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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 8, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650658

RESUMO

Introduction: HIV infection is a well-known risk factor for stroke, especially in young adults. In Cameroon, there is a death of data on the outcome of stroke among persons living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to assess the cardiovascular risk profile and mortality in PLWH who had a stroke. Methods: this was a retrospective cohort study of all PLWH aged ≥18 years admitted for stroke between January 2010 and December 2019 to the Cardiology Unit of the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon. Cardiovascular risk was estimated using the modified Framingham score, with subsequent dichotomization into low and intermediate/high risk. Mortality was assessed on day 7 during hospitalization (medical records), at one month, and one year by telephone call to a relative. Results: a total of 43 PLWH who had a stroke were enrolled. Their mean age was 52.1 (standard deviation 12.9) years, most of them were female (69.8%, n = 30). There were 25 (58.1%) patients on concomitant antiretroviral therapy. The Framingham cardiovascular risk score at admission was low in 29 patients (67.4%) and intermediate to high in 14 patients (32.6%). Ischemic stroke was the most common type of stroke in 36 persons (83.7%). The length of hospital stay was 11.4 (interquartile range 9.2-13.7) days. Mortality at 1 year was 46.5% (n = 20). Conclusion: stroke mortality was high in this population of PLWH. Most patients had a low Framingham score, suggesting that this risk estimation tool underestimates cardiovascular risk in PLWH.

2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 55, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422178

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained arrhythmia, is one of the risk factors with the largest relative increase in attributed cardiovascular mortality in Africa. There are important knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of AF in Africa, along with inadequate service provision for cardiac arrhythmias including AF. This paper comments on the available data on the prevalence and correlates of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with AF in Africa. Two studies from Tunisia revealed a high prevalence of OSA based on polysomnography (77% and 90%) among patients with AF. Patients with OSA were more likely to report snoring, were older and had longer AF duration compared to those without OSA. The implications of these findings are discussed. Furthermore, key points on the mechanisms underlying the association between AF and OSA, the impact of OSA on AF-related outcomes and the screening and management of OSA in patients with AF are highlighted.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Polissonografia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ronco/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tunísia/epidemiologia
3.
Atherosclerosis ; 333: 48-55, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a complex disease with a strong genetic basis. While previous studies have combined common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) into a polygenic risk score (PRS) to predict CAD risk, this association is poorly characterised. We performed a meta-analysis to estimate the effect of PRS on the risk of CAD. METHODS: Online databases were searched for studies reporting PRS and CAD. PRS computation was based on log-odds (PRSLN), pruning or clumping and thresholding (PRSP/C + T), Lassosum regression (PRSLassosum), LDpred (PRSLDpred), or metaGRS (PRSmetaGRS). The reported odds ratio (OR), hazard ratio (HR), C-indexes and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were pooled in a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Forty-nine studies were included (979,286 individuals). There was a significant association between 1-standard deviation [SD] increment in PRS and adjusted risks of both incident and prevalent CAD (OR [95% CI]: 1.67 [1.57-1.77] for PRSmetaGRS, 1.46 [1.26-1.68] for PRSLDpred). The risk of incident CAD was highest for PRSP/C + T (HR [95% CI]: 1.49 [1.26-1.78]), PRSmetaGRS (1.37 [1.27-1.47]), and PRSLDpred (1.36 [1.31-1.42]). Analysis of model performance demonstrated that PRS predicted incident CAD with C-index of up to 0.71. Importantly, addition of PRS to clinical risk scores resulted in modest but statistically significant improvements in CAD risk prediction, with 1.5% observed for PRSP/C + T (p < 0.001) and 1.6% for PRSLDpred (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Polygenic risk score is strongly associated with increased risks of CAD. Future prospective studies should explore the usefulness of polygenic risk scores for identifying individuals at a high risk of developing CAD.

4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(10): 106012, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation after a first cardiovascular event reduces the risk of recurrent vascular events and mortality. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize data on the rates, predictors, and the impact of smoking cessation in patients after a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched to identify all published studies providing relevant data through May 20, 2021. Random-effects meta-analysis method was used to pool proportions. Some findings were summarized narratively. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies were included. The pooled smoking cessation rates were 51.0% (8 studies, n = 1738) at 3 months, 44.4% (7 studies, n = 1920) at 6 months, 43.7% (12 studies, n = 1604) at 12 months, and 49.8% (8 studies, n = 2549) at 24 months or more of follow-up. Increased disability and intensive smoking cessation support programs were associated with a higher likelihood of smoking cessation, whereas alcohol consumption and depression had an inverse effect. Two studies showed that patients who quit smoking after a stroke or a TIA had substantially lower risk of recurrent stroke, death, and a composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, and death. CONCLUSION: Smoking cessation in stroke survivors is associated with reduced recurrent vascular events and death. About half of smokers who experience a stroke or a TIA stop smoking afterwards. Those with low post-stroke disability, who consume alcohol, or have depression are less likely to quit. Intensive support programs can increase the likelihood of smoking cessation.

5.
Europace ; 23(10): 1528-1538, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279604

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study is to summarize data from prospective cohort studies on clinical predictors of stroke and systemic embolism in anticoagulant-naïve atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: EMBASE, MEDLINE, Global Index Medicus, and Web of Science were searched to identify all studies published by 28 November 2019. Forty-seven studies reporting data from 1 756 984 participants in 15 countries were included. The pooled incidence of stroke in anticoagulant-naïve AF patients was 23.8 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 19.7-28.2). Older age was associated with incident stroke or systemic embolism, with a pooled hazard ratio (HR) of 2.14 (95% CI 1.85-2.47), 2.83 (95% CI 2.27-3.51), and 6.87 (95% CI 6.33-7.44) for age 65-75, ≥75, and ≥85 years, respectively. Other predictors of stroke or systemic embolism included history of stroke or TIA (HR 2.84, 95% CI 2.19-3.67), hypertension (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.37-1.86), diabetes (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20-1.37), heart failure (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.11-1.40), peripheral artery disease (pooled HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.04-1.75), vascular disease (pooled HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.06-1.39), and prior myocardial infarction (pooled HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03-1.14). Female sex was a predictor of thromboembolism in studies outside Asia (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.15-1.59), but not in those done in Asia (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.81-1.10). CONCLUSION: This study confirms age and prior stroke as the strongest predictors of stroke or systemic embolism in anticoagulant-naive AF patients. Other predictors include hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, and vascular disease. Female sex seems not to be universally associated with stroke or systemic embolism.

6.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 41, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211827

RESUMO

The World Heart Federation (WHF) commenced a Roadmap initiative in 2015 to reduce the global burden of cardiovascular disease and resultant burgeoning of healthcare costs. Roadmaps provide a blueprint for implementation of priority solutions for the principal cardiovascular diseases leading to death and disability. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of these conditions and is an increasing problem due to ageing of the world's population and an increase in cardiovascular risk factors that predispose to AF. The goal of the AF roadmap was to provide guidance on priority interventions that are feasible in multiple countries, and to identify roadblocks and potential strategies to overcome them. Since publication of the AF Roadmap in 2017, there have been many technological advances including devices and artificial intelligence for identification and prediction of unknown AF, better methods to achieve rhythm control, and widespread uptake of smartphones and apps that could facilitate new approaches to healthcare delivery and increasing community AF awareness. In addition, the World Health Organisation added the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) to the Essential Medicines List, making it possible to increase advocacy for their widespread adoption as therapy to prevent stroke. These advances motivated the WHF to commission a 2020 AF Roadmap update. Three years after the original Roadmap publication, the identified barriers and solutions were judged still relevant, and progress has been slow. This 2020 Roadmap update reviews the significant changes since 2017 and identifies priority areas for achieving the goals of reducing death and disability related to AF, particularly targeted at low-middle income countries. These include advocacy to increase appreciation of the scope of the problem; plugging gaps in guideline management and prevention through physician education, increasing patient health literacy, and novel ways to increase access to integrated healthcare including mHealth and digital transformations; and greater emphasis on achieving practical solutions to national and regional entrenched barriers. Despite the advances reviewed in this update, the task will not be easy, but the health rewards of implementing solutions that are both innovative and practical will be great.

7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the last decade, many studies have assessed the performance of malaria tests on non-invasively collected specimens, but no systematic review has hitherto estimated the overall performance of these tests. We report here the first meta-analysis estimating the diagnostic performance of malaria diagnostic tests performed on saliva, urine, faeces, skin odour ('sniff and tell') and hair, using either microscopy or PCR on blood sample as reference test. METHODS: We searched on PubMed, EMBASE, African Journals Online and Cochrane Infectious Diseases from inception until 19 January 2021 for relevant primary studies. A random effects model was used to estimate the overall performance of various diagnostic methods on different types of specimen. RESULTS: Eighteen studies providing 30 data sets were included in the meta-analysis. The overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic OR (DOR) of PCR were 84.5% (95% CI 79.3% to 88.6%), 97.3% (95% CI 95.3% to 98.5%) and 184.9 (95% CI 95.8 to 356.9) in saliva, respectively; 57.4% (95% CI 41.4% to 72.1%), 98.6% (95% CI 97.3% to 99.3%) and 47.2 (95% CI 22.1 to 101.1) in urine, respectively. The overall sensitivity, specificity and DOR of rapid diagnostic test for malaria in urine was 59.8% (95% CI 40.0% to 76.9%), 96.9% (95% CI 91.0% to 99.0%) and 30.8 (95% CI:23.5 to 40.4). CONCLUSION: In settings where PCR is available, saliva and urine samples should be considered for PCR-based malaria diagnosis only if blood samples cannot be collected. The performance of rapid diagnostic testing in the urine is limited, especially its sensitivity. Malaria testing on non-invasively collected specimen still needs substantial improvement.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Malária , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Microscopia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 32(8): 2179-2188, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize data on the rates and predictors of left atrial thrombus/left atrial appendage thrombus (LAT/LAAT) detection by transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) before electrical cardioversion (ECV) or catheter ablation (CA) for atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Web of Science Core Collection were searched to identify all studies providing relevant data and published by October 7, 2020. A random-effects meta-analysis method was used to pool effect size estimates. RESULTS: A total of 85 studies were included, reporting data from 56 660 patients with AF. In patients undergoing CA and ECV, the pooled prevalence of LAT/LAAT was 1.8% and 7.5% in those not on oral anticoagulation (OAC), 1.8% and 5.5% in those taking OAC, and 1.3% and 4.9% in case of adequate OAC, respectively. According to the type of OAC, the prevalence was 2.0% and 7.6% for vitamin K antagonist, 1.3% and 3.5% for direct oral anticoagulant. Predictors of LAT/LAAT detection were nonparoxysmal AF (odds ratio [OR]: 3.6, 95% confidence interval: 2.4-5.2), hypertension (OR: 2.9, 1.2-7.0), previous stroke (OR: 3.0, 1.6-5.63), heart failure (OR: 4.3, 2.7-6.8), and CHADS2 score ≥2 (OR: 3.3, 1.9-5.8) for patients undergoing CA; and heart failure (OR: 2.8, 1.3-6.2) and the CHA2 DS2 -VASc score (OR: 2.55, 1.5-4.5) for those undergoing ECV. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of LAT/LAAT in AF patients undergoing ECV or CA varies widely, mainly due to differences in patient risk profiles and OAC types. Further research should determine whether the predictors of LAT/LAAT detection identified by this study could be used to select patients who require preprocedural TEE.

11.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 34: 100780, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948484

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize data on atrial fibrillation (AF) detection rates and predictors across different rhythm monitoring strategies in patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS) or embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science were searched to identify all published studies providing relevant data through July 6, 2020. Random-effects meta-analysis method was used to pool estimates. Results: We included 47 studies reporting on a pooled population of 8,215 patients with CS or ESUS. Using implantable cardiac monitor (ICM), the pooled rate of AF was 12.2% (95% CI 9.4-15.0) at 3 months, 16.0% (95% CI 13.2-18.8) at 6 months, 18.7% (95% CI 15.7-21.7) at 12 months, 22.8% (95% CI 19.1-26.5) at 24 months, and 28.5% (95% CI 17.6-39.3) at 36 months. AF rates were significantly higher in patients with ESUS vs CS (22.0% vs 14.2%; p < 0.001) at 6 months, and in studies using Reveal LINQ vs Reveal XT ICM (19.1% vs 13.0%; p = 0.001) at 12 months. Using mobile cardiac outpatient telemetry (MCOT), the pooled rate of AF was 13.7% (95% CI 10.2-17.2) at 1 month. Predictors of AF detection with ICM included older age, CHA2DS2-VASc score, left atrial enlargement, P wave maximal duration and prolonged PR interval. Conclusion: The yield of ICM increases with the duration of monitoring. More than a quarter of patients with CS or ESUS will be diagnosed with AF during follow-up. About one in seven patients had AF detected within a month of MCOT, suggesting that a non-invasive rhythm monitoring strategy should be considered before invasive monitoring.

12.
13.
J Neurol Sci ; 425: 117444, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to summarize the evidence on the risk of thromboembolism associated with carotid and aortic atherosclerosis in patients with AF, and the potential impact of their inclusion in current stroke risk stratification scores. METHODS: MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE were systematically searched to identify all published studies providing relevant data through 28 February 2021. RESULTS: We identified 10 eligible studies. There was high heterogeneity across studies, precluding a meta-analysis. Carotid stenosis was not associated with incident ischemic stroke in three prospective studies, including the SPAF II trial and the ROCKET-AF trial. An association between carotid stenosis and thromboembolism was found in two studies, with a potential reporting bias due to their retrospective design. The evidence suggesting that carotid plaque predicts stroke or transient ischemic attack in AF patients were more consistent in the four studies evaluating this association. The inclusion of carotid plaque and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) into stroke risk stratification tools for AF patients improved their performance. Data on the association of aortic plaque with thromboembolism is scarce in patients with AF. The two studies reporting on this association suggest that aortic plaque alone does not predict incident ischemic stroke. CONCLUSION: Available data suggest an association of carotid atherosclerosis with the risk of stroke and transient ischemic attack in patients with AF. Future studies should evaluate whether incorporating cIMT and characteristics of carotid and aortic plaques into scoring systems would improve stroke prediction and prevention in patients with AF.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
15.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) has been extensively studied in America, Europe, and Asia, but remains unclear in Africa. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to summarize available data on the epidemiology of IIMs in Africa. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and African Journals Online for studies published up to December 30, 2020, and reporting epidemiological data on IIMs in Africa. Data were combined through narrative synthesis. The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020186781. RESULTS: We included 39 studies reporting 683 cases (71.7% adults) of IIMs. Incidence rates of ~7.5/1,000,000 person-years and 1.2/1,000,000 person-years were estimated for dermatomyositis (DM), whereas polymyositis (PM) had an incidence rate of 8.8/1,000,000 person-years. Prevalence estimates of 11.49/100,000 and 11/100,000 (95% confidence interval, 0-32) were provided for IIMs and the PM subtype, respectively. Mean age at diagnosis ranged from 7.9 to 57.2 years, and 50% to 100% of the patients were females. Main subtypes of adult-onset IIMs were DM (21%-93%) and PM (12%-79%), whereas the commonest juvenile subtype was juvenile DM (5.8%-9%). Skeletal muscle involvement (56%-100%) was the main disease feature, and esophagus was the most commonly affected internal organ (6%-65.2%). Anti-Jo1/histidyl tRNA synthetase (7%-100%) and anti-Mi2 (17%-45%) antibodies were the most frequent myositis specific antibodies. Early mortality was high (7.8%-45%), and main death causes were infections, cancers and organ damage in respiratory and cardiovascular domains. CONCLUSIONS: Apart from a potential younger age at onset of adult IIMs in Africa, current sparse data mostly suggest a similar epidemiology between Africa and other regions. Further high-quality studies are required to validate these findings.

16.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 23(6): 1186-1193, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783138

RESUMO

The diagnostic accuracy of the electrocardiogram for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is limited. Recently, Peguero and collaborators proposed a novel voltage criterion for its detection with reportedly higher accuracy than the commonly used Cornell and Sokolow-Lyon criteria. While studies done in various populations have confirmed it, there are no available data from black African populations. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a population from Cameroon to compare the Peguero-Lo Presti criterion to the older Cornell, Sokolow-Lyon, and Cornell product criteria, pertaining to their sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), with echocardiography as the reference standard. The study population consisted of 238 participants (54.2% female) with a mean age of 58 (SD 13) years. On echocardiography, the prevalence of LVH was 45.3% (n = 108). The sensitivity was 48.14%, 63.89%, 63.89%, and 67.29% for the Sokolow-Lyon, Peguero-Lo Presti, Cornell, and Cornell product criteria, respectively. The specificity was 73.84%, 75.97%, 79.23%, and 82.31% for the Peguero-Lo Presti, Cornell product, Cornell, and Sokolow-Lyon criteria, respectively. The overall accuracy of the Peguero-Lo Presti (AUC = 0.689) was not significantly different from that of the Cornell (AUC = 0.714), the Cornell product (AUC = 0.717), and the Sokolow-Lyon (AUC = 0.652) (all p Ëƒ .05). Hypertension and gender influenced the agreement between ECG criteria and echocardiography in the detection of LVH. In conclusion, in this black African population, Peguero-Lo Presti was not significantly more or less accurate than Cornell or Sokolow-Lyon.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda , Afro-Americanos , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 9(3): e1609, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hearing impairment (HI) genes are poorly studied in African populations. METHODS: We used whole exome sequencing (WES) to investigate pathogenic and likely pathogenic (PLP) variants in 10 individuals with HI, from four multiplex families from Cameroon, two of which were previously unresolved with a targeted gene enrichment (TGE) panel of 116 genes. In silico protein modelling, western blotting and live imaging of transfected HEK293 cells were performed to study protein structure and functions. RESULTS: All PLP variants previously identified with TGE were replicated. In one previously unresolved family, we found a homozygous frameshift PLP variant in GRXCR2 (OMIM: 615762), NM_001080516.1(GRXCR2):c.251delC p.(Ile85SerfsTer33), in two affected siblings; and additionally, in 1/80 unrelated individuals affected with non-syndromic hearing impairment (NSHI). The GRXCR2-c.251delC variant introduced a premature stop codon, leading to truncation and loss of a zinc-finger domain. Fluorescence confocal microscopy tracked the wild-type GRXCR2 protein to the cellular membrane, unlike the mutated GRXCR2 protein. CONCLUSION: This study confirms GRXCR2 as a HI-associated gene. GRXCR2 should be included to the currently available TGE panels for HI diagnosis.

18.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(5): 721, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523089
19.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 13(1): 221-233, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516400

RESUMO

Biomarkers derived from the key components of the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF) and its complications have the potential to play an important role in earlier characterization of AF phenotype and in risk prediction of adverse clinical events, which may translate into improved management strategies. C-reactive protein, natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponins, growth differentiation factor-15, and fibroblast growth factor-23 have been shown to be the most promising biomarkers in AF. Some biomarkers have already been included in clinical risk scores to predict postoperative AF, thromboembolism, major bleeding, and death. Considerably more work is needed to bring these novel biomarkers into routine clinical management of patients with AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Troponina/análise
20.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(1): 78-90, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426387

RESUMO

Introduction: Kidney biopsy is an important tool for making diagnoses and for assessing the drug treatment requirements and disease prognosis in the management of kidney diseases. There are variations in the rate of complications associated with kidney biopsies across countries, and this depends on various clinical and technical factors. The aim of this study is to report on complications associated with kidney biopsy performed in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: Two reviewers searched studies in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Reviews, and African Journals Online. A random effects meta-analysis method was used to pool estimates of complications. Results: We identified 39 studies reporting on 19,500 kidney biopsies with overall complications (major + minor) rate of 14.9% (95% confidence interval = 11.4%-18.7%). Fewer complications were reported in biopsies performed with real-time ultrasound scans compared to those pre-marked using ultrasound or blind procedures (12.4% vs. 14.9% vs. 24.5%; P = 0.037), respectively. Complications, albeit lower for procedures performed with automated needles (13.3%), were not significantly different from those performed with nonautomated needles (17.3%; P = 0.588). Major complications included macroscopic hematuria (1.48%), nephrectomy (0.04%), blood loss requiring red cell transfusion (0.24%), angiographic intervention (0.22%), and death (0.01%). Conclusion: Complications associated with kidney biopsy in low- and middle-income countries are low, are comparable to those in other settings, and occur more sparingly when real-time ultrasound techniques or automated kidney biopsy needles are used. This suggests the need to expand the use of this procedure to improve diagnosis of kidney pathologies and choice of therapy when indicated.

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