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Braz J Biol ; 83: e246727, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468521


Unavailability of probiotics in fish digestive system fingerlings is unable to digest and absorb their food properly. The current research was conducted to investigate the influence of probiotics added Linseed meal based (LMB) diet on hematology and carcass composition of Labeo rohita juveniles. Hematological parameters are essential diagnostics used to estimate the health status of fish. The usage of probiotics for fish health improvement is becoming common due to the higher demand for environment-friendly culture system in water. Linseed meal was used as a test ingredient to prepare six experimental test diets by adding probiotics (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/kg) and 1% indigestible chromic oxide for seventy days. According to their live wet weight, five percent feed was given to fingerlings twice a day. Fish blood and carcass samples (Whole body) were taken for hematological and carcass analysis at the end of the experiment. The highest carcass composition (crude protein; 18.72%, crude fat; 8.80% and gross energy; 2.31 kcal/g) was observed in fish fed with test diet II supplemented with probiotics (2 g/kg). Moreover, maximum RBCs number (2.62× 106mm-3), WBCs (7.84×103mm-3), PCV (24.61), platelets (63.85) and hemoglobin (7.87) had also been reported in the fish fingerlings fed on 2 g/kg of probiotics supplemented diet. Results indicated that probiotics supplementation has a critical role in improvement of fingerlings' body composition and hematological indices. Present findings showed that probiotics supplementation at 2 g/kg level in linseed by-product-based diet was very useful for enhancing the overall performance of L. rohita fingerlings.

Cyprinidae , Linho , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária
mBio ; 12(2)2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906927


SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the COVID-19 pandemic calls for immediate interventions to avoid viral transmission, disease progression, and subsequent excessive inflammation and tissue destruction. Primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells are among the first targets of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we show that ColdZyme medical device mouth spray efficiently protected against virus entry, excessive inflammation, and tissue damage. Applying ColdZyme to fully differentiated, polarized human epithelium cultured at an air-liquid interphase (ALI) completely blocked binding of SARS-CoV-2 and increased local complement activation mediated by the virus as well as productive infection of the tissue model. While SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in exaggerated intracellular complement activation immediately following infection and a drop in transepithelial resistance, these parameters were bypassed by single pretreatment of the tissues with ColdZyme mouth spray. Crucially, our study highlights the importance of testing already evaluated and safe drugs such as ColdZyme mouth spray for maintaining epithelial integrity and hindering SARS-CoV-2 entry within standardized three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models mimicking the in vivo human airway epithelium.IMPORTANCE Although our understanding of COVID-19 continuously progresses, essential questions regarding prophylaxis and treatment remain open. A hallmark of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection is a hitherto-undescribed mechanism leading to excessive inflammation and tissue destruction associated with enhanced pathogenicity and mortality. To tackle the problem at the source, transfer of SARS-CoV-2, subsequent binding, infection, and inflammatory responses have to be avoided. In this study, we used fully differentiated, mucus-producing, and ciliated human airway epithelial cultures to test the efficacy of ColdZyme medical device mouth spray in terms of protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Importantly, we found that pretreatment of the in vitro airway cultures using ColdZyme mouth spray resulted in significantly shielding the epithelial integrity, hindering virus binding and infection, and blocking excessive intrinsic complement activation within the airway cultures. Our in vitro data suggest that ColdZyme mouth spray may have an impact in prevention of COVID-19.

Antivirais/farmacologia , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Brônquios/citologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Complemento C3/imunologia , Células Epiteliais , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Nasal/imunologia , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Sprays Orais , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Ligação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
J Adolesc ; 88: 36-47, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610909


INTRODUCTION: Puberty experiences of male adolescents can have significant impacts on physical and psychological health outcomes. This qualitative study explored the puberty experiences of young males in Pakistan, as there are limited accounts of what shapes these puberty experiences, especially for adolescent males living in a restrictive culture. METHODS: Twenty-two young Pakistani men (aged 18-21 years) from two urban sites in Karachi participated in individual face-to-face (n=19) and Skype (n=3) interviews. Qualitative thematic analysis was conducted using an inductive approach to identity and examine the patterns emerging from the data. RESULTS: Participants described puberty as a challenging phase for which they were unprepared with a combination of various socio-cultural factors exposing them to negative impacts. As a result, young men expressed feelings of anxiety, embarrassment and isolation. Societal and gender norms around masculinity, sexuality and the roles and responsibilities of young men had a significant impact on how participants experienced puberty. While negative reactions towards puberty were dominant, participants described adopting coping strategies (e.g. social support) to help them deal with negative experiences. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the significance of culturally appropriate puberty education and various facilitating factors that may improve the puberty experiences for future young men. While extending current literature, this study also identifies key factors that could inform the development of health promotion programmes, which may aid adolescent males' puberty transition and positively influence their long-term health, well-being and identity.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(8): 1338-1346, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687252


Pakistan is among the nations with a high intake of trans-fatty acids (TFAs), a major dietary risk factor of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Efforts are underway in the country to eliminate industrially produced TFAs from the food supply in keeping with the priority targets of the World Health Organization (WHO) for 2019-2023. We reviewed the TFA content reported in industrially produced foods and discuss the regulatory landscape for TFAs, to facilitate the required policy changes in Pakistan and ultimately eliminate the TFA burden from industrial food products. The study components include review of published research and product labels as well as review of prevailing food regulations for TFA-related information. A set of recommendations was also prepared to eliminate TFAs from Pakistan after national consultation workshops conducted in year 2019. Vanaspati ghee (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil), bakery shortening, hard margarines, and fat spreads are identified as the major sources of TFAs. Federal and provincial food authorities have recently established the limits for TFAs in few products; however, the TFA regulations are insufficient and not in line with global best practices. This study informs a comprehensive national strategy for TFA elimination based on knowledge of TFA prevalence associated regulatory control. We recommend to (1) promote actions toward replacement of traditional vanaspati ghee/bakery fats with healthier alternatives; (2) develop and implement best regulatory practices in line with WHO recommendations; and (3) amend food labeling laws so that clear information will be provided to inform consumers healthy food choices.

Hipertensão , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Paquistão , Prevalência , Ácidos Graxos trans/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos trans/análise
Breast ; 20(2): 184-9, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21146410


Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been implicated in breast carcinogenesis. Consecutive and non-selected mastectomy specimens from Mexican patients harboring breast carcinomas were sampled in order to look for the presence of HPV DNA. HPV-16 was detected in 6 (10%) of 60 breast carcinomas. Two of these also had HPV genome in adjacent non-neoplastic mammary-tissues. Seven cases had HPV DNA only in non-neoplastic tissue specimens. HPV DNA was also detected in 4 (25%) of 10 tumor-bed specimens without residual neoplastic lesions that were obtained from patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemotherapy/radiotherapy. HPV-positive tumors tended to be smaller in size, than HPV-negative tumors (p=0.047). Histological distributions of HPV-positive and -negative cases showed no significant difference. Although all the HPV-16 DNA were found integrated, its low viral load rendered it difficult to incriminate this virus in breast carcinogenesis. However, the possibility that HPV infection occurred during carcinoma development cannot be ruled out.

Neoplasias da Mama/virologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/virologia , Carcinoma Lobular/virologia , Carcinoma Papilar/virologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/terapia , Carcinoma Lobular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Lobular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Lobular/terapia , Carcinoma Papilar/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Papilar/metabolismo , Carcinoma Papilar/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/virologia , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mamilos/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Carga Viral