tool. Repeatability and intra- and interlaboratory variability in G6PD activity measurements were compared between studies and pooled across the dataset. A universal threshold for G6PD deficiency was derived, and its diagnostic performance was compared to site-specific thresholds. Study participants (n = 15,811) were aged between 0 and 86 years, and 44.4% (7,083) were women. Median (range) activity of G6PD normal (G6PDn) control samples was 10.0 U/g Hb (6.3-14.0) for the Trinity assay and 8.3 U/g Hb (6.8-15.6) for the Randox assay. G6PD activity distributions varied significantly between studies. For the 13 studies that used the Trinity assay, the adjusted male median (AMM; a standardised metric of 100% G6PD activity) varied from 5.7 to 12.6 U/g Hb (p < 0.001). Assay precision varied between laboratories, as assessed by variance in control measurements (from 0.1 to 1.5 U/g Hb; p < 0.001) and study-wise mean coefficient of variation (CV) of replicate measures (from 1.6% to 14.9%; p < 0.001). A universal threshold of 100% G6PD activity was defined as 9.4 U/g Hb, yielding diagnostic thresholds of 6.6 U/g Hb (70% activity) and 2.8 U/g Hb (30% activity). These thresholds diagnosed individuals with less than 30% G6PD activity with study-wise sensitivity from 89% (95% CI: 81%-94%) to 100% (95% CI: 96%-100%) and specificity from 96% (95% CI: 89%-99%) to 100% (100%-100%). However, when considering intermediate deficiency (<70% G6PD activity), sensitivity fell to a minimum of 64% (95% CI: 52%-75%) and specificity to 35% (95% CI: 24%-46%). Our ability to identify underlying factors associated with study-level heterogeneity was limited by the lack of availability of covariate data and diverse study contexts and methodologies. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that there is substantial variation in G6PD measurements by spectrophotometry between sites. This is likely due to variability in laboratory methods, with possible contribution of unmeasured population factors. While an assay-specific, universal quantitative threshold offers robust diagnosis at the 30% level, inter-study variability impedes performance of universal thresholds at the 70% level. Caution is advised in comparing findings based on absolute G6PD activity measurements across studies. Novel handheld quantitative G6PD diagnostics may allow greater standardisation in the future.

3.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Passively collected malaria case data are the foundation for public health decision making. However, because of population-level immunity, infections might not always be sufficiently symptomatic to prompt individuals to seek care. Understanding the proportion of all Plasmodium spp infections expected to be detected by the health system becomes particularly paramount in elimination settings. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the proportion of infections detected and transmission intensity for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in several global endemic settings. METHODS: The proportion of infections detected in routine malaria data, P(Detect), was derived from paired household cross-sectional survey and routinely collected malaria data within health facilities. P(Detect) was estimated using a Bayesian model in 431 clusters spanning the Americas, Africa, and Asia. The association between P(Detect) and malaria prevalence was assessed using log-linear regression models. Changes in P(Detect) over time were evaluated using data from 13 timepoints over 2 years from The Gambia. FINDINGS: The median estimated P(Detect) across all clusters was 12·5% (IQR 5·3-25·0) for P falciparum and 10·1% (5·0-18·3) for P vivax and decreased as the estimated log-PCR community prevalence increased (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for P falciparum 0·63, 95% CI 0·57-0·69; adjusted OR for P vivax 0·52, 0·47-0·57). Factors associated with increasing P(Detect) included smaller catchment population size, high transmission season, improved care-seeking behaviour by infected individuals, and recent increases (within the previous year) in transmission intensity. INTERPRETATION: The proportion of all infections detected within health systems increases once transmission intensity is sufficiently low. The likely explanation for P falciparum is that reduced exposure to infection leads to lower levels of protective immunity in the population, increasing the likelihood that infected individuals will become symptomatic and seek care. These factors might also be true for P vivax but a better understanding of the transmission biology is needed to attribute likely reasons for the observed trend. In low transmission and pre-elimination settings, enhancing access to care and improvements in care-seeking behaviour of infected individuals will lead to an increased proportion of infections detected in the community and might contribute to accelerating the interruption of transmission. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.

4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 168, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal depression is a significant contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality globally. Migrant women, particularly those living in low- and middle-income settings, represent a particularly vulnerable group due to stressors experienced before, during and after migration. The vast majority of global migration flows occurring within and between low- and middle-income regions, yet existing evidence focuses predominantly on migrants in high-income destinations. This study aimed to redress this significant gap in the evidence by determining the prevalence and determinants of perinatal depression among migrant women on the Thai-Myanmar border. METHODS: A cohort of labour migrant and refugee women was followed-up from the first trimester of pregnancy to one month post-partum. Depression status was assessed in the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy and at one month post-partum using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnosis of DSM-IV Disorders. Women diagnosed with depression had immediate access to care. Data on potential demographic, social and clinical associated factors was collected using a questionnaire. Prevalence and incidence of any depressive disorder and moderate-severe depressive disorder was calculated. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression using complete case analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) of association between exposure variables and depression status. RESULTS: Five hundred sixty-eight women participated. Period prevalence (from first trimester of pregnancy to one month post-partum) of moderate-severe perinatal depression was 18.5% (95% CI 15.4-21.9%). Overall, 15.4% (95% CI 11.8-19.6%) of women developed new-onset moderate-severe depression during the study period. Forty-two participants received treatment for depression. Risk factors were interpersonal violence (OR 4.5; 95% CI 1.9-11.1); history of trauma (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.3); self-reported history of depression (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.2-4.2); labour migrant status (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-4.0); low social support (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-3.7); and maternal age (OR 1.1 per year; 95% CI 1.0-1.1). Limitations of the study include that culturally specific manifestations of depression may have been missed. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal depression represents a significant burden among migrant women on the Thai-Myanmar border. Programmes to address the determinants along with early case identification and effective treatment and referral systems are key to addressing perinatal depression in this low-resource setting.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231251, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287300

RESUMO

Outdoor residual spraying is proposed for the control of exophilic mosquitoes. However, the residual effect of insecticide mists applied to outdoor resting habitats of mosquitoes is not well characterized. The objective of this study was to assess the longevity of the residual insecticidal effect of three pyrethroid formulations applied to outdoor vegetation against the Southeast Asian malaria vector Anopheles dirus. Lambda-cyhalothrin capsule suspension, deltamethrin emulsifiable concentrate and bifenthrin wettable powder were sprayed on dense bamboo bushes on the Thailand-Myanmar border during the dry season 2018. The duration and magnitude of the residual insecticidal effect were assessed weekly with a standard cone assay, using freshly collected insecticide-treated bamboo leaves and a laboratory-adapted colony of Anopheles dirus sensu stricto susceptible to pyrethroids. The experiment was repeated during the rainy season to assess the persistence of the lambda-cyhalothrin formulation after natural rains and artificial washings. During the dry season (cumulative rainfall = 28 mm in 111 days), mortality and knockdown (KD) rates were >80% for 60 days with bifenthrin and 90 days with lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin. The 50% knockdown time (TKD50) was <15 min with lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin, and <30 min with bifenthrin. During the rainy season (cumulative rainfall = 465 mm in 51 days), mortality and KD rates were >80% for 42 days and TKD50 was <15 min with lambda-cyhalothrin. Additional artificial washing of the testing material with 10L of tap water before performing the cone tests had no significant effect on the residual insecticidal effect of this formulation. Long-lasting residual insecticidal effect can be obtained when spraying pyrethroid insecticides on the outdoor resting habitats of malaria vectors.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008072, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150544

RESUMO

More than 200 million malaria clinical cases are reported each year due to Plasmodium vivax, the most widespread Plasmodium species in the world. This species has been neglected and understudied for a long time, due to its lower mortality in comparison with Plasmodium falciparum. A renewed interest has emerged in the past decade with the discovery of antimalarial drug resistance and of severe and even fatal human cases. Nonetheless, today there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the population genetics and evolutionary history of P. vivax, particularly because of a lack of genetic data from Africa. To address these gaps, we genotyped 14 microsatellite loci in 834 samples obtained from 28 locations in 20 countries from around the world. We discuss the worldwide population genetic structure and diversity and the evolutionary origin of P. vivax in the world and its introduction into the Americas. This study demonstrates the importance of conducting genome-wide analyses of P. vivax in order to unravel its complex evolutionary history.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genótipo , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Plasmodium vivax/classificação , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Saúde Global , Humanos , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação
7.
PLoS Med ; 17(3): e1003040, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrocardiographic QT interval prolongation is the most widely used risk marker for ventricular arrhythmia potential and thus an important component of drug cardiotoxicity assessments. Several antimalarial medicines are associated with QT interval prolongation. However, interpretation of electrocardiographic changes is confounded by the coincidence of peak antimalarial drug concentrations with recovery from malaria. We therefore reviewed all available data to characterise the effects of malaria disease and demographic factors on the QT interval in order to improve assessment of electrocardiographic changes in the treatment and prevention of malaria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data. We searched clinical bibliographic databases (last on August 21, 2017) for studies of the quinoline and structurally related antimalarials for malaria-related indications in human participants in which electrocardiograms were systematically recorded. Unpublished studies were identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) Evidence Review Group (ERG) on the Cardiotoxicity of Antimalarials. Risk of bias was assessed using the Pharmacoepidemiological Research on Outcomes of Therapeutics by a European Consortium (PROTECT) checklist for adverse drug events. Bayesian hierarchical multivariable regression with generalised additive models was used to investigate the effects of malaria and demographic factors on the pretreatment QT interval. The meta-analysis included 10,452 individuals (9,778 malaria patients, including 343 with severe disease, and 674 healthy participants) from 43 studies. 7,170 (68.6%) had fever (body temperature ≥ 37.5°C), and none developed ventricular arrhythmia after antimalarial treatment. Compared to healthy participants, patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria had shorter QT intervals (-61.77 milliseconds; 95% credible interval [CI]: -80.71 to -42.83) and increased sensitivity of the QT interval to heart rate changes. These effects were greater in severe malaria (-110.89 milliseconds; 95% CI: -140.38 to -81.25). Body temperature was associated independently with clinically significant QT shortening of 2.80 milliseconds (95% CI: -3.17 to -2.42) per 1°C increase. Study limitations include that it was not possible to assess the effect of other factors that may affect the QT interval but are not consistently collected in malaria clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: Adjustment for malaria and fever-recovery-related QT lengthening is necessary to avoid misattributing malaria-disease-related QT changes to antimalarial drug effects. This would improve risk assessments of antimalarial-related cardiotoxicity in clinical research and practice. Similar adjustments may be indicated for other febrile illnesses for which QT-interval-prolonging medications are important therapeutic options.

8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189616

RESUMO

Malaria antigen detection through rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) is widely used to diagnose malaria and estimate prevalence. To support more sensitive next-generation RDT development and screen asymptomatic malaria, we developed and evaluated the Q-Plex™ Human Malaria Array, which quantifies the antigens commonly used in RDTs-Plasmodium falciparum-specific histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), P. falciparum-specific lactate dehydrogenase (Pf LDH), P. vivax -specific LDH (Pv LDH), and Pan malaria lactate dehydrogenase (Pan LDH), and human C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of severity in malaria. At threshold levels yielding 99.5% or more diagnostic specificity, diagnostic sensitivities against polymerase chain reaction-confirmed malaria for HRP2, Pf LDH, Pv LDH, and Pan LDH were 92.7%, 71.5%, 46.1%, and 83.8%, respectively. P. falciparum culture strains and samples from Peru indicated that HRP2 and Pf LDH combined improves detection of P. falciparum parasites with hrp2 and hrp3 deletions. This array can be used for antigen-based malaria screening and detecting hrp2/3 deletion mutants of P. falciparum.

10.
PLoS Genet ; 16(2): e1008576, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053607

RESUMO

Although Plasmodium vivax parasites are the predominant cause of malaria outside of sub-Saharan Africa, they not always prioritised by elimination programmes. P. vivax is resilient and poses challenges through its ability to re-emerge from dormancy in the human liver. With observed growing drug-resistance and the increasing reports of life-threatening infections, new tools to inform elimination efforts are needed. In order to halt transmission, we need to better understand the dynamics of transmission, the movement of parasites, and the reservoirs of infection in order to design targeted interventions. The use of molecular genetics and epidemiology for tracking and studying malaria parasite populations has been applied successfully in P. falciparum species and here we sought to develop a molecular genetic tool for P. vivax. By assembling the largest set of P. vivax whole genome sequences (n = 433) spanning 17 countries, and applying a machine learning approach, we created a 71 SNP barcode with high predictive ability to identify geographic origin (91.4%). Further, due to the inclusion of markers for within population variability, the barcode may also distinguish local transmission networks. By using P. vivax data from a low-transmission setting in Malaysia, we demonstrate the potential ability to infer outbreak events. By characterising the barcoding SNP genotypes in P. vivax DNA sourced from UK travellers (n = 132) to ten malaria endemic countries predominantly not used in the barcode construction, we correctly predicted the geographic region of infection origin. Overall, the 71 SNP barcode outperforms previously published genotyping methods and when rolled-out within new portable platforms, is likely to be an invaluable tool for informing targeted interventions towards elimination of this resilient human malaria.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Genoma de Protozoário/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Malária Vivax/transmissão , Plasmodium vivax/genética , África Oriental , Ásia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genótipo , Geografia , Humanos , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Metadados , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , América do Sul , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Reino Unido , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
11.
Elife ; 92020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066522

RESUMO

In malaria, rosetting is described as a phenomenon where an infected erythrocyte (IRBC) is attached to uninfected erythrocytes (URBC). In some studies, rosetting has been associated with malaria pathogenesis. Here, we have identified a new type of rosetting. Using a step-by-step approach, we identified IGFBP7, a protein secreted by monocytes in response to parasite stimulation, as a rosette-stimulator for Plasmodium falciparum- and P. vivax-IRBC. IGFBP7-mediated rosette-stimulation was rapid yet reversible. Unlike type I rosetting that involves direct interaction of rosetting ligands on IRBC and receptors on URBC, the IGFBP7-mediated, type II rosetting requires two additional serum factors, namely von Willebrand factor and thrombospondin-1. These two factors interact with IGFBP7 to mediate rosette formation by the IRBC. Importantly, the IGFBP7-induced type II rosetting hampers phagocytosis of IRBC by host phagocytes.

13.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228190, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mass administrations of antimalarial drugs (MDA) have reduced the incidence and prevalence of P. falciparum infections in a trial in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Here we assess the impact of the MDA on P. vivax infections. METHODS: Between May 2013 and July 2017, four villages in each Myanmar, Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR were selected based on high prevalence of P. falciparum infections. Eight of the 16 villages were randomly assigned to receive MDA consisting of three-monthly rounds of three-day courses of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and, except in Cambodia, a single low-dose of primaquine. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at quarterly intervals to detect Plasmodium infections using ultrasensitive qPCR. The difference in the cumulative incidence between the groups was assessed through a discrete time survival approach, the difference in prevalence through a difference-in-difference analysis, and the difference in the number of participants with a recurrence of P. vivax infection through a mixed-effect logistic regression. RESULTS: 3,790 (86%) residents in the intervention villages participated in at least one MDA round, of whom 2,520 (57%) participated in three rounds. The prevalence of P. vivax infections fell from 9.31% to 0.89% at month 3 but rebounded by six months to 5.81%. There was no evidence that the intervention reduced the cumulative incidence of P.vivax infections (95% confidence interval [CI] Odds ratio (OR): 0.29 to 1.36). Similarly, there was no evidence of MDA related reduction in the number of participants with at least one recurrent infection (OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.08 to 1.42). CONCLUSION: MDA with schizontocidal drugs had a lasting effect on P. falciparum infections but only a transient effect on the prevalence of P. vivax infections. Radical cure with an 8-aminoquinoline will be needed for the rapid elimination of vivax malaria.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Primaquina/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Malar J ; 19(1): 54, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tracking and understanding artemisinin resistance is key for preventing global setbacks in malaria eradication efforts. The ring-stage survival assay (RSA) is the current gold standard for in vitro artemisinin resistance phenotyping. However, the RSA has several drawbacks: it is relatively low throughput, has high variance due to microscopy readout, and correlates poorly with the current benchmark for in vivo resistance, patient clearance half-life post-artemisinin treatment. Here a modified RSA is presented, the extended Recovery Ring-stage Survival Assay (eRRSA), using 15 cloned patient isolates from Southeast Asia with a range of patient clearance half-lives, including parasite isolates with and without kelch13 mutations. METHODS: Plasmodium falciparum cultures were synchronized with single layer Percoll during the schizont stage of the intraerythrocytic development cycle. Cultures were left to reinvade to early ring-stage and parasitaemia was quantified using flow cytometry. Cultures were diluted to 2% haematocrit and 0.5% parasitaemia in a 96-well plate to start the assay, allowing for increased throughput and decreased variability between biological replicates. Parasites were treated with 700 nM of dihydroartemisinin or 0.02% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 6 h, washed three times in drug-free media, and incubated for 66 or 114 h, when samples were collected and frozen for PCR amplification. A SYBR Green-based quantitative PCR method was used to quantify the fold-change between treated and untreated samples. RESULTS: 15 cloned patient isolates from Southeast Asia with a range of patient clearance half-lives were assayed using the eRRSA. Due to the large number of pyknotic and dying parasites at 66 h post-exposure (72 h sample), parasites were grown for an additional cell cycle (114 h post-exposure, 120 h sample), which drastically improved correlation with patient clearance half-life compared to the 66 h post-exposure sample. A Spearman correlation of - 0.8393 between fold change and patient clearance half-life was identified in these 15 isolates from Southeast Asia, which is the strongest correlation reported to date. CONCLUSIONS: eRRSA drastically increases the efficiency and accuracy of in vitro artemisinin resistance phenotyping compared to the traditional RSA, which paves the way for extensive in vitro phenotyping of hundreds of artemisinin resistant parasites.

15.
Lab Chip ; 20(6): 1124-1139, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055808

RESUMO

Advanced cell culture methods for modeling organ-level structure have been demonstrated to replicate in vivo conditions more accurately than traditional in vitro cell culture. Given that the liver is particularly important to human health, several advanced culture methods have been developed to experiment with liver disease states, including infection with Plasmodium parasites, the causative agent of malaria. These models have demonstrated that intrahepatic parasites require functionally stable hepatocytes to thrive and robust characterization of the parasite populations' response to investigational therapies is dependent on high-content and high-resolution imaging (HC/RI). We previously reported abiotic confinement extends the functional longevity of primary hepatocytes in a microfluidic platform and set out to instill confinement in a microtiter plate platform while maintaining optical accessibility for HC/RI; with an end-goal of producing an improved P. vivax liver stage culture model. We developed a novel fabrication process in which a PDMS soft mold embosses hepatocyte-confining microfeatures into polystyrene, resulting in microfeature-based hepatocyte confinement (µHEP) slides and plates. Our process was optimized to form both microfeatures and culture wells in a single embossing step, resulting in a 100 µm-thick bottom ideal for HC/RI, and was found inexpensively amendable to microfeature design changes. Microfeatures improved intrahepatic parasite infection rates and µHEP systems were used to reconfirm the activity of reference antimalarials in phenotypic dose-response assays. RNAseq of hepatocytes in µHEP systems demonstrated microfeatures sustain hepatic differentiation and function, suggesting broader utility for preclinical hepatic assays; while our tailorable embossing process could be repurposed for developing additional organ models.

16.
Malar J ; 19(1): 40, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) call for increased gender equity and reduction in malaria-related mortality and morbidity. Plasmodium vivax infections in pregnancy are associated with maternal anaemia and increased adverse perinatal outcomes. Providing radical cure for women with 8-aminoquinolines (e.g., primaquine) is hindered by gender-specific complexities. CASE PRESENTATION: A symptomatic episode of vivax malaria at 18 weeks of gestation in a primigravid woman was associated with maternal anaemia, a recurrent asymptomatic P. vivax episode, severe intra-uterine growth restriction with no other identifiable cause and induction to reduce the risk of stillbirth. At 5 months postpartum a qualitative glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) point-of-care test was normal and radical cure with primaquine was prescribed to the mother. A 33% fractional decrease in haematocrit on day 7 of primaquine led to further testing which showed intermediate phenotypic G6PD activity; the G6PD genotype could not be identified. Her infant daughter was well throughout maternal treatment and found to be heterozygous for Mahidol variant. CONCLUSION: Adverse effects of vivax malaria in pregnancy, ineligibility of radical cure for pregnant and postpartum women, and difficulties in diagnosing intermediate levels of G6PD activity multiplied morbidity in this woman. Steps towards meeting the SDG include prevention of malaria in pregnancy, reducing unnecessary exclusion of women from radical cure, and accessible quantitative G6PD screening in P. vivax-endemic settings.

17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reference values for umbilical artery Doppler indices are used clinically to assess fetal well-being. However, many studies that have produced reference charts have important methodologic limitations, and these result in significant heterogeneity of reported reference ranges. OBJECTIVES: To produce international gestational age-specific centiles for umbilical artery Doppler indices based on longitudinal data and the same rigorous methodology used in the original Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. STUDY DESIGN: In Phase II of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project (the INTERBIO-21st Study), we prospectively continued enrolling pregnant women according to the same protocol from 3 of the original populations in Pelotas (Brazil), Nairobi (Kenya), and Oxford (United Kingdom) that had participated in the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study. Women with a singleton pregnancy were recruited at <14 weeks' gestation, confirmed by ultrasound measurement of crown-rump length, and then underwent standardized ultrasound every 5±1 weeks until delivery. From 22 weeks of gestation umbilical artery indices (pulsatility index, resistance index, and systolic/diastolic ratio) were measured in a blinded fashion, using identical equipment and a rigorously standardized protocol. Newborn size at birth was assessed using the international INTERGROWTH-21st Standards, and infants had detailed assessment of growth, nutrition, morbidity, and motor development at 1 and 2 years of age. The appropriateness of pooling data from the 3 study sites was assessed using variance component analysis and standardized site differences. Umbilical artery indices were modeled as functions of the gestational age using an exponential, normal distribution with second-degree fractional polynomial smoothing; goodness of fit for the overall models was assessed. RESULTS: Of the women enrolled at the 3 sites, 1629 were eligible for this study; 431 (27%) met the entry criteria for the construction of normative centiles, similar to the proportion seen in the original fetal growth longitudinal study. They contributed a total of 1243 Doppler measures to the analysis; 74% had 3 measures or more. The healthy low-risk status of the population was confirmed by the low rates of preterm birth (4.9%) and preeclampsia (0.7%). There were no neonatal deaths and satisfactory growth, health, and motor development of the infants at 1 and 2 years of age were documented. Only a very small proportion (2.8%-6.5%) of the variance of Doppler indices was due to between-site differences; in addition, standardized site difference estimates were marginally outside this threshold in only 1 of 27 comparisons, and this supported the decision to pool data from the 3 study sites. All 3 Doppler indices decreased with advancing gestational age. The 3rd, 5th 10th, 50th, 90th, 95th, and 97th centiles according to gestational age for each of the 3 indices are provided, as well as equations to allow calculation of any value as a centile and z scores. The mean pulsatility index according to gestational age = 1.02944 + 77.7456*(gestational age)-2 - 0.000004455*gestational age3. CONCLUSION: We present here international gestational age-specific normative centiles for umbilical artery Doppler indices produced by studying healthy, low-risk pregnant women living in environments with minimal constraints on fetal growth. The centiles complement the existing INTERGROWTH-21st Standards for assessment of fetal well-being.

18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(1): 147-150, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746312

RESUMO

All Plasmodium cases have declined over the last decade in northwestern Thailand along the Myanmar border. During this time, Plasmodium vivax has replaced Plasmodium falciparum as the dominant species. The decline in P. falciparum has been shadowed by a coincidental but delayed decline in P. vivax cases. This may be due to early detection and artemisinin-based therapy, species-specific diagnostics, and bed net usage all of which reduce malaria transmission but not P. vivax relapse. In the absence of widespread primaquine use for radical cure against P. vivax hypnozoites, the decline in P. vivax may be explained by decreased hypnozoite activation of P. vivax relapses triggered by P. falciparum. The observed trends in this region suggest a beneficial effect of decreased P. falciparum transmission on P. vivax incidence, but elimination of P. vivax in a timely manner likely requires radical cure.

19.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(3)2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818818

RESUMO

Artemether-lumefantrine antimalarial efficacy in pregnancy could be compromised by reduced drug exposure. Population-based simulations suggested that therapeutic efficacy would be improved if the treatment duration was increased. We assessed the efficacy, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of an extended 5-day regimen of artemether-lumefantrine compared to the standard 3-day treatment in 48 pregnant women and 48 nonpregnant women with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an open-label, randomized clinical trial. Babies were assessed at birth and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to characterize the plasma concentration-time profiles of artemether and lumefantrine and their metabolites. Both regimens were highly efficacious (100% PCR-corrected cure rates) and well tolerated. Babies followed up to 1 year had normal development. Parasite clearance half-lives were longer in pregnant women (median [range], 3.30 h [1.39 to 7.83 h]) than in nonpregnant women (2.43 h [1.05 to 6.00 h]) (P=0.005). Pregnant women had lower exposures to artemether and dihydroartemisinin than nonpregnant women, resulting in 1.2% decreased exposure for each additional week of gestational age. By term, these exposures were reduced by 48% compared to nonpregnant patients. The overall exposure to lumefantrine was improved with the extended regimen, with no significant differences in exposures to lumefantrine or desbutyl-lumefantrine between pregnant and nonpregnant women. The extended artemether-lumefantrine regimen was well tolerated and safe and increased the overall antimalarial drug exposure and so could be a promising treatment option in pregnancy in areas with lower rates of malaria transmission and/or emerging drug resistance. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01916954.).

20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5595, 2019 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811128

RESUMO

Relapses arising from dormant liver-stage Plasmodium vivax parasites (hypnozoites) are a major cause of vivax malaria. However, in endemic areas, a recurrent blood-stage infection following treatment can be hypnozoite-derived (relapse), a blood-stage treatment failure (recrudescence), or a newly acquired infection (reinfection). Each of these requires a different prevention strategy, but it was not previously possible to distinguish between them reliably. We show that individual vivax malaria recurrences can be characterised probabilistically by combined modelling of time-to-event and genetic data within a framework incorporating identity-by-descent. Analysis of pooled patient data on 1441 recurrent P. vivax infections in 1299 patients on the Thailand-Myanmar border observed over 1000 patient follow-up years shows that, without primaquine radical curative treatment, 3 in 4 patients relapse. In contrast, after supervised high-dose primaquine only 1 in 40 relapse. In this region of frequent relapsing P. vivax, failure rates after supervised high-dose primaquine are significantly lower (∼3%) than estimated previously.

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