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1.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 207, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colchicine has been used as anti-inflammatory agent in pericardial effusion (PE). We sought to perform a meta-analysis of randomized trials assessing the efficacy and safety of colchicine in patients with pericarditis or postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPS). METHODS: In the systematic literature search following the PRISMA statement, 10 prospective randomized controlled studies with 1981 patients with an average follow-up duration of 13.6 months were identified. RESULTS: Colchicine reduced the recurrence rate of pericarditis in patients with acute and recurrent pericarditis and reduced the incidence of PPS (RR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.44-0.74). Additionally, the rate of rehospitalizations as well as the symptom duration after 72 h was significantly decreased in pericarditis (RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.18-0.60; and RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.34-0.54; respectively), but not in PPS. Treatment with colchicine was associated with significantly higher adverse event (AE) rates (RR 1.42; 95% CI 1.05-1.92), with gastrointestinal intolerance being the leading AE. The reported number needed to treat (NNT) for the prevention of recurrent pericarditis ranged between 3 and 5. The reported NNT for PPS prevention was 10, and the number needed to harm (NNH) was 12, respectively. Late colchicine administration > 7 days after heart surgery did not reduce postoperative PE. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis confirms that colchicine is efficacious and safe for prevention of recurrent pericarditis and PPS, while it reduces rehospitalizations and symptom duration in pericarditis. The clinical use of colchicine for the setting of PPS and postoperative PE after heart surgery should be investigated in further multicenter RCT.

2.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372789

RESUMO

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is an acute and mostly reversible cardiomyopathy that mimics an acute coronary syndrome with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction without relevant obstructive coronary artery disease. Its prevalence is probably underestimated and reaches 1.2-2% in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing coronary catheterization. Although supraphysiological epinephrine levels have been associated with TTS, the detailed pathophysiology is incompletely understood. Chest pain is the most common clinical presentation; however, cardiac decompensation, cardiogenic shock, and sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation may also be the first clinical manifestations. Patients are mostly postmenopausal women, in whom the condition is commonly associated with emotional triggers; however, men have a higher prevalence of TTS being associated with physical triggers, which has a worse prognosis compared with TTS associated with emotional triggers. As a diagnosis of exclusion, TTS has no single definitive diagnostic test. According to the distribution of LV wall motion abnormalities, various morphological subtypes have been identified. The final diagnosis depends on cardiac imaging with left ventricular angiography during acute heart catheterization, as well as on echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance. Most patients recover completely, albeit several factors have been associated with worse prognosis. Management is based on observational data, while randomized multicenter studies are still lacking. This review provides a general overview of TTS and focuses on the hypothesized pathophysiology, and especially on current practices in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment.

4.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396762

RESUMO

Meta-analysis on immunohistological (IHC) concepts for the detection of inflammatory cardiomyopathy (InfCM) in endomyocardial biopsies (EMB). We included 61 publications, with 10,491 patients (mean age 47.1 years; men 66%) who underwent EMB and IHC evaluation. The 460 control patients were devoid of IHC proof of InfCM. The mean IHC detection rate of InfCM was 50.8% (95% CI 47.7-53.8%; range 18.4-91.7%). A publication bias was excluded (Funnel Plot p = 0.4264). This IHC detection rate was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher compared to the histological detection of myocarditis according to the Dallas criteria (mean 8.04%; 95% CI 5.08-12.5%; subset of 3274 patients in 30 publications). However, 13 different diagnostic IHC criteria were described in the publications, with various thresholds of diverse phenotypes of quantified infiltrates, and endothelial expression of diverse cell adhesion molecules (CAM), quantified either visually or by digital image analysis (DIA). The comparison of IHC with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) data available in a subset of 13 publications with 1185 patients revealed a sensitivity for CMR of 69% (95% CI 58-79%), a specificity of 73% (95% CI 59-84%), and a ROC-AUC of 0.77 (95% CI 0.73-0.81). This meta-analysis encompassing 10,491 patients confirms a mean detection rate of InfCM in 50.8% of EMB, being significantly more sensitive compared to the histological Dallas criteria. IHC cannot be fully substituted by CMR. However, standardization of the diverse IHC markers and protocols seems pertinent, especially considering the published adverse prognostic impact of IHC-confirmed InfCM and its published suitability for the selection of candidates responding favorably to immunosuppression.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e010881, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311438

RESUMO

Background Clinical characteristics and outcomes of takotsubo syndrome (TTS) patients with malignancy have not been fully elucidated. This study sought to explore differences in clinical characteristics and to investigate short- and long-term outcomes in TTS patients with or without malignancy. Methods and Results TTS patients were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry. The TTS cohort was divided into patients with and without malignancy to investigate differences in clinical characteristics and to assess short- and long-term mortality. A subanalysis was performed comparing long-term mortality between a subset of TTS patients with or without malignancy and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with or without malignancy. Malignancy was observed in 16.6% of 1604 TTS patients. Patients with malignancy were older and more likely to have physical triggers, but less likely to have emotional triggers compared with those without malignancy. Long-term mortality was higher in patients with malignancy (P<0.001), while short-term outcome was comparable (P=0.17). In a subanalysis, long-term mortality was comparable between TTS patients with malignancies and ACS patients with malignancies (P=0.13). Malignancy emerged as an independent predictor of long-term mortality. Conclusions A substantial number of TTS patients show an association with malignancy. History of malignancy might increase the risk for TTS, and therefore, appropriate screening for malignancy should be considered in these patients. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947621.

7.
Viruses ; 11(6)2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diverse viral infections have been associated with myocarditis (MC) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In this meta-analysis, we summarize the published results on the association of parvovirus B19 (B19V) genomes with human MC/DCM versus controls. METHODS: n = 197 publications referring to B19V and MC or DCM were retrieved using multiple PubMed search modes. Out of these, n = 29 publications met the inclusion criteria with data from prospective analyses on >10 unselected patients presenting with MC or DCM (dataset: MA01). Data retrieved simultaneously from both controls and MC/DCM patients were available from n = 8 from these publications (dataset: MA02). RESULTS: In the dataset MA01 B19V genomes were detected in 42.6% of the endomyocardial biopsies (EMB) in this cohort by PCR. In the dataset MA02 comprising n = 638 subjects, there was no statistically significant different rate of B19V positivity in myocardial tissues comparing controls (mean: 38.8 + 24.1%) versus the MC/DCM-patients (45.5 + 24.3%; p = 0.58). There was also no statistical difference between the positivity rate of B19V genomes in myocardial tissues of MA01 (46.0 + 19.5%) and the two patient groups of MA02 (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review reveals that the mean rate of PCR detected B19V genomes in patients presenting with MC/DCM does not differ significantly from the findings in control myocardial tissues. These data imply pathogenetically insignificant latency of B19V genomes in a proportion of myocardial tissues, both in MC-/DCM-patients and in controls. More information (i.e., replicative status, viral protein expression) is pertinent to achieve a comprehensive workup of myocardial B19V infection.

8.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134427

RESUMO

The number of breast cancer (BC) survivors has been increasing lately, due to the improvement in early detection strategies and oncological treatments. However, BC survivors are 3 times as likely to develop heart failure (HF) within 5 years of cancer diagnosis, and 7/100 of them will develop HF in a median follow-up of 8.5 years. Furthermore, HF in BC survivors has a worse prognosis compared to other causes of HF. Anthracyclines and trastuzumab have been proven to improve survival. However, they are also considered as the main causative factors of HF in BC survivors. Old patients, those with a pre-existing cardiovascular (CV) risk factors/disease, prior exposure to chemotherapy and radiotherapy are at increased risk. Serial evaluation of troponins and cardiac imaging parameters using echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance can significantly contribute to the early diagnosis of cardiac involvement before overt HF will develop. Assessment and immediate treatment of traditional CV risk factors is the first step for cardiotoxicity prevention. In BC survivors with known heart disease, the clinical stabilization is strongly recommended for cardiotoxicity prevention. Finally, in high-risk CV patients, primary prevention including cardioprotectants and/or CV drugs should be applied. According to recent studies, the early start of ACE inhibitors and ß-blockers and the modification of anti-cancer treatment can prevent the decline in left ventricular ejection fraction. However, further multicenter studies are needed to establish both prevention and treatment protocols to successfully overcome HF development in BC survivors.

9.
Hellenic J Cardiol ; 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monocytes can be differentiated by the presence of CD14 and CD16 (CD14++CD16-, classical; CD14++CD16+, intermediate and CD14+CD16++, non-classical monocytes). Recent studies have reported conflicting results regarding an association between subtypes of monocytes as defined by the expression of these two surface markers in atherosclerosis. METHODS: We investigated subtypes of monocytes in n=994 patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD). We compared total numbers of monocyte subgroups stratified by tertiles with the occurrence of the pre-defined combined endpoint (non-fatal myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death and non-haemorrhagic cerebral insult). Patients were followed up for a minimum of 52 weeks. For multivariate analysis, classical risk factors of coronary heart disease were included. RESULTS: The primary endpoint occurred 134 times at a median time of 34.5 weeks (IR 10.6/59.6). Intermediate (p=0.813), non-classical (p=0.725) and the number of total monocytes (p=0.626) stratified by tertiles showed no significant association with the combined endpoint. However, a higher absolute number of classical monocytes divided in tertiles was associated with incidence of the combined endpoint {T1=8.9% vs. T2=14.2% vs. T3=16.0% (p=0.021)}. In comparison of the third to the first tertile of Mo1 population multivariate analysis showed a hazard ratio of 1.646 (CI: 1.005-2.699, p=0.048). CONCLUSIONS: The absolute counts of classical monocytes divided in tertiles are predictive for major adverse cardiac events in patients with CAD. A tremendous shift from classical to intermediate monocytes was also confirmed in CAD patients. These data highlight the importance of CD14++ monocytes in cardiovascular diseases.

10.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2142-2151, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098611

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the frequency, clinical features, and prognostic implications of cardiac arrest (CA) in takotsubo syndrome (TTS). METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed the records of patients with CA and known heart rhythm from the International Takotsubo Registry. The main outcomes were 60-day and 5-year mortality. In addition, predictors of mortality and predictors of CA during the acute TTS phase were assessed. Of 2098 patients, 103 patients with CA and known heart rhythm during CA were included. Compared with patients without CA, CA patients were more likely to be younger, male, and have apical TTS, atrial fibrillation (AF), neurologic comorbidities, physical triggers, and longer corrected QT-interval and lower left ventricular ejection fraction on admission. In all, 57.1% of patients with CA at admission had ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia, while 73.7% of patients with CA in the acute phase had asystole/pulseless electrical activity. Patients with CA showed higher 60-day (40.3% vs. 4.0%, P < 0.001) and 5-year mortality (68.9% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001) than patients without CA. T-wave inversion and intracranial haemorrhage were independently associated with higher 60-day mortality after CA, whereas female gender was associated with lower 60-day mortality. In the acute phase, CA occurred less frequently in females and more frequently in patients with AF, ST-segment elevation, and higher C-reactive protein on admission. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac arrest is relatively frequent in TTS and is associated with higher short- and long-term mortality. Clinical and electrocardiographic parameters independently predicted mortality after CA.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

12.
Heart Fail Rev ; 24(4): 489-498, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830518

RESUMO

Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) affect 8% of the population, and approximately 78% of them are women. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in ARDs encompasses different pathophysiologic processes, such as endothelial dysfunction, myocardial/vascular inflammation and accelerated atherosclerosis with silent clinical presentation, leading to heart failure (HF), usually with preserved ejection fraction. Echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) are the two most commonly used noninvasive imaging modalities for the evaluation of HF in patients with ARDs. Echocardiography currently represents the main diagnostic tool for cardiac imaging in clinical practice. However, the demand for more efficient and prompt diagnostic and therapeutic approach in this specific population necessitates the implementation of modalities capable of providing a more detailed and quantified information from the point of tissue characterization. Furthermore, echocardiography is an operator and acoustic window depended modality, with relatively low reproducibility and unable to perform tissue characterization. CMR is a noninvasive modality without radiation that can give reproducible and operator-independent information about both myocardial function and tissue characterization. By providing quantification of oedema, stress perfusion defects and fibrosis, CMR can diagnose myocardial inflammation, micro-macro-vascular myocardial ischemia and replacement or diffuse fibrosis, respectively. Tissue characterization allows for moving beyond the cardiac function to the assessment of intra- and inter-cellular alterations and promotes the development of personalized cardiac and anti-rheumatic treatment in ARDs with HF. ARDs are mainly female diseases. Cardiac involvement leading in HF is not unusual in ARDs and remains the main cause of death. Noninvasive, nonradiating imaging modalities such as echocardiography and CMR represent the main diagnostic tools. Specifically, echocardiography represents the first diagnostic approach; however, it is CMR that gives information about the pathophysiologic background behind HF in ARDs.

13.
Heart Fail Rev ; 24(4): 439-459, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852773

RESUMO

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) represents a phenotype of left ventricular hypertrophy unexplained by abnormal loading conditions. The definition is based on clinical criteria; however, there are numerous underlying etiologic factors. The MOGE(S) classification provides a standardized approach for multimodal characterization of HCM. HCM is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and especially the assessment of the risk of sudden cardiac death is of paramount importance. In this review, we summarize essential knowledge and recently published data on clinical presentation, diagnosis, genetic analyses, differential diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment options that are necessary for understanding and management of HCM.

14.
Heart Lung Circ ; 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) is an established interventional treatment for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) patients with drug refractory symptoms. This study investigated the prognostic value of cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in relation to the late clinical outcome. METHODS: Twenty-one (21) HOCM patients underwent CPET before and 3 months after ASA and were followed yearly thereafter. Clinical success was considered to be a decrease of ≥1 (New York Heart Association or Canadian Cardiovascular Society) functional class. Cardiopulmonary exercise test parameters [maximal oxygen uptake (PeakVO2), % predicted VO2 (PeakVO2%), oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold (AT), maximal workload (W), % predicted W (W%), ventilation (VE), % predicted VE (VE%), ventilation to maximal carbon dioxide production slope (VE/VCO2), % predicted maximal heart rate (HR%), and maximal systolic blood pressure (SBP)] were compared before and 3 months after ASA. RESULTS: After follow-up of 29 ± 13 months, 16 patients had a good clinical results (clinical responders), while five did not improve (clinical non-responders). The CPET parameters did not change in non-responders, while clinical responders showed significant improvement in VO2, VO2%, W, VE/VCO2, VE, VE%, as well as an increase in HR% and SBP at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: The data confirmed a good association between the improvement in CPET parameters and the clinical results 3 months after ASA. This may therefore serve as an early marker of HOCM-ASA treatment success.

15.
Heart Fail Rev ; 24(4): 521-533, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790171

RESUMO

Amyloidosis is caused by extracellular deposition of insoluble abnormal fibrils constituted by misfolded proteins, which can modify tissue anatomy and hinder the function of multiple organs including the heart. Amyloidosis that can affect the heart includes mostly systemic amyloidosis (amyloid light chain, AL) and transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR). The latter can be acquired in elderly patients (ATTRwt), or be inherited in younger individuals (ATTRm). The diagnosis is demanding given the high phenotypic heterogeneity of the disease. Therefore, "red flags," which are suggestive features giving support to diagnostic suspicion, are extremely valuable. However, the lack of broad awareness among clinicians represents a major obstacle for early diagnosis and treatment of ATTR. Furthermore, recent implementation of noninvasive diagnostic techniques has revisited the need for endomyocardial biopsy (EMB). In fact, unlike AL amyloidosis, which requires tissue confirmation and typing for diagnosis, ATTR can now be diagnosed noninvasively with the combination of bone scintigraphy and the absence of a monoclonal protein. Securing the correct diagnosis is pivotal for the newly available therapeutic options targeting both ATTRm and ATTRwt, and are directed to either stabilization of the abnormal protein or the reduction of the production of transthyretin. The purpose of this article is to review the contemporary aspects of diagnosis and management of transthyretin amyloidosis with cardiac involvement, summarizing also the recent therapeutic advances with tafamidis, patisiran, and inotersen.

16.
Heart Fail Rev ; 24(3): 359-366, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617667

RESUMO

Treatment of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) with septal reduction, either with myectomy or alcohol septal ablation, is aiming to reduce the LVOT gradient and improve symptoms in patients who are refractory to or do not tolerate medical treatment. Apart from contributing to the evolution to heart failure, LVOT obstruction is considered a risk factor for sudden cardiac death (SCD). Both septal reduction treatments have been proven effective in reducing symptoms and seem to improve survival, which has been shown equal to the expected in the normal population. SCD is probably reduced after septal reduction, implying that LVOT obstruction is a major factor predisposing to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Although available algorithms for SCD stratification have not been tested in patients after septal reduction treatments, effective treatment improves SCD risk profile substantially. Furthermore, high-risk patients with already implanted implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) before septal reduction show very low appropriate ICD shock rate after effective treatment. It should be noted, however, that the best outcomes for septal myectomy or ablation have been reported in HOCM patients treated in high-volume centres, which substantiates the need to refer patients to centres with high procedural expertise.

17.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 7, 2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616556

RESUMO

Advances in the medical and surgical management of Tetralogy of Fallot have led to marked increase of the number and age of survivors. Imaging in patients with Tetralogy of Fallot plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and follow up, and essentially guides management and intervention in this entity. This study systematically reviews the imaging modalities used in patients with Tetralogy of Fallot in the evaluation of preoperative and postoperative anatomic and hemodynamic lesions, as well as disease progression in this diagnosis. Various invasive and noninvasive imaging modalities, most commonly echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance, computed tomography and angiocardiography provide the imaging information required for diagnosis, management and follow up in Tetralogy of Fallot. The choice of the appropriate imaging tool or their combination is guided by the clinical question, the patient's clinical condition and contraindications as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each imaging modality. Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common complex congenital heart disease with long term survivors that need close follow up and complicated management, including multiple surgical and transcatheter interventions. Knowledge of the role and protocols of imaging in Tetralogy of Fallot is extremely important for the clinical as well as the imaging physician in order to optimize patients' management and long-term prognosis.

19.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 18(1): 221, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac Amyloidosis (CA) pertains to the cardiac involvement of a group of diseases, in which misfolded proteins deposit in tissues and cause progressive organ damage. The vast majority of CA cases are caused by light chain amyloidosis (AL) and transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR). The increased awareness of these diseases has led to an increment of newly diagnosed cases each year. METHODS: We performed multiple searches on MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Several search terms were used, such as "cardiac amyloidosis", "diagnostic modalities cardiac amyloidosis" and "staging cardiac amyloidosis". Emphasis was given on original articles describing novel diagnostic and staging approaches to the disease. RESULTS: Imaging techniques are indispensable to diagnosing CA. Novel ultrasonographic techniques boast high sensitivity and specificity for the disease. Nuclear imaging has repeatedly proved its worth in the diagnostic procedure, with efforts now focusing on standardization and quantification of amyloid load. Because the latter would be invaluable for any staging system, those spearheading research in magnetic resonance imaging of the disease are also trying to come up with accurate tools to quantify amyloid burden. Staging tools are currently being developed and validated for ATTR CA, in the spirit of the acclaimed Mayo Staging System for AL. CONCLUSION: Cardiac involvement confers significant morbidity and mortality in all types of amyloidosis. Great effort is made to reduce the time to diagnosis, as treatment in the initial stages of the disease is tied to better prognosis. The results of these efforts are highly sensitive and specific diagnostic modalities that are also reasonably cost effective.

20.
J Clin Med Res ; 10(12): 857-867, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425757

RESUMO

Progress in science and technology in the health services has led to the development of methods of regenerating and replacing solid organs, tissues and cells, using human body components to create medical products of human origin intended for clinical use. In the activities in which products of human origin are used, however, from the point of donation and harvesting to the subsequent care of the recipient, medical products of human origin are exposed to the risk of specific complications related to the transmission of infectious diseases, and further side-effects. Biovigilance system application is a basic requirement for ensuring the quality and safety of tissues and cells intended for human use. The quality system focuses on error prevention, maintaining a consistent pattern of agreed assays for tissues and cells intended for clinical use. The implementation of quality and safety standards, the development of medical protocols and cooperation protocols between member states, the implementation of Single European Code (SEC), and the development of electronic traceability systems, all aim at vigilance and the surveillance of medical products of human origin from donation to transplantation.

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