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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806733

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study assessed outcomes following the nowadays standing treatment for primary vaginal cancer with radio(chemo)therapy and image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) in a multicenter patient cohort. METHODS: Patients treated with computer tomography (CT)-MRI-assisted-based IGABT were included. Retrospective data collection included patient, tumor and treatment characteristics. Late morbidity was assessed by using the CTCAE 3.0 scale. RESULTS: Five European centers included 148 consecutive patients, with a median age of 63 years. At a median follow-up of 29 months (IQR 25-57), two- and five-year local control were 86% and 83%; disease-free survival (DFS) was 73% and 66%, and overall survival (OS) was 79% and 68%, respectively. Crude incidences of ≥ grade-three urogenital, gastro-intestinal and vaginal morbidity was 8%, 3% and 8%, respectively. Lymph node metastasis was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (DFS). Univariate analysis showed improved local control in patients with T2-T4 tumors if >80 Gy EQD2α/ß10 was delivered to the clinical target volume (CTV) at the time of brachytherapy. CONCLUSIONS: In this large retrospective multicenter study, IGABT for primary vaginal cancer resulted in a high local control with acceptable morbidity. These results compared favorably with two-dimensional (2D) radiograph-based brachytherapy and illustrate that IGABT plays an important role in the treatment of vaginal cancer.

2.
Cancer ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancers (ECs) with somatic mutations in DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE) are characterized by unfavorable pathological features, which prompt adjuvant treatment. Paradoxically, women with POLE-mutated EC have outstanding clinical outcomes, and this raises concerns of overtreatment. The authors investigated whether favorable outcomes were independent of treatment. METHODS: A PubMed search for POLE and endometrial was restricted to articles published between March 1, 2012, and March 1, 2018, that provided individual patient data (IPD), adjuvant treatment, and survival. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) reporting guidelines for IPD, the authors used univariate and multivariate one-stage meta-analyses with mixed effects Cox models (random effects for study cohorts) to infer the associations of treatment, traditional prognostic factors, and outcome, which was defined as the time from first diagnosis to any adverse event (progression/recurrence or death from EC). RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-nine women with POLE-mutated EC were identified; 294 (82%) had pathogenic mutations. Worse outcomes were demonstrated in patients with nonpathogenic POLE mutations (hazard ratio, 3.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-7.58; log-rank P < .01). Except for stage (P < .01), traditional prognosticators were not associated with progression/recurrence or death from disease. Adverse events were rare (11 progressions/recurrences and 3 disease-specific deaths). Salvage rates in patients who experienced recurrence were high and sustained, with 8 of 11 alive without evidence of disease (range, 5.5-14.2 years). Adjuvant treatment was not associated with outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical outcomes for ECs with pathogenic POLE mutations are not associated with most traditional risk parameters, and patients do not appear to benefit from adjuvant therapy. The observed low rates of recurrence/progression and the high and sustained salvage rates raise the possibility of safely de-escalating treatment for these patients. LAY SUMMARY: Ten percent of all endometrial cancers have mutations in the DNA repair gene DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE). Women who have endometrial cancers with true POLE mutations experience almost no recurrences or deaths from their cancer even when their tumors appear to have very unfavorable characteristics. Additional therapy (radiation and chemotherapy) does not appear to improve outcomes for women with POLE-mutated endometrial cancer, and this supports the move to less therapy and less associated toxicity. Diligent classification of endometrial cancers by molecular features provides valuable information to inform prognosis and to direct treatment/no treatment.

3.
Radiother Oncol ; 154: 327-353, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712263

RESUMO

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multidisciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide. ESGO/ESTRO/ESP nominated an international multidisciplinary development group consisting of practicing clinicians and researchers who have demonstrated leadership and expertise in the care and research of endometrial carcinoma (27 experts across Europe). To ensure that the guidelines are evidence-based, the literature published since 2014, identified from a systematic search was reviewed and critically appraised. In the absence of any clear scientific evidence, judgment was based on the professional experience and consensus of the development group. The guidelines are thus based on the best available evidence and expert agreement. Prior to publication, the guidelines were reviewed by 191 independent international practitioners in cancer care delivery and patient representatives. The guidelines comprehensively cover endometrial carcinoma staging, definition of prognostic risk groups integrating molecular markers, pre- and intra-operative work-up, fertility preservation, management for early, advanced, metastatic, and recurrent disease and palliative treatment. Principles of radiotherapy and pathological evaluation are also defined.

4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard screening of endometrial cancer (EC) for Lynch syndrome (LS) is gaining traction, however the prognostic impact of an underlying hereditary etiology is unknown. We established the prevalence, prognosis and subsequent primary cancer incidence of patients with LS-associated EC in relation to sporadic mismatch repair deficient (MMRd)-EC in the large combined PORTEC-1,-2 and -3 trial cohort. METHODS: After MMR-immunohistochemistry, MLH1-promoter methylation testing, and next-generation sequencing, tumors were classified into three groups according to the molecular cause of their MMRd-EC. Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test and Cox model were used for survival analysis. Competing risk analysis was used to estimate the subsequent cancer probability. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Among the 1336 ECs, 410 (30.7%) were MMRd. A total of 380 (92.7%) were fully triaged 275 (72.4%) were MLH1-hypermethylated MMRd-ECs; 36 (9.5%) LS MMRd-ECs, and 69 (18.2%) MMRd-ECs due to other causes. Limiting screening of EC patients to ≤ 60 or ≤ 70 years would have resulted in missing 18 (50.0%) and 6 (16.7%) LS diagnoses. Five-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 91.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 83.1-100%; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.45, 95%CI =0.16-1.24, p = .12) for LS, 95.5% (95% CI = 90.7-100%; HR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.05-0.55, p = .003) for 'other' versus 78.6% (95% CI = 73.8-83.7%) for MLH1-hypermethylated MMRd-EC. The probability of subsequent LS-associated cancer at 10 years was 11.6% (95%CI = 0.0-24.7%), 1.5% (95%CI = 0.0-4.3%) and 7.0% (95%CI = 3.0-10.9%) within the LS, 'other' and MLH1-hypermethylated MMRd-EC groups. CONCLUSION: The LS prevalence in the PORTEC-trial population was 2.8%, and among MMRd-ECs 9.5%. Patients with LS-associated ECs showed a trend towards better RFS and higher risk for second cancers compared to patients with MLH1-hypermethylated MMRd-EC.

7.
Radiother Oncol ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545254

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify patient- and treatment-related risk factors for fistula, bleeding, cystitis, pain and difficulty in voiding in locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated with radio(chemo)therapy and image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Morbidity within the EMBRACE-I study was prospectively reported for physician-assessed (CTCAE) fistula, bleeding and cystitis and patient-reported (EORTC) pain and difficulty in voiding. Analysis of risk factors was performed in patients without bladder infiltration. Risk factors were tested with Cox regression for grade (G) ≥ 3 cystitis, for G ≥ 2 fistula, bleeding and cystitis, and for EORTC "very much" and "quite a bit" or worse. RESULTS: Of 1416 patients enrolled, 1153 and 884 patients without bladder infiltration were evaluable for the analysis of CTCAE and EORTC items, respectively. Median follow-up was 48[3-120] months. Crude incidence rates for G ≥ 2 fistula, bleeding and cystitis were 0.7%, 2.7% and 8.8%, respectively, and 16% and 14% for "quite a bit" or worse pain and difficulty in voiding, respectively. Baseline urinary morbidity and overweight/obesity were significant risk factors for most endpoints. Bladder D2cm3 correlated with G ≥ 2 fistula, bleeding and cystitis, while ICRU bladder point dose correlated with EORTC pain "quite a bit" or worse. An increase from 75 Gy to 80 Gy in bladder D2cm3 resulted in an increase from 8% to 13% for 4-year actuarial estimate of G ≥ 2 cystitis. CONCLUSION: Clinical and treatment-related risk factors for bladder fistula, bleeding and cystitis were identified within a prospective and multi-institutional setting. A dose-effect was established with bladder D2cm3, reinforcing the importance of continued optimization during individualized IGABT planning.

8.
Virchows Arch ; 478(2): 153-190, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604759

RESUMO

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multidisciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide. ESGO/ESTRO/ESP nominated an international multidisciplinary development group consisting of practicing clinicians and researchers who have demonstrated leadership and expertise in the care and research of endometrial carcinoma (27 experts across Europe). To ensure that the guidelines are evidence-based, the literature published since 2014, identified from a systematic search was reviewed and critically appraised. In the absence of any clear scientific evidence, judgment was based on the professional experience and consensus of the development group. The guidelines are thus based on the best available evidence and expert agreement. Prior to publication, the guidelines were reviewed by 191 independent international practitioners in cancer care delivery and patient representatives. The guidelines comprehensively cover endometrial carcinoma staging, definition of prognostic risk groups integrating molecular markers, pre- and intra-operative work-up, fertility preservation, management for early, advanced, metastatic, and recurrent disease and palliative treatment. Principles of radiotherapy and pathological evaluation are also defined.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Oncologia/normas , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biópsia/normas , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/normas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(1): 12-39, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397713

RESUMO

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multi-disciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO), and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide.

10.
Radiother Oncol ; 155: 151-159, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer, systemic chemotherapy constitutes the main treatment. Though there is an increasing use of high dose external radiation and brachytherapy in the metastatic setting, no consensus exists. METHODS: A 17-item survey was designed with additional case-based questions to explore present management of oligo-metastatic and oligo-recurrent cervix cancer within EMBRACE research group participating sites. The questions were designed to elicit prevailing practices in the management of de-novo oligo-metastasis and oligo-recurrent setting after completing the primary treatment of cervix cancer. The survey was sent electronically with two rounds of email reminders to respond over a 2-week survey period. The online survey was designed such that it was mandatory to complete all questions. The responses were recorded and results were summarized as proportions and summary statistics were generated. RESULTS: Twenty-two centers responded to this survey. A majority (90%) of respondents reported a low incidence of de-novo oligo-metastatic cervical cancer in their practice (<5%), with a higher proportion of patients with oligo-recurrence after completing primary treatment (5-10%). All responding sites preferred to treat pelvic disease in the de-novo oligo-metastatic setting albeit with different fractionation regimens. While 68.2% of respondents recommended chemo-radiation and brachytherapy, 31.8% considered additional systemic therapy. Overall 77.3% centers recommended the use of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy to oligo-metastasis. For out-of-field nodal recurrences, 63.7% of respondents considered treating with curative intent, while 59% preferred treating in-field recurrence with palliative intent. A vast majority of the participating centers (90%) have stereotactic radiation therapy capacity and would consider a clinical trial addressing oligo-metastatic and oligo-recurrent cervical cancer. CONCLUSION: Although contemporary practice is variable, a substantial proportion of EMBRACE centers consider high dose radiation in de-novo metastatic and oligo-recurrence settings. However, there is clear need for a joint clinical protocol and prospective studies to address the role of high dose radiation within oligo-recurrent and oligo-metastatic scenarios.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129910

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The survival results of the PORTEC-3 trial showed a significant improvement in both overall and failure-free survival with chemoradiation therapy versus pelvic radiation therapy alone. The present analysis was performed to compare long-term adverse events (AE) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). METHODS AND MATERIALS: In the study, 660 women with high-risk endometrial cancer were randomly assigned to receive chemoradiation therapy (2 concurrent cycles of cisplatin followed by 4 cycles of carboplatin/paclitaxel) or radiation therapy alone. Toxicity was graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. HRQOL was measured using EORTC QLQ-C30 and CX24/OV28 subscales and compared with normative data. An as-treated analysis was performed. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 74.6 months; 574 (87%) patients were evaluable for HRQOL. At 5 years, grade ≥2 AE were scored for 78 (38%) patients who had received chemoradiation therapy versus 46 (24%) who had received radiation therapy alone (P = .008). Grade 3 AE did not differ significantly between the groups (8% vs 5%, P = .18) at 5 years, and only one new late grade 4 toxicity had been reported. At 3 and 5 years, sensory neuropathy toxicity grade ≥2 persisted after chemoradiation therapy in 6% (vs 0% after radiation therapy, P < .001) and more patients reported significant tingling or numbness at HRQOL (27% vs 8%, P < .001 at 3 years; 24% vs 9%, P = .002 at 5 years). Up to 3 years, more patients who had chemoradiation therapy reported limb weakness (21% vs 5%, P < .001) and lower physical (79 vs 87, P < .001) and role functioning (78 vs 88, P < .001) scores. Both treatment groups reported similar long-term global health/quality of life scores, which were better than those of the normative population. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a long-lasting, clinically relevant, negative impact of chemoradiation therapy on toxicity and HRQOL, most importantly persistent peripheral sensory neuropathy. Physical and role functioning impairments were seen until 3 years. These long-term data are essential for patient information and shared decision-making regarding adjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk endometrial cancer.

12.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 8(12): 1508-1519, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999003

RESUMO

Optimum risk stratification in early-stage endometrial cancer combines clinicopathologic factors and the molecular endometrial cancer classification defined by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). It is unclear whether analysis of intratumoral immune infiltrate improves this. We developed a machine-learning, image-based algorithm to quantify density of CD8+ and CD103+ immune cells in tumor epithelium and stroma in 695 stage I endometrioid endometrial cancers from the PORTEC-1 and -2 trials. The relationship between immune cell density and clinicopathologic/molecular factors was analyzed by hierarchical clustering and multiple regression. The prognostic value of immune infiltrate by cell type and location was analyzed by univariable and multivariable Cox regression, incorporating the molecular endometrial cancer classification. Tumor-infiltrating immune cell density varied substantially between cases, and more modestly by immune cell type and location. Clustering revealed three groups with high, intermediate, and low densities, with highly significant variation in the proportion of molecular endometrial cancer subgroups between them. Univariable analysis revealed intraepithelial CD8+ cell density as the strongest predictor of endometrial cancer recurrence; multivariable analysis confirmed this was independent of pathologic factors and molecular subgroup. Exploratory analysis suggested this association was not uniform across molecular subgroups, but greatest in tumors with mutant p53 and absent in DNA mismatch repair-deficient cancers. Thus, this work identified that quantification of intraepithelial CD8+ cells improved upon the prognostic utility of the molecular endometrial cancer classification in early-stage endometrial cancer.

13.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(12): 2002-2007, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaginal brachytherapy is currently recommended as adjuvant treatment in patients with high-intermediate risk endometrial cancer to maximize local control and has only mild side effects and no or limited impact on quality of life. However, there is still considerable overtreatment and also some undertreatment, which may be reduced by tailoring adjuvant treatment to the patients' risk of recurrence based on molecular tumor characteristics. PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: To compare the rates of vaginal recurrence in women with high-intermediate risk endometrial cancer, treated after surgery with molecular-integrated risk profile-based recommendations for either observation, vaginal brachytherapy or external pelvic beam radiotherapy or with standard adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy STUDY HYPOTHESIS: Adjuvant treatment based on a molecular-integrated risk profile provides similar local control and recurrence-free survival as current standard adjuvant brachytherapy in patients with high-intermediate risk endometrial cancer, while sparing many patients the morbidity of adjuvant treatment and reducing healthcare costs. TRIAL DESIGN: A multicenter, international phase III randomized trial (2:1) of molecular-integrated risk profile-based adjuvant treatment (experimental arm) or adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy (standard arm). MAJOR INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Women aged 18 years and over with a histological diagnosis of high-intermediate risk endometrioid endometrial cancer after total abdominal or laparoscopic hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. High-intermediate risk factors are defined as: (i) International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IA (with invasion) and grade 3; (ii) stage IB grade 1 or 2 with age ≥60 and/or lymph-vascular space invasion; (iii) stage IB, grade 3 without lymph-vascular space invasion; or (iv) stage II (microscopic and grade 1). ENDPOINTS: The primary endpoint is vaginal recurrence. Secondary endpoints are recurrence-free and overall survival; pelvic and distant recurrence; 5-year vaginal control (including treatment for relapse); adverse events and patient-reported symptoms and quality of life; and endometrial cancer-related healthcare costs. SAMPLE SIZE: 500 eligible and evaluable patients. ESTIMATED DATES FOR COMPLETING ACCRUAL AND PRESENTING RESULTS: Estimated date for completing accrual will be late 2021. Estimated date for presentation of (first) results is expected in 2023. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03469674) and ISRCTN (11659025).

14.
Radiother Oncol ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065183

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify patient- and treatment-related risk factors and dose-effects for urinary frequency and incontinence in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) treated with radio(chemo)therapy and image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Physician-assessed (CTCAE) and patient-reported (EORTC) frequency and incontinence recorded in the EMBRACE-I study were analysed. Risk factors analysis was performed in patients without bladder infiltration and with baseline morbidity available. Cox regression was used for CTCAE grade (G) ≥ 3 and G ≥ 2 and for EORTC "very much" and "quite a bit" or worse. Logistic regression was used for late persistent morbidity defined when CTCAE G ≥ 1 or EORTC ≥ "quite a bit" were scored in at least half of follow-ups. RESULTS: Longitudinal data on 1153 and 884 patients were available for CTCAE and EORTC analysis, respectively. Median follow-up was 48[3-120] months. Crude incidence rates of G≥2 were 13% and 11% for frequency and incontinence, respectively. Baseline morbidity and overweight-obesity were risk factors for both symptoms. Elderly patients were at higher risk for incontinence. Patients receiving conformal-radiotherapy were at higher risk for frequency. ICRU bladder point (ICRU-BP) dose was a stronger predictor for incontinence than bladder D2cm3. The 5-year actuarial estimate of G ≥ 2 incontinence increased from 11% to 20% with ICRU-BP doses > 75 Gy compared to ≤ 65 Gy. Frequency showed weaker associations with dose. CONCLUSION: ICRU-BP dose, in addition to clinical parameters, is a risk factor for urinary incontinence and shows a dose-effect after radio(chemo)therapy and IGABT. ICRU-BP dose should be monitored during treatment planning alongside volumetric parameters. Frequency seems associated with larger irradiated volumes.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068689

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate patient- and treatment-related risk factors associated with incidence and persistence of late diarrhea after radiochemotherapy and image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) in locally advanced cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 1416 patients from the EMBRACE I study, 1199 were prospectively evaluated using physician-reported (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3 [CTCAEv3]) assessment for diarrhea; median follow-up 48 months. Patient-reported outcome (EORTC) was available in 900 patients. Incidence of CTCAE G≥2, G≥3, and EORTC "very much" diarrhea was analyzed with Cox proportional hazards regression. Binary logistic regression was used for analysis of persistent G≥1 and EORTC "quite a bit" - "very much" (≥"quite a bit") diarrhea, defined if present in at least half of all follow-ups. RESULTS: Crude incidences of G≥2 and G≥3 diarrhea were 8.3% and 1.5%, respectively, and 8% of patients reported "very much" diarrhea. Persistent G≥1 and ≥"quite a bit" diarrhea was present in 16% and 7%, respectively. Patient-related risk factors were baseline diarrhea, smoking, and diabetes with hazard ratios of 1.4 to 7.3. Treatment-related risk factors included prescribed dose, V43 Gy, V57 Gy (lymph node boost), and para-aortic irradiation for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). G≥2 diarrhea at 3 years increased from 9.5% to 19.9% with prescribed dose 45 Gy versus 50 Gy, 8.7% to 14.0% with V43 Gy <2500 cm3 versus >3000 cm3 and 9.4% to 19.0% with V57 Gy <165 cm3 versus ≥165 cm3. Brachytherapy-related bowel and rectum D2cm3 were also associated with diarrhea. CONCLUSION: Dose and volume effects have been established for late diarrhea after radiochemotherapy and IGABT in both CTCAE and EORTC reporting. The risk of diarrhea was lower with a pelvic EBRT prescription of 45 Gy, and higher with larger lymph node boosts volumes (ie, ≥165 cm3). The importance of EBRT volumes as determinants of late toxicity underline the need for continuous quality assurance of target contouring, dose planning, and conformity. The findings of brachytherapy dosimetric factors related to the intestines may become more important with highly conformal EBRT.

16.
Brachytherapy ; 19(6): 837-849, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978080

RESUMO

In 2008, the GEC ESTRO Gyn network launched the first multiinstitutional, observational, and prospective international study on MRI-guided brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer patients (EMBRACE-I). EMBRACE-I was followed by EMBRACE-II from 2016 and ongoing. Among the aims of the EMBRACE studies are to benchmark morbidity outcomes and develop dose-volume effects and predictive models for morbidity. The EMBRACE studies collect both physician (CTCAE v.3) and patient (EORTC QLQ-C30/CX24) reported outcomes, including baseline information, in a regular follow-up schedule. The EMBRACE studies feature high numbers of patients (EMBRACE-I N = 1416, EMBRACE-II N = 1500 expected) enrolled from many institutions worldwide (EMBRACE-I n = 23, EMBRACE-II n = 45). This large-scale multiinstitutional approach offers a unique opportunity to investigate and develop new strategies for improving the quality of assessment and reporting of morbidity. This report presents an overview of the challenges and pitfalls regarding the assessment and reporting of morbidity encountered during more than a decade of development and research activities within the EMBRACE consortium. This includes the recognition and evaluation of inconsistencies in the morbidity assessment, and consequently, the provision of assistance and training in the scoring procedure to reduce systematic assessment bias. In parallel, a variety of methodological approaches were tested to comprehensively summarize morbidity outcomes, and a novel approach was developed to refine dose-effect models and risk factor analyses. The purpose of this report is to present an overview of these findings, describe the learning process, and the strategies that have consequently been implemented regarding educational activities, training, and dissemination.

17.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(29): 3388-3397, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749941

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The randomized Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Versus Radiotherapy Alone in Women With High-Risk Endometrial Cancer (PORTEC-3) trial investigated the benefit of combined adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy (CTRT) versus radiotherapy alone (RT) for women with high-risk endometrial cancer (EC). Because The Cancer Genome Atlas defined an EC molecular classification with strong prognostic value, we investigated prognosis and impact of chemotherapy for each molecular subgroup using tissue samples from PORTEC-3 trial participants. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded tissues of 423 consenting patients were collected. Immunohistochemistry for p53 and mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, and DNA sequencing for POLE exonuclease domain were done to classify tumors as p53 abnormal (p53abn), POLE-ultramutated (POLEmut), MMR-deficient (MMRd), or no specific molecular profile (NSMP). The primary end point was recurrence-free survival (RFS). Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox model were used for analysis. RESULTS: Molecular analysis was successful in 410 high-risk EC (97%), identifying the 4 subgroups: p53abn EC (n = 93; 23%), POLEmut (n = 51; 12%), MMRd (n = 137; 33%), and NSMP (n = 129; 32%). Five-year RFS was 48% for patients with p53abn EC, 98% for POLEmut EC, 72% for MMRd EC, and 74% for NSMP EC (P < .001). The 5-year RFS with CTRT versus RT for p53abn EC was 59% versus 36% (P = .019); 100% versus 97% for patients with POLEmut EC (P = .637); 68% versus 76% (P = .428) for MMRd EC; and 80% versus 68% (P = .243) for NSMP EC. CONCLUSION: Molecular classification has strong prognostic value in high-risk EC, with significantly improved RFS with adjuvant CTRT for p53abn tumors, regardless of histologic type. Patients with POLEmut EC had an excellent RFS in both trial arms. EC molecular classification should be incorporated in the risk stratification of these patients as well as in future trials to target specific subgroups of patients.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853710

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This report describes the persistence of late substantial treatment-related patient-reported symptoms (LAPERS) in the multi-institutional EMBRACE study on magnetic resonance image guided adaptive brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patient-reported symptoms (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC]-C30/CX24) and physician-assessed morbidity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [CTCAE], version 3.0) were assessed at baseline and regular timepoints during follow-up. Patients with sufficient EORTC follow-up (baseline and ≥3 late follow-up visits) were analyzed. LAPERS events were defined as the presence of substantial EORTC symptoms (quite a bit/very much) for at least half of the assessments (persistence) and progression beyond baseline condition (treatment-related). For each EORTC symptom, the ratio between LAPERS rates and crude incidence rates of substantial symptoms was calculated to represent the proportion of symptomatic patients with persisting symptoms. For 9 symptoms with a corresponding EORTC/CTCAE assessment, the overlap of LAPERS and severe morbidity events (grades 3-5) was evaluated. RESULTS: Of 1047 patients with EORTC available, 741 had sufficient follow-up for the LAPERS analyses. The median follow-up was 59 months (interquartile range, 42-70 months). Across all symptoms, the proportion of patients with LAPERS events (LAPERS rates) was in median 4.6% (range, 0.0% vaginal bleeding to 20.4% tiredness). Urinary frequency, neuropathy, fatigue, insomnia, and menopausal symptoms revealed LAPERS rates of >10%. Vomiting, blood in stool, urinary pain/burning, and abnormal vaginal bleeding displayed LAPERS rates of <1%. A median of 19% of symptomatic patients (interquartile range, 8.0%-28.5%) showed persistent long-term symptoms (LAPERS events). In symptoms with a corresponding EORTC/CTCAE assessment, 12% of LAPERS events were accompanied by a severe CTCAE event. CONCLUSIONS: Within this large cohort of survivors of LACC, a subgroup of patients with persistent symptoms (LAPERS events) was identified. For symptoms with a corresponding EORTC/CTCAE assessment, the vast majority of LAPERS events occurred in patients without corresponding severe physician-assessed morbidity. These findings emphasize the importance of distinguishing between transient and persisting symptoms in the aftercare of LACC survivors.

19.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(12): 1878-1886, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the evolving role of the addition of chemotherapy to postoperative radiotherapy on oncological outcomes and toxicity in patients with early-stage cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with stage IB1-IIB FIGO 2009 cervical cancer treated from November 1999 to May 2015 by primary surgery and radiotherapy (46-50.4 Gy in 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions) with or without concurrent cisplatin (40 mg/m2, 5-6 weekly cycles) with or without a brachytherapy boost. Chemotherapy was allocated depending on the risk factors for recurrence. Incidences of all outcomes were calculated using Kaplan-Meier's methodology and compared by log-rank tests. Risk factors for recurrence and survival were identified using Cox's proportional hazards models. RESULTS: A total of 154 patients were included, median follow-up was 9.6 years (IQR: 6.1-12.8). Five-year pelvic recurrence-free survival was 75.3%; 74.7% in patients with high-risk factors treated with radiotherapy; and 77.3% in those treated with chemoradiation (P=0.43). Distant metastasis-free survival at 5 years was 63.4%; 63.6% in high-risk patients after radiotherapy; and 57.1% after chemoradiation (P=0.36). Five-year overall survival was 63.9%: 66.8% and 51.6% after radiotherapy and after chemoradiation in patients with high-risk factors (P=0.37), respectively. Large tumor size was a risk factor for vaginal and pelvic recurrence, ≥2 involved lymph nodes was a significant risk factor for para-aortic recurrence and death. Mild treatment-related late toxicity was observed in 53.9% of the patients. Five-year severe (grade 3-5) late rectal, bladder, bowel, and vaginal toxicities were, respectively, 1.3%, 0%, 3.4%, and 0.9%. Any late severe toxicity was observed in 5.5% of patients treated with radiotherapy and in 15.3% of those treated with chemoradiation (P=0.07). CONCLUSION: Postoperative (chemo)radiation for early-stage cervical cancer patients with risk factors for recurrence yields adequate pelvic tumor control, but overall survival is limited due to distant metastasis.

20.
Radiother Oncol ; 147: 22-29, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: EMBRACE-II is an international prospective study of IMRT and MRI-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) in locally advanced cervix cancer. An online radiotherapy quality assurance (RTQA) programme with minimal data transfer and supporting continuing medical education (CME) was implemented for IMRT contouring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participant contours for six volumes-of-interest (VOIs) on one benchmark case were scored (2 = excellent, 1 = fair, 0 = revision required) against a consensus reference contour. For contours receiving a 0 or 1 score, additional qualitative comments were provided. The Jaccard conformity index (JCI) was retrospectively calculated. User interaction with CME content (pre-accreditation questionnaire, contouring atlas, practice cases, quizzes, internal target volume (ITV-T) guide) was analysed. RESULTS: 78 clinicians submitted contours for evaluation. 41% passed at the first attempt, 44% after one revision and 6% after two or more revisions. 9% did not re-submit after failing. The lowest mean scores were for the elective nodal CTV (CTV-E) (1.01/2) and ITV-T (1.06/2). 60 different errors across the six VOIs were identified; five potentially had high impact on loco-regional control. A JCI cut-off of 0.7 would have identified 87% contours that failed expert assessment, but also excluded 54% of passing contours. 39 clinicians responded to the pre-accreditation questionnaire - 36% anticipated difficulties with the ITV-T and 13% with the CTV-E. 35% clinicians contoured on the practice cases, 17% answered a quiz, 96% used the atlas and 38% the ITV-T guide. CONCLUSION: Expert evaluation with qualitative feedback improved contouring compliance. The JCI is not a reliable alternative to expert assessment. Moderate uptake of optional CME content limited evaluation.

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