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1.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 191, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) treated with pirfenidone (Esbriet®, Genentech USA, Inc. South San Francisco, CA.), effectively managing treatment-related adverse events (AEs) may improve adherence. Due to a lack of clinical evidence and expertise, managing these AEs can be challenging for patients and physicians alike. In the absence of evidence, consensus recommendations from physicians experienced in using pirfenidone to treat IPF are beneficial. METHODS: Using a modified Delphi process, expert recommendations were developed by a panel of physicians experienced with using pirfenidone for IPF. Over three iterations, panelists developed and refined a series of statements on the use of pirfenidone in IPF. Their agreement on each statement was ranked using a Likert scale. RESULTS: A panel of 12 physicians participated and developed a total of 286 statements on dosing and administration, special populations, drug-drug interactions, laboratory analysis, warnings and precautions, and AE management. Expert recommendations were achieved with regard to slower initial titrations and slower titrations for AEs, dosing with meal(s) or substantial meals, and adding other prescribed pharmacological agents for AEs. CONCLUSION: Until there is further clinical evidence, the resulting consensus recommendations are intended to provide direction on the practical management of IPF with pirfenidone, by encompassing a broad experience from the real world to complement data gleaned from clinical trials.

2.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675203

RESUMO

Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) characterises individuals with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and features of connective tissue disease (CTD) who fail to satisfy CTD criteria. Inclusion of myositis-specific antibodies (MSAs) in the IPAF criteria has generated controversy, as these patients also meet proposed criteria for an anti-synthetase syndrome. Whether MSAs and myositis associated antibodies (MAA) identify phenotypically distinct IPAF subgroups remains unclear.A multi-center, retrospective investigation was conducted to assess clinical features and outcomes in patients meeting IPAF criteria stratified by the presence of MSAs and MAAs. IPAF subgroups were compared to cohorts of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy-ILD (IIM-ILD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and non-IIM CTD-ILDs. The primary endpoint assessed was three-year transplant-free survival. Two hundred sixty-nine patients met IPAF criteria, including 35 (13%) with MSAs and 65 (24.2%) with MAAs. Survival was highest among patients with IPAF-MSA and closely approximated those with IIM-ILD. Survival did not differ between IPAF-MAA and IPAF without MSA/MAA cohorts. Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) morphology was associated with differential outcome risk, with IPAF patients with non-UIP morphology approximating survival observed in non-IIM CTD-ILDs. MSAs, but not MAAs identified a unique IPAF phenotype characterised by clinical features and outcomes similar to IIM-ILD. UIP morphology was a strong predictor of outcome in others meeting IPAF criteria. Because IPAF is a research classification without clear treatment approach, these findings suggest MSAs should be removed from the IPAF criteria and such patients should be managed as an IIM-ILD.

3.
Transl Res ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711186

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology that poses significant challenges in early diagnosis and prediction of progression. Analyses of microRNA and gene expression in IPF have yielded potentially predictive information. However, the relationship between microRNA/gene expression and quantitative phenotypic value in IPF remains controversial, as is the added value of this approach to current molecular signatures in IPF. To identify biomarkers predictive of survival in IPF via a microRNA-driven strategy. We profiled microRNA and protein-coding gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 70 IPF subjects in a discovery cohort. We linked the microRNA/gene expression level with the quantitative phenotypic variation in IPF, including diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide and the forced vital capacity percent predicted. In silico analyses of expression profiles and quantitative phenotypic data allowed the generation of two sets of IPF molecular signatures (unique for microRNAs and protein-coding genes) that predict IPF survival. Each signature performed well in a validation cohort comprised of IPF patients aggregated from distinct patient populations recruited from different sites. Resampling test suggests that the protein-coding gene based signature is comparable and potentially superior to published IPF prognostic gene signatures. In conclusion, these results highlight the utility of microRNA-driven peripheral blood molecular signatures as valuable and novel biomarkers associated to individuals at high survival risk and for potentially facilitating individualized therapies in this enigmatic disorder.

4.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with high mortality. Patient characteristics associated with diagnostic delays are not well described. METHODS: Subjects who had not been diagnosed with IPF prior to referral and received a new diagnosis of IPF at an enrolling centre for the IPF-PRO (Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Prospective Outcomes) Registry were characterised as having a longer (>1 year) or shorter (≤1 year) time from symptom onset to diagnosis and from first imaging evidence of fibrosis to diagnosis. Patient characteristics, evaluations and time to death or lung transplant were compared between these cohorts. RESULTS: Among 347 patients with a symptom onset date, 49% were diagnosed with IPF >1 year after symptom onset. These patients were slightly younger and had more cardiac comorbidities than patients diagnosed ≤1 year after symptom onset. Among 454 patients with a date for imaging evidence of fibrosis, 78% were diagnosed with IPF ≤1 year later. A greater proportion of patients with >1 year versus ≤1 year from imaging evidence of fibrosis to diagnosis had cardiac comorbidities and gastro-oesophageal reflux. There was no significant difference in time to death or lung transplant between groups by time to diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The time from symptom onset to diagnosis remains over 1 year in approximately half of the patients with IPF, but once imaging evidence is obtained, most of the patients are diagnosed within a year. Cardiac conditions and gastro-oesophageal disorders were more commonly reported in patients with a longer time to diagnosis.

5.
Chest ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: OSA, a common comorbidity in interstitial lung disease (ILD), could contribute to a worsened course if untreated. It is unclear if adherence to CPAP therapy improves outcomes. RESEARCH QUESTION: xxx STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a 10-year retrospective observational multicenter cohort study, assessing adult patients with ILD who had undergone polysomnography. Subjects were categorized based on OSA severity into no/mild OSA (apnea-hypopnea index score < 15) or moderate/severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index score ≥ 15). All subjects prescribed and adherent to CPAP were deemed to have treated OSA. Cox regression models were used to examine the association of OSA severity and CPAP adherence with all-cause mortality risk and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Of 160 subjects that met inclusion criteria, 131 had OSA and were prescribed CPAP. Sixty-six patients (41%) had no/mild untreated OSA, 51 (32%) had moderate/severe untreated OSA, and 43 (27%) had treated OSA. Subjects with no/mild untreated OSA did not differ from those with moderate/severe untreated OSA in mean survival time (127 ± 56 vs 138 ± 93 months, respectively; P = .61) and crude mortality rate (2.9 per 100 person-years vs 2.9 per 100 person-years, respectively; P = .60). Adherence to CPAP was not associated with improvement in all-cause mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.1; 95% CI, 0.4-2.9; P = .79) or PFS (HR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.5-1.5; P = .66) compared with those that were nonadherent or untreated. Among subjects requiring supplemental oxygen, those adherent to CPAP had improved PFS (HR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9; P = .03) compared with nonadherent or untreated subjects. INTERPRETATION: Neither OSA severity nor adherence to CPAP was associated with improved outcomes in patients with ILD except those requiring supplemental oxygen.

6.
Chest ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of circulating plasma biomarkers have been shown to predict survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but most were identified before the use of antifibrotic (AF) therapy in this population. Because pirfenidone and nintedanib have been shown to slow IPF progression and may prolong survival, the role of such biomarkers in AF-treated patients is unclear. RESEARCH QUESTION: To determine whether plasma concentration of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13), matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7), surfactant protein D (SP-D), chitinase-3-like protein-1 (YKL-40), vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1), and osteopontin (OPN) is associated with differential transplant-free survival (TFS) in AF-exposed and nonexposed patients with IPF. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A pooled, multicenter, propensity-matched analysis of IPF patients with and without AF exposure was performed. Optimal thresholds for biomarker dichotomization were identified in each group using iterative Cox regression. Longitudinal biomarker change was assessed in a subset of patients using linear mixed regression modeling. A clinical-molecular signature of IPF TFS was then derived and validated in an independent IPF cohort. RESULTS: Three hundred twenty-five patients were assessed, of which 68 AF-exposed and 172 nonexposed patients were included after propensity matching. CA-125, CXCL13, MMP7, YKL-40, and OPN predicted differential TFS in AF-exposed patients but at higher thresholds than in AF-nonexposed individuals. Plasma biomarker level generally increased over time in nonexposed patients but remained unchanged in AF-exposed patients. A clinical-molecular signature predicted decreased TFS in AF-exposed patients (hazard ratio [HR], 5.91; 95% CI, 2.25-15.5; P < .001) and maintained this association in an independent AF-exposed cohort (HR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.62-9.72; P = .003). INTERPRETATION: Most plasma biomarkers assessed predicted differential TFS in AF-exposed patients with IPF, but at higher thresholds than in nonexposed patients. A clinical-molecular signature of IPF TFS may provide a reliable predictor of outcome risk in AF-treated patients but requires additional research for optimization and validation.

7.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 64, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) play important roles in the turnover of extracellular matrix and in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This study aimed to determine the utility of circulating MMPs and TIMPs in distinguishing patients with IPF from controls and to explore associations between MMPs/TIMPs and measures of disease severity in patients with IPF. METHODS: The IPF cohort (n = 300) came from the IPF-PRO Registry, an observational multicenter registry of patients with IPF that was diagnosed or confirmed at the enrolling center in the past 6 months. Controls (n = 100) without known lung disease came from a population-based registry. Generalized linear models were used to compare circulating concentrations of MMPs 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 12, and 13 and TIMPs 1, 2, and 4 between patients with IPF and controls, and to investigate associations between circulating levels of these proteins and measures of IPF severity. Multivariable models were fit to identify the MMP/TIMPs that best distinguished patients with IPF from controls. RESULTS: All the MMP/TIMPs analyzed were present at significantly higher levels in patients with IPF compared with controls except for TIMP2. Multivariable analyses selected MMP8, MMP9 and TIMP1 as top candidates for distinguishing patients with IPF from controls. Higher concentrations of MMP7, MMP12, MMP13 and TIMP4 were significantly associated with lower diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) % predicted and higher composite physiologic index (worse disease). MMP9 was associated with the composite physiologic index. No MMP/TIMPs were associated with forced vital capacity % predicted. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating MMPs and TIMPs were broadly elevated among patients with IPF. Select MMP/TIMPs strongly associated with measures of disease severity. Our results identify potential MMP/TIMP targets for further development as disease-related biomarkers.

8.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 68, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164673

RESUMO

Compelling data have linked disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with lung dysbiosis and the resulting dysregulated local and systemic immune response. Moreover, prior therapeutic trials have suggested improved outcomes in these patients treated with either sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim or doxycycline. These trials have been limited by methodological concerns. This trial addresses the primary hypothesis that long-term treatment with antimicrobial therapy increases the time-to-event endpoint of respiratory hospitalization or all-cause mortality compared to usual care treatment in patients with IPF. We invoke numerous innovative features to achieve this goal, including: 1) utilizing a pragmatic randomized trial design; 2) collecting targeted biological samples to allow future exploration of 'personalized' therapy; and 3) developing a strong partnership between the NHLBI, a broad range of investigators, industry, and philanthropic organizations. The trial will randomize approximately 500 individuals in a 1:1 ratio to either antimicrobial therapy or usual care. The site principal investigator will declare their preferred initial antimicrobial treatment strategy (trimethoprim 160 mg/ sulfamethoxazole 800 mg twice a day plus folic acid 5 mg daily or doxycycline 100 mg once daily if body weight is < 50 kg or 100 mg twice daily if ≥50 kg) for the participant prior to randomization. Participants randomized to antimicrobial therapy will receive a voucher to help cover the additional prescription drug costs. Additionally, those participants will have 4-5 scheduled blood draws over the initial 24 months of therapy for safety monitoring. Blood sampling for DNA sequencing and genome wide transcriptomics will be collected before therapy. Blood sampling for transcriptomics and oral and fecal swabs for determination of the microbiome communities will be collected before and after study completion. As a pragmatic study, participants in both treatment arms will have limited in-person visits with the enrolling clinical center. Visits are limited to assessments of lung function and other clinical parameters at time points prior to randomization and at months 12, 24, and 36. All participants will be followed until the study completion for the assessment of clinical endpoints related to hospitalization and mortality events. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02759120.

9.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(3): 258-266, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a lung inflammatory process caused mainly by sepsis. Most previous studies that identified genetic risks for ARDS focused on candidates with biological relevance. We aimed to identify novel genetic variants associated with ARDS susceptibility and to provide complementary functional evidence of their effect in gene regulation. METHODS: We did a case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1935 European individuals, using patients with sepsis-associated ARDS as cases and patients with sepsis without ARDS as controls. The discovery stage included 672 patients admitted into a network of Spanish intensive care units between January, 2002, and January, 2017. The replication stage comprised 1345 individuals from two independent datasets from the MESSI cohort study (Sep 22, 2008-Nov 30, 2017; USA) and the VISEP (April 1, 2003-June 30, 2005) and MAXSEP (Oct 1, 2007-March 31, 2010) trials of the SepNet study (Germany). Results from discovery and replication stages were meta-analysed to identify association signals. We then used RNA sequencing data from lung biopsies, in-silico analyses, and luciferase reporter assays to assess the functionallity of associated variants. FINDINGS: We identified a novel genome-wide significant association with sepsis-associated ARDS susceptibility (rs9508032, odds ratio [OR] 0·61, 95% CI 0·41-0·91, p=5·18 × 10-8) located within the Fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (FLT1) gene, which encodes vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR-1). The region containing the sentinel variant and its best proxies acted as a silencer for the FLT1 promoter, and alleles with protective effects in ARDS further reduced promoter activity (p=0·0047). A literature mining of all previously described ARDS genes validated the association of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA; OR 0·55, 95% CI 0·41-0·73; p=4·69 × 10-5). INTERPRETATION: A common variant within the FLT1 gene is associated with sepsis-associated ARDS. Our findings support a role for the vascular endothelial growth factor signalling pathway in ARDS pathogenesis and identify VEGFR-1 as a potential therapeutic target. FUNDING: Instituto de Salud Carlos III, European Regional Development Funds, Instituto Tecnológico y de Energías Renovables.

11.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 227, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease for which diagnosis and management remain challenging. Defining the circulating proteome in IPF may identify targets for biomarker development. We sought to quantify the circulating proteome in IPF, determine differential protein expression between subjects with IPF and controls, and examine relationships between protein expression and markers of disease severity. METHODS: This study involved 300 patients with IPF from the IPF-PRO Registry and 100 participants without known lung disease. Plasma collected at enrolment was analysed using aptamer-based proteomics (1305 proteins). Linear regression was used to determine differential protein expression between participants with IPF and controls and associations between protein expression and disease severity measures (percent predicted values for forced vital capacity [FVC] and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide [DLco]; composite physiologic index [CPI]). Multivariable models were fit to select proteins that best distinguished IPF from controls. RESULTS: Five hundred fifty one proteins had significantly different levels between IPF and controls, of which 47 showed a |log2(fold-change)| > 0.585 (i.e. > 1.5-fold difference). Among the proteins with the greatest difference in levels in patients with IPF versus controls were the glycoproteins thrombospondin 1 and von Willebrand factor and immune-related proteins C-C motif chemokine ligand 17 and bactericidal permeability-increasing protein. Multivariable classification modelling identified nine proteins that, when considered together, distinguished IPF versus control status with high accuracy (area under receiver operating curve = 0.99). Among participants with IPF, 14 proteins were significantly associated with FVC % predicted, 23 with DLco % predicted, 14 with CPI. Four proteins (roundabout homolog-2, spondin-1, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule 5) demonstrated the expected relationship across all three disease severity measures. When considered in pathways analyses, proteins associated with the presence or severity of IPF were enriched in pathways involved in platelet and haemostatic responses, vascular or platelet derived growth factor signalling, immune activation, and extracellular matrix organisation. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IPF have a distinct circulating proteome and can be distinguished using a nine-protein profile. Several proteins strongly associate with disease severity. The proteins identified may represent biomarker candidates and implicate pathways for further investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01915511).


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/sangue , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Proteogenômica/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteômica/métodos
12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14802, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615996

RESUMO

Compelling preclinical studies indicate that low-dose carbon monoxide (CO) abrogates experimental lung fibrosis. We recently reported the results of a multicenter, double-blinded, clinical trial of inhaled CO in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Identifying no significantly changes in metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7) serum concentration, or secondary endpoints of physiologic measurements, hospitalization, death, or patient-reported outcomes. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of low dose CO exposure (100-200 ppm) for 12 weeks on genome-wide gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from these IPF study subjects. We conducted transcriptome profiling on 38 IPF subjects with time points available at 0, 12, and 24 weeks. Total RNA isolated from PBMCs was hybridized onto the Affymetrix Human Gene 2.0 ST Array. We identified 621 genes significantly upregulated in the 24-week CO exposed group compared with the 12-week. Pathway analysis demonstrated association with Oxidative Phosphorylation (adjusted P < 0.05). We identified a clear CO signature dominated with 23 oxidative phosphorylation-related genes (FDR <10%). We confirmed the expression of nine selected gene products using Nanostring's nCounter analysis system. These findings suggest this signature may serve as a potential genomic biomarker for CO exposure and for potential titration of dosage to allow precision testing of therapies in future low dose CO therapeutic studies in IPF.

13.
Eur Respir J ; 54(3)2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285303

RESUMO

Nintedanib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We investigated the cardiovascular safety of nintedanib using pooled data from the TOMORROW and INPULSIS trials.Cardiovascular events were assessed post hoc in patients with a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or one or more cardiovascular risk factors at baseline ("higher cardiovascular risk") and patients with no history of atherosclerotic CVD and no cardiovascular risk factors at baseline ("lower cardiovascular risk").Incidence rates were calculated for 1231 patients (n=723 nintedanib and n=508 placebo), of whom 89.9% had higher cardiovascular risk. Incidence rates of major adverse cardiovascular events were similar in the nintedanib and placebo groups in patients with higher cardiovascular risk (3.88 (95% CI 2.58-5.84) and 3.49 (95% CI 2.10-5.79) per 100 patient-years, respectively) and lower cardiovascular risk (4.78 (95% CI 1.54-14.82) and 5.37 (95% CI 1.73-16.65) per 100 patient-years, respectively). Incidence rates of myocardial infarction in the nintedanib and placebo groups, respectively, were 3.03 (95% CI 1.91-4.81) and 1.16 (95% CI 0.48-2.79) per 100 patient-years in patients with higher cardiovascular risk and 1.59 (95% CI 0.22-11.29) and 1.78 (95% CI 0.25-12.64) per 100 patient-years in patients with lower cardiovascular risk. Incidence rates of other ischaemic heart disease in the nintedanib and placebo groups, respectively, were 1.85 (95% CI 1.02-3.34) and 3.28 (95% CI 1.94-5.54) per 100 patient-years in patients with higher cardiovascular risk and 0 and 1.80 (95% CI 0.25-12.78) per 100 patient-years in patients with lower cardiovascular risk.These data help to establish the cardiovascular safety profile of nintedanib in IPF.

14.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(11): 1402-1413, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339356

RESUMO

Rationale: Interstitial lung abnormalities (ILAs) are associated with the highest genetic risk locus for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF); however, the extent to which there are unique associations among individuals with ILAs or additional overlap with IPF is not known.Objectives: To perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ILAs.Methods: ILAs and a subpleural-predominant subtype were assessed on chest computed tomography (CT) scans in the AGES (Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility), COPDGene (Genetic Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease [COPD]), Framingham Heart, ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points), MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), and SPIROMICS (Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study) studies. We performed a GWAS of ILAs in each cohort and combined the results using a meta-analysis. We assessed for overlapping associations in independent GWASs of IPF.Measurements and Main Results: Genome-wide genotyping data were available for 1,699 individuals with ILAs and 10,274 control subjects. The MUC5B (mucin 5B) promoter variant rs35705950 was significantly associated with both ILAs (P = 2.6 × 10-27) and subpleural ILAs (P = 1.6 × 10-29). We discovered novel genome-wide associations near IPO11 (rs6886640, P = 3.8 × 10-8) and FCF1P3 (rs73199442, P = 4.8 × 10-8) with ILAs, and near HTRE1 (rs7744971, P = 4.2 × 10-8) with subpleural-predominant ILAs. These novel associations were not associated with IPF. Among 12 previously reported IPF GWAS loci, five (DPP9, DSP, FAM13A, IVD, and MUC5B) were significantly associated (P < 0.05/12) with ILAs.Conclusions: In a GWAS of ILAs in six studies, we confirmed the association with a MUC5B promoter variant and found strong evidence for an effect of previously described IPF loci; however, novel ILA associations were not associated with IPF. These findings highlight common genetically driven biologic pathways between ILAs and IPF, and also suggest distinct ones.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucina-5B/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas Semelhantes à Proteína de Ligação a TATA-Box , beta Carioferinas/genética
15.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(9): 771-779, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A hallmark of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the excess accumulation of extracellular matrix in the lungs. Degradation of extracellular matrix generates free-circulating protein fragments called neoepitopes. The aim of the INMARK trial was to investigate changes in neoepitopes as predictors of disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and the effect of nintedanib on these biomarkers. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis within the past 3 years and forced vital capacity (FVC) of 80% predicted or higher were eligible to participate. Patients were recruited from hospitals, private practices, clinical research units, and academic medical centres. Patients were randomly assigned (1:2) with the use of a pseudo-random number generator to receive oral nintedanib 150 mg twice a day or placebo for 12 weeks in a double-blind fashion, followed by open-label nintedanib for 40 weeks. The primary endpoint was the rate of change in C-reactive protein (CRP) degraded by matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 8 (CRPM) from baseline to week 12 in the intention-to-treat population. The trial has been completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02788474, and with the European Clinical Trials Database, number 2015-003148-38. FINDINGS: Between June 27, 2016, and May 15, 2017, 347 patients were randomly assigned to the nintedanib group (n=116) or to the placebo group (n=231). One patient from the placebo group was not treated owing to a randomisation error. At baseline, mean FVC was 97·5% (SD 13·5) predicted. In the double-blind period, 116 patients received nintedanib and 230 patients received placebo. The rate of change in CRPM from baseline to week 12 was -2·57 × 10-3 ng/mL/month in the nintedanib group and -1·90 × 10-3 ng/mL/month in the placebo group (between-group difference -0·66 × 10-3 ng/mL/month [95% CI -6·21 × 10-3 to 4·88 × 10-3]; p=0·8146). The adjusted rate of change in FVC over 12 weeks was 5·9 mL in the nintedanib group and -70·2 mL in the placebo group (difference 76·1 mL/12 weeks [31·7 to 120·4]). In patients who received placebo for 12 weeks followed by open-label nintedanib, rising concentrations of CRPM over 12 weeks were associated with disease progression (absolute decline in FVC ≥10% predicted or death) over 52 weeks. In the double-blind period, serious adverse events were reported in eight (7%) patients given nintedanib and 18 (8%) patients given placebo. Grade 3 diarrhoea was reported in two (2%) patients in the nintedanib group and two (1%) patients in the placebo group. No patients had grade 4 diarrhoea. INTERPRETATION: In patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and preserved lung function, treatment with nintedanib versus placebo for 12 weeks did not affect the rate of change in CRPM but was associated with a reduced rate of decline in FVC. These results suggest that change in CRPM is not a marker of response to nintedanib in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim.

16.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(9): 1154-1163, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268371

RESUMO

Rationale: Rare genetic variants in telomere-related genes have been identified in familial, idiopathic, and rheumatoid arthritis-associated pulmonary fibrosis. Short peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) telomere length predicts poor outcomes in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP).Objectives: Determine the prevalence and clinical relevance of rare protein-altering variants in telomere-related genes in patients with CHP.Methods: Next-generation sequences from two CHP cohorts were analyzed to identify variants in TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase), TERC (telomerase RNA component), DKC1 (dyskerin pseudouridine synthase 1), RTEL1 (regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1), PARN (poly[A]-specific RNase), and TINF2 (TERF1-interacting nuclear factor 2). To qualify, variants were required to have a minor allele frequency less than 0.005 and be predicted to be damaging to protein function. Variant status (binary variable) was used in statistical association tests, including Cox proportional hazard models for transplant-free survival. PBL telomere length was measured using quantitative PCR.Measurements and Main Results: Qualifying variants were identified in 16 of 144 patients (11.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.5-17.4) in the discovery cohort and 17 of 209 patients (8.1%; 95% CI, 4.8-12.7) in the replication cohort. Age- and ancestry-adjusted PBL telomere length was significantly shorter in the presence of a variant in both cohorts (discovery: -561 bp; 95% CI, -933 to -190; P = 0.003; replication: -612 bp; 95% CI, -870 to -354; P = 5.30 × 10-6). Variant status was significantly associated with transplant-free survival in both cohorts (discovery: age-, sex-, and ancestry-adjusted hazard ratio, 3.73; 95% CI, 1.92-7.28; P = 0.0001; replication: hazard ratio, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.26-5.88; P = 0.011).Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients diagnosed with CHP have rare, protein-altering variants in telomere-related genes, which are associated with short peripheral blood telomere length and significantly reduced transplant-free survival.


Assuntos
Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/genética , Telômero/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Estudos de Coortes , DNA Helicases/genética , Exorribonucleases/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , RNA/genética , Telomerase/genética
17.
ERJ Open Res ; 5(2)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205927

RESUMO

Background: Specific common and rare single nucleotide variants (SNVs) increase the likelihood of developing sporadic idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We performed target-enriched sequencing on three loci previously identified by a genome-wide association study to gain a deeper understanding of the full spectrum of IPF genetic risk and performed a two-stage case-control association study. Methods: A total of 1.7 Mb of DNA from 181 IPF patients was deep sequenced (>100×) across 11p15.5, 14q21.3 and 17q21.31 loci. Comparisons were performed against 501 unrelated controls and replication studies were assessed in 3968 subjects. Results: 36 SNVs were associated with IPF susceptibility in the discovery stage (p<5.0×10-8). After meta-analysis, the strongest association corresponded to rs35705950 (p=9.27×10-57) located upstream from the mucin 5B gene (MUC5B). Additionally, a novel association was found for two co-inherited low-frequency SNVs (<5%) in MUC5AC, predicting a missense amino acid change in mucin 5AC (lowest p=2.27×10-22). Conditional and haplotype analyses in 11p15.5 supported the existence of an additional contribution of MUC5AC variants to IPF risk. Conclusions: This study reinforces the significant IPF associations of these loci and implicates MUC5AC as another key player in IPF susceptibility.

18.
Chest ; 156(4): 706-714, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin peptides have been implicated in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) pathogenesis. Angiotensin modulators are used to treat arterial hypertension, a frequent comorbidity of IPF. This post hoc analysis evaluated associations of antihypertensive treatments with disease-related outcomes in IPF. METHODS: All patients randomized to placebo (n = 624) in the CAPACITY and ASCEND studies were categorized by antihypertensive treatment at baseline. Outcomes of disease progression (first occurrence of ≥ 10% absolute decline in % predicted FVC, ≥ 50-m decline in 6-min walk distance, or death) and all-cause mortality were assessed over 52 weeks. RESULTS: At baseline, 111 and 121 patients were receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), respectively; 392 were receiving neither. In multivariable analyses adjusted for differences in baseline characteristics compared with the non-ACEi/ARB group, ACEi treatment (hazard ratio [HR], 0.6 [95% CI, 0.4-0.9]; P = .026), but not ARB (HR, 0.9 [95% CI, 0.6-1.2]; P = .413), was associated with slower disease progression. Furthermore, the increase in all-cause mortality associated with cardiovascular disease was not observed in the ACEi group (HR, 1.1 [95% CI, 0.5-2.9]; P = .782), which presented a similar percentage of IPF-related mortality as the non-ACEi/ARB group (3.6% vs 3.6%). In contrast, patients in the ARB group had greater risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 2.5 [95% CI, 1.2-5.2]). These observations were validated in a pooled analysis that included patients from the INSPIRE trial. CONCLUSIONS: Prospective clinical trials are needed to evaluate whether angiotensin modulators may be beneficial to clinical outcomes in IPF. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; Nos.: NCT01366209, NCT00287716, NCT00287729, NCT00075998; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov).


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Am J Med Sci ; 357(5): 379-383, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010464

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common form of interstitial lung disease. IPF is a complex disease, with environmental and genetic factors variably contributing to disease susceptibility and outcomes. A host of common gene variants with modest effect size impart disease risk in patients with sporadic IPF, while rare variants with large effect size influence disease risk in those with familial interstitial pneumonia. In this review, we highlight several common and rare variants underpinning IPF risk and call attention to recently published studies informing our understanding of this risk.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/genética , Humanos
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