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1.
Stem Cell Res ; 41: 101613, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689593

RESUMO

Selective immunoglobulin-A deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency (PID) in the Western world and results in higher susceptibility to infections, autoimmune disorders and malignancies. We generated human induced pluripotent stem cell lines from two patients with selective IgAD, PHAi001 and PHAi002. Patient samples were reprogrammed using non-integrative based methods. Pluripotency of the PHAi001 and PHAi002 cell lines was confirmed by their expression of stem cell markers and capacity to differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The PHAi001 and PHAi002 lines are a unique resource for experimental modeling of selective IgAD and associated disorders.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775018

RESUMO

We describe the first case of MAN2B2 deficiency in a patient with immune dysregulation, developmental delay, and stroke. Altered mannosylation profile was restored in patient cells upon transduction of wild-type MAN2B2.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16605, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719595

RESUMO

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, potentially devastating myelin-degrading disease caused by the JC virus. PML occurs preferentially in patients with compromised immune system, but has been also observed in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with disease-modifying drugs. We characterized T and B cells in 5 MS patients that developed PML, 4 during natalizumab therapy and one after alemtuzumab treatment, and in treated patients who did not develop the disease. Results revealed that: i) thymic and bone marrow output was impaired in 4 out 5 patients at the time of PML development; ii) T-cell repertoire was restricted; iii) clonally expanded T cells were present in all patients. However, common usage or pairings of T-cell receptor beta variable or joining genes, specific clonotypes or obvious "public" T-cell response were not detected at the moment of PML onset. Similarly, common restrictions were not found in the immunoglobulin heavy chain repertoire. The data indicate that no JCV-related specific T- and B-cell expansions were mounted at the time of PML. The current results enhance our understanding of JC virus infection and PML, and should be taken into account when choosing targeted therapies.

6.
Med Princ Pract ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597133

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are disorders resulting from mutations in genes involved in immune host defense and immunoregulation. These conditions are characterized by various combinations of recurrent infections, autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, inflammatory manifestations, and malignancy. In the last 20 years Newborn screening (NBS) programs and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques, have increased the ability to diagnose PID. Furthermore the advanced understanding of the molecular basis of these inherited disorders led to the implementation of targeted therapies that utilize small molecules and biologics to modulate the activity of impaired intracellular pathway. This article will discuss selected PID, whose genetic defects have been recently studied and are amenable to targeted therapy as a reflection of the potential of precision medicine in the future.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493539

RESUMO

Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) is a potentially curative therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). Safe and effective reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) approaches that are associated with low toxicity, use alternative donors, and afford good immune reconstitution are needed to advance the field. Twenty PID patients, ranging in age from 4 to 58 years, were treated on a prospective clinical trial of a novel, radiation-free and serotherapy-free RIC, T-cell-replete BMT approach using pentostatin, low-dose cyclophosphamide, and busulfan for conditioning with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. This was a high-risk cohort with a median hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index of 3. With median follow-up of survivors of 1.9 years, 1-year overall survival was 90% and grade III to IV acute GVHD-free, graft-failure-free survival was 80% at day +180. Graft failure incidence was 10%. Split chimerism was frequently observed at early post-BMT timepoints, with a lower percentage of donor T cells, which gradually increased by day +60. The cumulative incidences of grade II to IV and grade III to IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were 15% and 5%, respectively. All aGVHD was steroid responsive. No patients developed chronic GVHD. Few significant organ toxicities were observed. Evidence of phenotype reversal was observed for all engrafted patients, even those with significantly mixed chimerism (n = 2) or with unknown underlying genetic defect (n = 3). All 6 patients with pre-BMT malignancies or lymphoproliferative disorders remain in remission. Most patients have discontinued immunoglobulin replacement. All survivors are off immunosuppression for GVHD prophylaxis or treatment. This novel RIC BMT approach for patients with PID has yielded promising results, even for high-risk patients.

8.
Am J Pathol ; 189(12): 2440-2449, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541646

RESUMO

Cells of the developing central nervous system are particularly susceptible to formation of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) arising from physiological and/or environmental insults. Therefore, efficient repair of DSBs is especially vital for maintaining cellular health and proper functioning in the developing brain. Here, increased expression of DSB initiating and nonhomologous end joining repair machinery in newborn neurons in the developing brains of both mouse and human are demonstrated. In parallel, the first characterization is provided of the brain phenotype in the Lig4R278H/R278H (Lig4R/R) mouse model of DNA Ligase 4 (LIG4) syndrome, in which a hypomorphic Lig4 mutation, originally identified in patients, impedes nonhomologous end joining. It is shown that Lig4R/R mice develop nonprogressive microcephaly, resulting primarily from apoptotic death of newborn neurons that is both spatially and temporally specific during peak cortical neurogenesis. This apoptosis leads to a reduction in neurons throughout the postnatal cerebral cortex, but with a more prominent impact on those of the lower cortical layers. Together, these findings begin to uncover the pathogenesis of microcephaly in LIG4 syndrome and open avenues to more focused investigations on the critical roles of DSB formation and repair in vulnerable neuronal populations of the brain.

9.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 653-667, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1/3 of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Comprehensive investigation of the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on CGD IBD and the impact of IBD on transplant outcomes is lacking. METHODS: We collected data retrospectively from 145 patients with CGD who had received allogeneic HCT at 26 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) centers between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2016. RESULTS: Forty-nine CGD patients with IBD and 96 patients without IBD underwent allogeneic HCT. Eighty-nine percent of patients with IBD and 93% of patients without IBD engrafted (p = 0.476). Upper gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 8.5% of patients with IBD and 3.5% of patients without IBD (p = 0.246). Lower gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 10.6% of patients with IBD and 11.8% of patients without IBD (p = 0.845). The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grades II-IV was 30% (CI 17-43%) in patients with IBD and 20% (CI 12-29%) in patients without IBD (p = 0.09). Five-year overall survival was equivalent for patients with and without IBD: 80% [CI 66-89%] and 83% [CI 72-90%], respectively (p = 0.689). All 33 surviving evaluable patients with a history of IBD experienced resolution of IBD by 2 years following allogeneic HCT. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, allogeneic HCT was curative for CGD-associated IBD. IBD should not contraindicate HCT, as it does not lead to an increased risk of mortality. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02082353.

10.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1757, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396241

RESUMO

Alessandro Moretta was Professor of Histology at University of Brescia from 1994 to 1997. It was in that period that we met and started a collaboration that continued in the years to follow. He immediately involved us in the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that allowed the identification and fine characterization of novel receptor molecules that were able to activate or inhibit human Natural Killer cell function, including several antibodies specific for Natural Cytotoxicity Receptor (NCR) and Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) molecules. These reagents, generated in our laboratory in Brescia, contributed to complete the studies aimed to characterize innate lymphoid NK cells, that had been initiated by Alessandro and his brother Lorenzo in Genoa. Soon, we identified an anti-KIR3DL2 that was subsequently shown to be helpful for the diagnosis and treatment of various forms of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. While in Brescia, Alessandro established a partnership with those of us who were working in the Department of Pediatrics; together, in short time we tackled the goal of studying the role of NK cells in patients with primary immunodeficiencies. This collaboration led to novel discoveries that shed light on the critical role played by NK cells in the immune response against virus and tumors in humans, as best exemplified by our characterization of the molecular mechanisms of impaired control of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease. After Alessandro left Brescia to return to Genoa, our collaboration continued with the same enthusiasm, and even from a distance he remained an extraordinary example of an inspirational and generous mentor. This review is a sign of our gratitude to a mentor and a friend whom we deeply miss.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 549-561, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447097

RESUMO

FOXN1 is the master regulatory gene of thymic epithelium development. FOXN1 deficiency leads to thymic aplasia, alopecia, and nail dystrophy, accounting for the nude/severe combined immunodeficiency (nu/SCID) phenotype in humans and mice. We identified several newborns with low levels of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and T cell lymphopenia at birth, who carried heterozygous loss-of-function FOXN1 variants. Longitudinal analysis showed persistent T cell lymphopenia during infancy, often associated with nail dystrophy. Adult individuals with heterozygous FOXN1 variants had in most cases normal CD4+ but lower than normal CD8+ cell counts. We hypothesized a FOXN1 gene dosage effect on the function of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) and thymopoiesis and postulated that these effects would be more prominent early in life. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed TEC subset frequency and phenotype, early thymic progenitor (ETP) cell count, and expression of FOXN1 target genes (Ccl25, Cxcl12, Dll4, Scf, Psmb11, Prss16, and Cd83) in Foxn1nu/+ (nu/+) mice and age-matched wild-type (+/+) littermate controls. Both the frequency and the absolute count of ETP were significantly reduced in nu/+ mice up to 3 weeks of age. Analysis of the TEC compartment showed reduced expression of FOXN1 target genes and delayed maturation of the medullary TEC compartment in nu/+ mice. These observations establish a FOXN1 gene dosage effect on thymic function and identify FOXN1 haploinsufficiency as an important genetic determinant of T cell lymphopenia at birth.

12.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(495)2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167928

RESUMO

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a monogenic disorder caused by AIRE mutations, presents with several autoimmune diseases. Among these, endocrine organ failure is widely recognized, but the prevalence, immunopathogenesis, and treatment of non-endocrine manifestations such as pneumonitis remain poorly characterized. We enrolled 50 patients with APECED in a prospective observational study and comprehensively examined their clinical and radiographic findings, performed pulmonary function tests, and analyzed immunological characteristics in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and endobronchial and lung biopsies. Pneumonitis was found in >40% of our patients, presented early in life, was misdiagnosed despite chronic respiratory symptoms and accompanying radiographic and pulmonary function abnormalities, and caused hypoxemic respiratory failure and death. Autoantibodies against BPIFB1 and KCNRG and the homozygous c.967_979del13 AIRE mutation are associated with pneumonitis development. APECED pneumonitis features compartmentalized immunopathology, with accumulation of activated neutrophils in the airways and lymphocytic infiltration in intraepithelial, submucosal, peribronchiolar, and interstitial areas. Beyond APECED, we extend these observations to lung disease seen in other conditions with secondary AIRE deficiency (thymoma and RAG deficiency). Aire-deficient mice had similar compartmentalized cellular immune responses in the airways and lung tissue, which was ameliorated by deficiency of T and B lymphocytes. Accordingly, T and B lymphocyte-directed immunomodulation controlled symptoms and radiographic abnormalities and improved pulmonary function in patients with APECED pneumonitis. Collectively, our findings unveil lung autoimmunity as a common, early, and unrecognized manifestation of APECED and provide insights into the immunopathogenesis and treatment of pulmonary autoimmunity associated with impaired central immune tolerance.

13.
J Exp Med ; 216(9): 2038-2056, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217193

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive IRF7 and IRF9 deficiencies impair type I and III IFN immunity and underlie severe influenza pneumonitis. We report three unrelated children with influenza A virus (IAV) infection manifesting as acute respiratory distress syndrome (IAV-ARDS), heterozygous for rare TLR3 variants (P554S in two patients and P680L in the third) causing autosomal dominant (AD) TLR3 deficiency. AD TLR3 deficiency can underlie herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) by impairing cortical neuron-intrinsic type I IFN immunity to HSV-1. TLR3-mutated leukocytes produce normal levels of IFNs in response to IAV. In contrast, TLR3-mutated fibroblasts produce lower levels of IFN-ß and -λ, and display enhanced viral susceptibility, upon IAV infection. Moreover, the patients' iPSC-derived pulmonary epithelial cells (PECs) are susceptible to IAV. Treatment with IFN-α2b or IFN-λ1 rescues this phenotype. AD TLR3 deficiency may thus underlie IAV-ARDS by impairing TLR3-dependent, type I and/or III IFN-mediated, PEC-intrinsic immunity. Its clinical penetrance is incomplete for both IAV-ARDS and HSE, consistent with their typically sporadic nature.

14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(5): 1364-1376, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CCAAT enhancer-binding protein epsilon (C/EBPε) is a transcription factor involved in late myeloid lineage differentiation and cellular function. The only previously known disorder linked to C/EBPε is autosomal recessive neutrophil-specific granule deficiency leading to severely impaired neutrophil function and early mortality. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to molecularly characterize the effects of C/EBPε transcription factor Arg219His mutation identified in a Finnish family with previously genetically uncharacterized autoinflammatory and immunodeficiency syndrome. METHODS: Genetic analysis, proteomics, genome-wide transcriptional profiling by means of RNA-sequencing, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing, and assessment of the inflammasome function of primary macrophages were performed. RESULTS: Studies revealed a novel mechanism of genome-wide gain-of-function that dysregulated transcription of 464 genes. Mechanisms involved dysregulated noncanonical inflammasome activation caused by decreased association with transcriptional repressors, leading to increased chromatin occupancy and considerable changes in transcriptional activity, including increased expression of NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 protein (NLRP3) and constitutively expressed caspase-5 in macrophages. CONCLUSION: We describe a novel autoinflammatory disease with defective neutrophil function caused by a homozygous Arg219His mutation in the transcription factor C/EBPε. Mutated C/EBPε acts as a regulator of both the inflammasome and interferome, and the Arg219His mutation causes the first human monogenic neomorphic and noncanonical inflammasomopathy/immunodeficiency. The mechanism, including widely dysregulated transcription, is likely not unique for C/EBPε. Similar multiomics approaches should also be used in studying other transcription factor-associated diseases.

16.
J Exp Med ; 216(6): 1311-1327, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040185

RESUMO

Interleukin-2, which conveys essential signals for immunity, operates through a heterotrimeric receptor. Here we identify human interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) ß chain (IL2RB) gene defects as a cause of life-threatening immune dysregulation. We report three homozygous mutations in the IL2RB gene of eight individuals from four consanguineous families that cause disease by distinct mechanisms. Nearly all patients presented with autoantibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, bowel inflammation, dermatological abnormalities, lymphadenopathy, and cytomegalovirus disease. Patient T lymphocytes lacked surface expression of IL-2Rß and were unable to respond to IL-2 stimulation. By contrast, natural killer cells retained partial IL-2Rß expression and function. IL-2Rß loss of function was recapitulated in a recombinant system in which IL2RB mutations caused reduced surface expression and IL-2 binding. Stem cell transplant ameliorated clinical symptoms in one patient; forced expression of wild-type IL-2Rß also increased the IL-2 responsiveness of patient T lymphocytes in vitro. Insights from these patients can inform the development of IL-2-based therapeutics for immunological diseases and cancer.

17.
Front Immunol ; 10: 479, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936877

RESUMO

Background: HOIP is the catalytic subunit of the linear ubiquitination chain assembly complex (LUBAC) that is essential for NF-κB signaling and thus proper innate and adaptive immunity. To date only one patient with HOIP deficiency has been reported with clinical characteristics that include autoinflammation, immunodeficiency, amylopectinosis, and systemic lymphangiectasia. Case: We sought to identify a genetic cause of a disease for an 8 year-old girl who presented with early-onset immune deficiency and autoinflammation. Methods: Targeted next generation sequencing of 352 immune-related genes was performed. Functional studies included transcriptome analysis, cytokine profiling, and protein analysis in patients' primary cells. Results: We identified biallelic variants in close proximity to splice sites (c.1197G>C and c.1737+3A>G) in the RNF31 gene. RNA extracted from patient cells showed alternatively spliced transcripts not present in control cells. Protein expression of HOIP and LUBAC was reduced in primary cells as shown by western blotting. Patient-derived fibroblasts demonstrated attenuated IL-6 production, while PBMCs showed higher TNF production after stimulation with proinflammatory cytokines. RNA sequencing of whole blood RNA and PBMCs demonstrated a marked transcriptome wide change including differential expression of type I interferon regulated genes. Conclusion: We report the second case of HOIP deficiency with novel compound heterozygous mutations in RNF31 and distinct clinical and molecular features. Our results expand on the clinical spectrum of HOIP deficiency and molecular signatures associated with LUBAC deficiency.

18.
Front Immunol ; 10: 447, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949166

RESUMO

The thymus plays a fundamental role in establishing and maintaining central and peripheral tolerance and defects in thymic architecture or AIRE expression result in the development of autoreactive lymphocytes. Patients with partial DiGeorge Syndrome (pDGS) and Down Syndrome (DS) present alterations in size and architecture of the thymus and higher risk to develop autoimmunity. We sought to evaluate thymic architecture and thymocyte development in DGS and DS patients and to determine the extent to which thymic defects result in immune dysregulation and T cell homeostasis perturbation in these patients. Thymi from pediatric patients and age-matched controls were obtained to evaluate cortex and medullary compartments, AIRE expression and thymocyte development. In the same patients we also characterized immunophenotype of peripheral T cells. Phenotypic and functional characterization of thymic and peripheral regulatory T (Treg) cells was finally assessed. Histologic analysis revealed peculiar alterations in thymic medulla size and maturation in DGS and DS patients. Perturbed distribution of thymocytes and altered thymic output was also observed. DGS patients showed lower mature CD4+ and CD8+ T cell frequency, associated with reduced proportion and function of Tregs both in thymus and peripheral blood. DS patients showed increased frequency of single positive (SP) thymocytes and thymic Treg cells. However, Tregs isolated both from thymus and peripheral blood of DS patients showed reduced suppressive ability. Our results provide novel insights on thymic defects associated with DGS and DS and their impact on peripheral immune dysregulation. Indeed, thymic abnormalities and defect in thymocyte development, in particular in Treg cell number and function could contribute in the pathogenesis of the immunodysregulation present in pDGS and in DS patients.

20.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(3): 298-308, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838481

RESUMO

DOCK2 is a guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor for Rac proteins. Activated Rac serves various cellular functions including the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in lymphocytes and neutrophils and production of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils. Since 2015, six unrelated patients with combined immunodeficiency and early-onset severe viral infections caused by bi-allelic loss-of-function mutations in DOCK2 have been described. Until now, the function of phagocytes, specifically neutrophils, has not been assessed in human DOCK2 deficiency. Here, we describe a new kindred with four affected siblings harboring a homozygous splice-site mutation (c.2704-2 A > C) in DOCK2. The mutation results in alternative splicing and a complete loss of DOCK2 protein expression. The patients presented with leaky severe combined immunodeficiency or Omenn syndrome. The novel mutation affects EBV-B cell migration and results in NK cell dysfunction similar to previous observations. Moreover, both cytoskeletal rearrangement and reactive oxygen species production are partially impaired in DOCK2-deficient neutrophils.

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