Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 330
Filtrar
1.
J Exp Med ; 218(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107914

RESUMO

NF-κB2/p100 (p100) is an inhibitor of κB (IκB) protein that is partially degraded to produce the NF-κB2/p52 (p52) transcription factor. Heterozygous NFKB2 mutations cause a human syndrome of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity, but whether autoimmunity arises from insufficiency of p52 or IκB function of mutated p100 is unclear. Here, we studied mice bearing mutations in the p100 degron, a domain that harbors most of the clinically recognized mutations and is required for signal-dependent p100 degradation. Distinct mutations caused graded increases in p100-degradation resistance. Severe p100-degradation resistance, due to inheritance of one highly degradation-resistant allele or two subclinical alleles, caused thymic medullary hypoplasia and autoimmune disease, whereas the absence of p100 and p52 did not. We inferred a similar mechanism occurs in humans, as the T cell receptor repertoires of affected humans and mice contained a hydrophobic signature of increased self-reactivity. Autoimmunity in autosomal dominant NFKB2 syndrome arises largely from defects in nonhematopoietic cells caused by the IκB function of degradation-resistant p100.

4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 574738, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193364

RESUMO

Vasculitis can be a life-threatening complication associated with high mortality and morbidity among patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), including variants of severe and combined immunodeficiencies ((S)CID). Our understanding of vasculitis in partial defects in recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency, a prototype of (S)CIDs, is limited with no published systematic evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. In this report, we sought to establish the clinical, laboratory features, and treatment outcome of patients with vasculitis due to partial RAG deficiency. Vasculitis was a major complication in eight (13%) of 62 patients in our cohort with partial RAG deficiency with features of infections and immune dysregulation. Vasculitis occurred early in life, often as first sign of disease (50%) and was complicated by significant end organ damage. Viral infections often preceded the onset of predominately non-granulomatous-small vessel vasculitis. Autoantibodies against cytokines (IFN-α, -ω, and IL-12) were detected in a large fraction of the cases tested (80%), whereas the majority of patients were anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) negative (>80%). Genetic diagnosis of RAG deficiency was delayed up to 2 years from the onset of vasculitis. Clinical cases with sole skin manifestation responded well to first-line steroid treatment, whereas systemic vasculitis with severe end-organ complications required second-line immunosuppression and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for definitive management. In conclusion, our data suggest that vasculitis in partial RAG deficiency is prevalent among patients with partial RAG deficiency and is associated with high morbidity. Therefore, partial RAG deficiency should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with early-onset systemic vasculitis. Diagnostic serology may be misleading with ANCA negative findings, and search for conventional autoantibodies should be extended to include those targeting cytokines.

6.
JCI Insight ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232303

RESUMO

Immune and inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 contribute to disease severity of COVID-19. However, the utility of specific immune-based biomarkers to predict clinical outcome remains elusive. Here, we analyzed levels of 66 soluble biomarkers in 175 Italian patients with COVID-19 ranging from mild/moderate to critical severity, and assessed type-I IFN-, type-II IFN-, and NF-κB-dependent whole blood transcriptional signatures. A broad inflammatory signature was observed, implicating activation of various immune and non-hematopoietic cell subsets. Discordance between IFN-α2a protein and IFNA2 transcript levels in blood suggests that type-I IFNs during COVID-19 may be primarily produced by tissue-resident cells. Multivariable analysis of patients' first samples revealed 12 biomarkers (CCL2, IL-15, sST2, NGAL, sTNFRSF1A, ferritin, IL-6, S100A9, MMP-9, IL-2, sVEGFR1, IL-10) that when increased were independently associated with mortality. Multivariate analyses of longitudinal biomarker trajectories identified 8 of the aforementioned biomarkers (IL-15, IL-2, NGAL, CCL2, MMP-9, sTNFRSF1A, sST2, IL-10) and two additional biomarkers (lactoferrin, CXCL9) that were significantly associated with mortality when increased, while IL-1α was associated with mortality when decreased. Among these, sST2, sTNFRSF1A, IL-10, and IL-15 were consistently higher throughout the hospitalization in patients who died versus those who recovered, suggesting that these biomarkers may provide an early warning of eventual disease outcome.

7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1954, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117328

RESUMO

The T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay detects T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) in newborns and is especially important to identify severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). A spectrum of SCID variants and non-SCID conditions that present with TCL are being discovered with increasing frequency by newborn screening (NBS). Recombination-activating gene (RAG) deficiency is one the most common causes of classical and atypical SCID and other conditions with immune dysregulation. We present the case of an asymptomatic male with undetectable TRECs on NBS at 1 week of age. The asymptomatic newborn was found to have severe TCL, but normal B cell quantities and lymphocyte proliferation upon mitogen stimulation. Next generation sequencing revealed compound heterozygous hypomorphic RAG variants, one of which was novel. The moderately decreased recombinase activity of the RAG variants (16 and 40%) resulted in abnormal T and B-cell receptor repertoires, decreased fraction of CD3+ TCRVα7.2+ T cells and an immune phenotype consistent with the RAG hypomorphic variants. The patient underwent successful treatment with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at 5 months of age. This case illustrates how after identification of a novel RAG variant, in vitro studies are important to confirm the pathogenicity of the variant. This confirmation allows the clinician to expedite definitive treatment with HSCT in an asymptomatic phase, mitigating the risk of serious infectious and non-infectious complications.

8.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738057

RESUMO

Inborn errors of immunity consist of over 400 known single gene disorders that may manifest with infection susceptibility, autoimmunity, autoinflammation, hypersensitivity and cancer predisposition. Most patients are treated symptomatically with immunoglobulin replacement, prophylactic antimicrobials or broad immunosuppression pertaining to their disease phenotype. Other than haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the aforementioned treatments do little to alter disease morbidity or mortality. Further, many patients may not be transplant candidates. In this review, we describe monogenic disorders affecting leucocyte migration, disorders of immune synapse formation and dysregulation of immune cell signal transduction. We highlight the use of off-label small molecules and biologics mechanistically targeted to altered disease pathophysiology of such diseases.

9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1562, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793218

RESUMO

Thymocyte differentiation is dependent on the availability and transport of metabolites in the thymus niche. As expression of metabolite transporters is a rate-limiting step in nutrient utilization, cell surface transporter levels generally reflect the cell's metabolic state. The GLUT1 glucose transporter is upregulated on actively dividing thymocytes, identifying thymocytes with an increased metabolism. However, it is not clear whether transporters of essential elements such as phosphate are modulated during thymocyte differentiation. While PiT1 and PiT2 are both phosphate transporters in the SLC20 family, we show here that they exhibit distinct expression profiles on both murine and human thymocytes. PiT2 expression distinguishes thymocytes with high metabolic activity, identifying immature murine double negative (CD4-CD8-) DN3b and DN4 thymocyte blasts as well as immature single positive (ISP) CD8 thymocytes. Notably, the absence of PiT2 expression on RAG2-deficient thymocytes, blocked at the DN3a stage, strongly suggests that high PiT2 expression is restricted to thymocytes having undergone a productive TCRß rearrangement at the DN3a/DN3b transition. Similarly, in the human thymus, PiT2 was upregulated on early post-ß selection CD4+ISP and TCRαß-CD4hiDP thymocytes co-expressing the CD71 transferrin receptor, a marker of metabolic activity. In marked contrast, expression of the PiT1 phosphate importer was detected on mature CD3+ murine and human thymocytes. Notably, PiT1 expression on CD3+DN thymocytes was identified as a biomarker of an aging thymus, increasing from 8.4 ± 1.5% to 42.4 ± 9.4% by 1 year of age (p < 0.0001). We identified these cells as TCRγδ and, most significantly, NKT, representing 77 ± 9% of PiT1+DN thymocytes by 1 year of age (p < 0.001). Thus, metabolic activity and thymic aging are associated with distinct expression profiles of the PiT1 and PiT2 phosphate transporters.

12.
Sci Immunol ; 5(49)2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651211

RESUMO

Molecular, cellular, and clinical studies of human inborn errors of immunity have revolutionized our understanding of their pathogenesis, considerably broadened their spectrum of immunological and clinical phenotypes, and enabled successful targeted therapeutic interventions. These studies have also been of great scientific merit, challenging a number of immunological notions initially established in inbred mice while revealing previously unrecognized mechanisms of host defense by leukocytes and other cells and of both innate and adaptive tolerance to self.

13.
Front Immunol ; 11: 900, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655540

RESUMO

Background: Variants in recombination-activating genes (RAG) are common genetic causes of autosomal recessive forms of combined immunodeficiencies (CID) ranging from severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), Omenn syndrome (OS), leaky SCID, and CID with granulomas and/or autoimmunity (CID-G/AI), and even milder presentation with antibody deficiency. Objective: We aim to estimate the incidence, clinical presentation, genetic variability, and treatment outcome with geographic distribution of patients with the RAG defects in populations inhabiting South, West, and East Slavic countries. Methods: Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from RAG-deficient patients of Slavic origin via chart review, retrospectively. Recombinase activity was determined in vitro by flow cytometry-based assay. Results: Based on the clinical and immunologic phenotype, our cohort of 82 patients from 68 families represented a wide spectrum of RAG deficiencies, including SCID (n = 20), OS (n = 37), and LS/CID (n = 25) phenotypes. Sixty-seven (81.7%) patients carried RAG1 and 15 patients (18.3%) carried RAG2 biallelic variants. We estimate that the minimal annual incidence of RAG deficiency in Slavic countries varies between 1 in 180,000 and 1 in 300,000 live births, and it may vary secondary to health care disparities in these regions. In our cohort, 70% (n = 47) of patients with RAG1 variants carried p.K86Vfs*33 (c.256_257delAA) allele, either in homozygous (n = 18, 27%) or in compound heterozygous (n = 29, 43%) form. The majority (77%) of patients with homozygous RAG1 p.K86Vfs*33 variant originated from Vistula watershed area in Central and Eastern Poland, and compound heterozygote cases were distributed among all Slavic countries except Bulgaria. Clinical and immunological presentation of homozygous RAG1 p.K86Vfs*33 cases was highly diverse (SCID, OS, and AS/CID) suggestive of strong influence of additional genetic and/or epigenetic factors in shaping the final phenotype. Conclusion: We propose that RAG1 p.K86Vfs*33 is a founder variant originating from the Vistula watershed region in Poland, which may explain a high proportion of homozygous cases from Central and Eastern Poland and the presence of the variant in all Slavs. Our studies in this cohort of RAG1 founder variants confirm that clinical and immunological phenotypes only partially depend on the underlying genetic defect. As access to HSCT is improving among RAG-deficient patients in Eastern Europe, we anticipate improvements in survival.

14.
Blood Adv ; 4(12): 2611-2616, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556283

RESUMO

The study of early T-cell development in humans is challenging because of limited availability of thymic samples and the limitations of in vitro T-cell differentiation assays. We used an artificial thymic organoid (ATO) platform generated by aggregating a DLL4-expressing stromal cell line (MS5-hDLL4) with CD34+ cells isolated from bone marrow or mobilized peripheral blood to study T-cell development from CD34+ cells of patients carrying hematopoietic intrinsic or thymic defects that cause T-cell lymphopenia. We found that AK2 deficiency is associated with decreased cell viability and an early block in T-cell development. We observed a similar defect in a patient carrying a null IL2RG mutation. In contrast, CD34+ cells from a patient carrying a missense IL2RG mutation reached full T-cell maturation, although cell numbers were significantly lower than in controls. CD34+ cells from patients carrying RAG mutations were able to differentiate to CD4+CD8+ cells, but not to CD3+TCRαß+ cells. Finally, normal T-cell differentiation was observed in a patient with complete DiGeorge syndrome, consistent with the extra-hematopoietic nature of the defect. The ATO system may help determine whether T-cell deficiency reflects hematopoietic or thymic intrinsic abnormalities and define the exact stage at which T-cell differentiation is blocked.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the recombinase-activating genes cause severe immunodeficiency, with a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from severe combined immunodeficiency to immune dysregulation. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only curative option, but a high risk of graft failure and poor immune reconstitution have been observed in the absence of myeloablation. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to improve multilineage engraftment; we tested nongenotoxic conditioning with anti-CD45 mAbs conjugated with saporin CD45 (CD45-SAP). METHODS: Rag1-KO and Rag1-F971L mice, which represent models of severe combined immune deficiency and combined immune deficiency with immune dysregulation, respectively, were conditioned with CD45-SAP, CD45-SAP plus 2 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI), 2 Gy of TBI, 8 Gy of TBI, or no conditioning and treated by using transplantation with lineage-negative bone marrow cells from wild-type mice. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry were used to assess engraftment and immune reconstitution. Antibody responses to 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-conjugated keyhole limpet hemocyanin were measured by ELISA, and presence of autoantibody was detected by microarray. RESULTS: Conditioning with CD45-SAP enabled high levels of multilineage engraftment in both Rag1 mutant models, allowed overcoming of B- and T-cell differentiation blocks and thymic epithelial cell defects, and induced robust cellular and humoral immunity in the periphery. CONCLUSIONS: Conditioning with CD45-SAP allows multilineage engraftment and robust immune reconstitution in mice with either null or hypomorphic Rag mutations while preserving thymic epithelial cell homeostasis.

16.
Blood ; 135(23): 2094-2105, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268350

RESUMO

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked disease caused by mutations in the WAS gene, leading to thrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, autoimmune disease, and malignancy. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the primary curative approach, with the goal of correcting the underlying immunodeficiency and thrombocytopenia. HCT outcomes have improved over time, particularly for patients with HLA-matched sibling and unrelated donors. We report the outcomes of 129 patients with WAS who underwent HCT at 29 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium centers from 2005 through 2015. Median age at HCT was 1.2 years. Most patients (65%) received myeloablative busulfan-based conditioning. With a median follow-up of 4.5 years, the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 91%. Superior 5-year OS was observed in patients <5 vs ≥5 years of age at the time of HCT (94% vs 66%; overall P = .0008). OS was excellent regardless of donor type, even in cord blood recipients (90%). Conditioning intensity did not affect OS, but was associated with donor T-cell and myeloid engraftment after HCT. Specifically, patients who received fludarabine/melphalan-based reduced-intensity regimens were more likely to have donor myeloid chimerism <50% early after HCT. In addition, higher platelet counts were observed among recipients who achieved full (>95%) vs low-level (5%-49%) donor myeloid engraftment. In summary, HCT outcomes for WAS have improved since 2005, compared with prior reports. HCT at a younger age continues to be associated with superior outcomes supporting the recommendation for early HCT. High-level donor myeloid engraftment is important for platelet reconstitution after either myeloablative or busulfan-containing reduced intensity conditioning. (This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02064933.).

17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(5): 1165-1179.e11, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe early-onset erythroderma and gut inflammation, with massive tissue infiltration of oligoclonal activated T cells are the hallmark of Omenn syndrome (OS). OBJECTIVE: The impact of altered gut homeostasis in the cutaneous manifestations of OS remains to be clarified. METHODS: We analyzed a cohort of 15 patients with OS and the 129Sv/C57BL/6 knock-in Rag2R229Q/R229Q (Rag2R229Q) mouse model. Homing phenotypes of circulating lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were examined in the sera by ELISA and in skin biopsies by immunohistochemistry and in situ RNA hybridization. Experimental colitis was induced in mice by dextran sulfate sodium salt. RESULTS: We show that memory/activated T cells from patients with OS and from the Rag2R229Q mouse model of OS abundantly express the skin homing receptors cutaneous lymphocyte associated antigen and CCR4 (Ccr4), associated with high levels of chemokine C-C motif ligands 17 and 22. Serum levels of LPS are also elevated. A broad Th1/Th2/Th17 inflammatory signature is detected in the periphery and in the skin. Increased Tlr4 expression in the skin of Rag2R229Q mice is associated with enhanced cutaneous inflammation on local and systemic administration of LPS. Likewise, boosting colitis in Rag2R229Q mice results in increased frequency of Ccr4+ splenic T cells and worsening of skin inflammation, as indicated by epidermal thickening, enhanced epithelial cell activation, and dermal infiltration by Th1 effector T cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the existence of an interplay between gut and skin that can sustain skin inflammation in OS.

18.
Sci Immunol ; 5(44)2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111619

RESUMO

We investigated the molecular and cellular basis of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in six patients with otofaciocervical syndrome type 2 who failed to attain T cell reconstitution after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, despite successful engraftment in three of them. We identified rare biallelic PAX1 rare variants in all patients. We demonstrated that these mutant PAX1 proteins have an altered conformation and flexibility of the paired box domain and reduced transcriptional activity. We generated patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells and differentiated them into thymic epithelial progenitor cells and found that they have an altered transcriptional profile, including for genes involved in the development of the thymus and other tissues derived from pharyngeal pouches. These results identify biallelic, loss-of-function PAX1 mutations as the cause of a syndromic form of SCID due to altered thymus development.

19.
Front Immunol ; 11: 239, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153572

RESUMO

Primary Immune Regulatory Disorders (PIRD) are an expanding group of diseases caused by gene defects in several different immune pathways, such as regulatory T cell function. Patients with PIRD develop clinical manifestations associated with diminished and exaggerated immune responses. Management of these patients is complicated; oftentimes immunosuppressive therapies are insufficient, and patients may require hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) for treatment. Analysis of HCT data in PIRD patients have previously focused on a single gene defect. This study surveyed transplanted patients with a phenotypic clinical picture consistent with PIRD treated in 33 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium centers and European centers. Our data showed that PIRD patients often had immunodeficient and autoimmune features affecting multiple organ systems. Transplantation resulted in resolution of disease manifestations in more than half of the patients with an overall 5-years survival of 67%. This study, the first to encompass disorders across the PIRD spectrum, highlights the need for further research in PIRD management.

20.
Blood ; 135(9): 610-619, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942628

RESUMO

Traditionally, primary immune deficiencies have been defined based on increased susceptibility to recurrent and/or severe infections. However, immune dysregulation, manifesting with autoimmunity or hyperinflammatory disease, has emerged as a common feature. This is especially true in patients affected by combined immune deficiency (CID), a group of disorders caused by genetic defects that impair, but do not completely abolish, T-cell function. Hypomorphic mutations in the recombination activating genes RAG1 and RAG2 represent the prototype of the broad spectrum of clinical and immunological phenotypes associated with CID. The study of patients with RAG deficiency and with other forms of CID has revealed distinct abnormalities in central and peripheral T- and B-cell tolerance as the key mechanisms involved in immune dysregulation. Understanding the pathophysiology of autoimmunity and hyperinflammation in these disorders may also permit more targeted therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/imunologia , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares/deficiência , Proteínas Nucleares/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA