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1.
J Child Orthop ; 15(5): 503-509, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858538

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine and stratify femoral version in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD), and to compare the femoral version between the LCPD hip and the contralateral unaffected hip. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 45 patients with unilateral LCPD who had available CT scan through the hips and knees between January 2000 and June 2017. There were 34 (76%) male cases with a mean age of 14 years (sd 4.69). Two independent readers measured femoral version on the affected and the unaffected contralateral femur. Femoral version was classified as follows: severely decreased version (< 10°); moderately decreased (10° to 14°); normal femoral version range (15° to 20°); moderately increased (21° to 25°); and severely increased version (> 25°). Results: LCPD hips had predominantly increased femoral version (38% severely increased anteversion, 24% moderately increased anteversion), while 51% of the contralateral unaffected hips had normal femoral version (p < 0.001). LCPD hips had higher mean femoral version than the contralateral, unaffected side (mean difference = 13o; 95% confidence iterval 10o to 16o; p < 0.001). As the version of the affected hip increased, so did the discrepancy between sides. No effect of sex on the LCPD femoral version was detected (p = 0.34). Conclusion: This study included a selected group of patients with unilateral LCPD and available CT scans obtained for surgical planning. The femoral version was asymmetric, with a high proportion of excessive anteversion observed at later stages of disease in the affected hips. Future studies will be necessary to determine the pathogenesis of increased femoral version associated with LCPD. Level of Evidence: Level IV, retrospective study.

2.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate ultrasound (US) femoroacetabular translation measurements in female athlete patients. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in female athlete patients <50 years. Demographic data, Beighton score/hypermobility status, and sport participation were collected. Hip dysplasia was determined using radiographic measurements (lateral center edge angle, anterior center edge angle, Tönnis angle); femoral version angles were measured with CT or MR. Femoroacetabular translation US measures included neutral (N), neutral flexed (NF), extension external rotation/apprehension (EER) positions. Maximal difference (delta) between US measures was calculated. RESULTS: 206/349 female hips were analyzed (median age 21.2 years [range, 12-49.5]). The primary sport group was performing arts (45%, 92/206). Mean Beighton score was 5.2 (SD, 2.5) with 61% (129/206) of hips exhibiting hypermobility (Beighton score ≥5). For each additional unit of Beighton score, N US measurement increased by 0.7 mm (ß = 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.22-1.25; P < .001), NF by 1 mm ( ß = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.3-1.43; P = .002) and EER by 0.8 mm ( ß = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.27-1.37; P < .001) when adjusting for age and dysplasia status. A positive correlation was detected between NF (r = 0.19; 95% CI = 0.05-0.33; P = .007) and EER (r = 0.19; 95% CI = 0.05-0.32; P = .01) with Tönnis angle and a negative correlation between the delta and femoral version (r = -0.20; 95% CI = -0.35 to 0.03; P = .02). No difference in US measures was detected across sport groups (N [P = .24], NF [P = .51], EER [P = .20], delta [P = .07]). CONCLUSION: Beighton score was independently associated with dynamic US measures in female athlete patients who are not hypermobile when controlling for other factors.

3.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 41(Suppl 1): S47-S52, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096537

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This paper aims to review the indications criteria for the surgical treatment of adolescents with hip osteoarthritis and summarize the contemporary techniques that orthopaedic surgeons can apply for hip reconstruction. DISCUSSION: Hip osteoarthritis remains a concerning burden to North American society. While the rate of total hip replacement (THR) in younger patients has increased in the last decades, younger patients may have a higher risk of revision hip replacement because of their increased level of activity and expected patient longevity compared with the elderly. Increased demand for multiple revision surgeries is a concern for the adolescent patient. Although in general THR has been increasingly recommended for the treatment of end-stage osteoarthritis secondary to pediatric hip disorders, hip arthrodesis remains a beneficial alternative for the treatment of severe hip disease secondary to infection and for patients who desire to engage in a very active lifestyle. Hip preservation procedures are ideally performed in the prearthritic stage or in hips with minimal degeneration to preserve the joint and achieve the most optimal outcomes. However, adolescents and young adults with moderate and rarely advanced arthritis may benefit from surgical treatment using hip preservation techniques. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of adolescents with pain and dysfunction because of end-stage hip disease is challenging and controversial. THR and arthrodesis are the 2 principal alternatives. However, in particular circumstances, hip reconstruction may be recommended.


Assuntos
Artrodese , Artroplastia de Quadril , Osteoartrite do Quadril , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Artrodese/efeitos adversos , Artrodese/métodos , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Humanos , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Osteoartrite do Quadril/diagnóstico , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Seleção de Pacientes , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Reoperação/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 9(4): 2325967121991213, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33869643

RESUMO

Background: Femoroacetabular impingement and acetabular dysplasia have gained increased attention as nonarthritic sources of pain and dysfunction in young, active patients. To date, no standardized approach to the diagnostic evaluation of nonarthritic hip pain has been identified, as previous work has focused on the diagnostic evaluation and management of patients with femoroacetabular impingement undergoing hip arthroscopy. Purpose: To explore the standard diagnostic evaluation practice of experts in the field of hip preservation surgery and combine their expertise through the Delphi method to form a standardized approach to the diagnostic evaluation of patients with nonarthritic hip pain. Study Design: Consensus statement. Methods: An expert panel made up of 18 orthopaedic surgeons with extensive experience in the treatment of nonarthritic hip disorders participated in this Delphi study. The Delphi panelists were presented with 4 clinical vignettes representing a spectrum of patients with nonarthritic hip pain. Three iterative survey rounds were presented to the panelists based on these clinical vignettes, and a 3-step classic Delphi method was used to establish consensus techniques in the diagnostic evaluation of nonarthritic hip pain. Results: Total (100%) participation was gained, with all 18 experts completing all 3 Delphi survey rounds. Consensus (≥75% support) was achieved for some, if not all, vignettes for each of the following diagnostic domains: historical features, physical examination, radiographic sequences, radiographic interpretation, cross-sectional imaging, and ancillary diagnostics. Conclusion: In this Delphi study, we identified standardized diagnostic treatment approaches as derived from expert opinion for patients with nonarthritic hip pathomorphologies.

5.
Radiology ; 299(1): 150-158, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620288

RESUMO

Background Often used for T1 mapping of hip cartilage, three-dimensional (3D) dual-flip-angle (DFA) techniques are highly sensitive to flip angle variations related to B1 inhomogeneities. The authors hypothesized that 3D magnetization-prepared 2 rapid gradient-echo (MP2RAGE) MRI would help provide more accurate T1 mapping of hip cartilage at 3.0 T than would 3D DFA techniques. Purpose To compare 3D MP2RAGE MRI with 3D DFA techniques using two-dimensional (2D) inversion recovery T1 mapping as a standard of reference for hip cartilage T1 mapping in phantoms, healthy volunteers, and participants with hip pain. Materials and Methods T1 mapping at 3.0 T was performed in phantoms and in healthy volunteers using 3D MP2RAGE MRI and 3D DFA techniques with B1 field mapping for flip angle correction. Participants with hip pain prospectively (July 2019-January 2020) underwent indirect MR arthrography (with intravenous administration of 0.2 mmol/kg of gadoterate meglumine), including 3D MP2RAGE MRI. A 2D inversion recovery-based sequence served as a T1 reference in phantoms and in participants with hip pain. In healthy volunteers, cartilage T1 was compared between 3D MP2RAGE MRI and 3D DFA techniques. Paired t tests and Bland-Altman analysis were performed. Results Eleven phantoms, 10 healthy volunteers (median age, 27 years; range, 26-30 years; five men), and 20 participants with hip pain (mean age, 34 years ± 10 [standard deviation]; 17 women) were evaluated. In phantoms, T1 bias from 2D inversion recovery was lower for 3D MP2RAGE MRI than for 3D DFA techniques (mean, 3 msec ± 11 vs 253 msec ± 85; P < .001), and, unlike 3D DFA techniques, the deviation found with MP2RAGE MRI did not correlate with increasing B1 deviation. In healthy volunteers, regional cartilage T1 difference (109 msec ± 163; P = .008) was observed only for the 3D DFA technique. In participants with hip pain, the mean T1 bias of 3D MP2RAGE MRI from 2D inversion recovery was -23 msec ± 31 (P < .001). Conclusion Compared with three-dimensional (3D) dual-flip-angle techniques, 3D magnetization-prepared 2 rapid gradient-echo MRI enabled more accurate T1 mapping of hip cartilage, was less affected by B1 inhomogeneities, and showed high accuracy against a T1 reference in participants with hip pain. © RSNA, 2021.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Gadolínio DTPA , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Medição da Dor , Imagens de Fantasmas , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 479(5): 935-944, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contemporary studies have described the rotational mechanism in patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). However, there have been limited patient imaging data and information to quantify the rotation. Determining whether the epiphysis is rotated or translated and measuring the epiphyseal displacement in all planes may facilitate planning for surgical reorientation of the epiphysis. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How does epiphyseal rotation and translation differ among mild, moderate, and severe SCFE? (2) Is there a correlation between epiphyseal rotation and posterior or inferior translation in hips with SCFE? (3) Does epiphyseal rotation correlate with the size of the epiphyseal tubercle or the metaphyseal fossa or with epiphyseal cupping? METHODS: We identified 51 patients (55% boys [28 of 51]; mean age 13 ± 2 years) with stable SCFE who underwent preoperative CT of the pelvis before definitive treatment. Stable SCFE was selected because unstable SCFE would not allow for accurate assessment of rotation given the complete displacement of the femoral head in relation to the neck. The epiphysis and metaphysis were segmented and reconstructed in three-dimensions (3-D) for analysis in this retrospective study. One observer (a second-year orthopaedic resident) performed the image segmentation and measurements of epiphyseal rotation and translation relative to the metaphysis, epiphyseal tubercle, metaphyseal fossa, and the epiphysis extension onto the metaphysis defined as epiphyseal cupping. To assess the reliability of the measurements, a randomly selected subset of 15 hips was remeasured by the primary examiner and by the two experienced examiners independently. We used ANOVA to calculate the intraclass and interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for intraobserver and interobserver reliability of rotational and translational measurements. The ICC values for rotation were 0.91 (intraobserver) and 0.87 (interobserver) and the ICC values for translation were 0.92 (intraobserver) and 0.87 (intraobserver). After adjusting for age and sex, we compared the degree of rotation and translation among mild, moderate, and severe SCFE. Pearson correlation analysis was used to assess the associations between rotation and translation and between rotation and tubercle, fossa, and cupping measurements. RESULTS: Hips with severe SCFE had greater epiphyseal rotation than hips with mild SCFE (adjusted mean difference 21° [95% CI 11° to 31°]; p < 0.001) and hips with moderate SCFE (adjusted mean difference 13° [95% CI 3° to 23°]; p = 0.007). Epiphyseal rotation was positively correlated with posterior translation (r = 0.33 [95% CI 0.06 to 0.55]; p = 0.02) but not with inferior translation (r = 0.16 [95% CI -0.12 to 0.41]; p = 0.27). There was a positive correlation between rotation and metaphyseal fossa depth (r = 0.35 [95% CI 0.08 to 0.57]; p = 0.01), width (r = 0.41 [95% CI 0.15 to 0.61]; p = 0.003), and length (r = 0.56 [95% CI 0.38 to 0.75]; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study supports a rotational mechanism for the pathogenesis of SCFE. Increased rotation is associated with more severe slips, posterior epiphyseal translation, and enlargement of the metaphyseal fossa. The rotational nature of the deformity, with the center of rotation at the epiphyseal tubercle, should be considered when planning in situ fixation and realignment surgery. Avoiding placing a screw through the epiphyseal tubercle-the pivot point of rotation- may increase the stability of the epiphysis. The realignment of the epiphysis through rotation rather than simple translation is recommended during the open subcapital realignment procedure. Enlargement of the metaphyseal fossa disrupts the interlocking mechanism with the tubercle and increases epiphyseal instability. Even in the setting of a stable SCFE, an increased fossa enlargement may indicate using two screws instead of one screw, given the severity of epiphyseal rotation and the risk of instability. Further biomechanical studies should investigate the number and position of in situ fixation screws in relation to the epiphyseal tubercle and metaphyseal fossa. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, prognostic study.


Assuntos
Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Escorregamento das Epífises Proximais do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Epífises/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Modelagem Computacional Específica para o Paciente , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Escorregamento das Epífises Proximais do Fêmur/fisiopatologia
7.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 479(5): 922-931, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epiphyseal tubercle, the corresponding metaphyseal fossa, and peripheral cupping are key stabilizers of the femoral head-neck junction. Abnormal development of these features in the setting of supraphysiologic physeal stress under high forces (for example, forces that occur during sports activity) may result in a cam morphology. Although most previous studies on cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) have mainly focused on overgrowth of the peripheral cupping, little is known about detailed morphologic changes of the epiphyseal and metaphyseal bony surfaces in patients with cam morphology. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Does the CT-based bony morphology of the peripheral epiphyseal cupping differ between patients with a cam-type morphology and asymptomatic controls (individuals who did not have hip pain)? (2) Does the CT-based bony morphology of the epiphyseal tubercle differ between patients with a cam-type morphology and asymptomatic controls? (3) Does the CT-based bony morphology of the metaphyseal fossa differ between patients with a cam-type morphology and asymptomatic controls? METHODS: After obtaining institutional review board approval for this study, we retrospectively searched our institutional database for patients aged 8 to 15 years with a diagnosis of an idiopathic cam morphology who underwent a preoperative CT evaluation of the affected hip between 2005 and 2018 (n = 152). We excluded 96 patients with unavailable CT scans and 40 patients with prior joint diseases other than cam-type FAI. Our search resulted in 16 patients, including nine males. Six of 16 patients had a diagnosis of bilateral FAI, for whom we randomly selected one side for the analysis. Three-dimensional (3-D) models of the proximal femur were generated to quantify the size of the peripheral cupping (peripheral growth of the epiphysis around the metaphysis), epiphyseal tubercle (a beak-like prominence in the posterosuperior aspect of the epiphysis), and metaphyseal fossa (a groove on the metaphyseal surface corresponding to the epiphyseal tubercle). A general linear model was used to compare the quantified anatomic features between the FAI cohort and 80 asymptomatic hips (aged 8 to 15 years; 50% male) after adjusting for age and sex. A secondary analysis using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test was performed to assess side-to-side differences in quantified morphological features in 10 patients with unilateral FAI. RESULTS: After adjusting for age and sex, we found that patients with FAI had larger peripheral cupping in the anterior, posterior, superior, and inferior regions than control patients who did not have hip symptoms or radiographic signs of FAI (by 1.3- to 1.7-fold; p < 0.01 for all comparisons). The epiphyseal tubercle height and length were smaller in patients with FAI than in controls (by 0.3- to 0.6-fold; p < 0.02 for all comparisons). There was no difference in tubercle width between the groups. Metaphyseal fossa depth, width, and length were larger in patients with FAI than in controls (by 1.8- to 2.3-fold; p < 0.001 for all comparisons). For patients with unilateral FAI, we saw similar peripheral cupping but smaller epiphyseal tubercle (height and length) along with larger metaphyseal fossa (depth) in the FAI side compared with the uninvolved contralateral side. CONCLUSION: Consistent with prior studies, we observed more peripheral cupping in patients with cam-type FAI than control patients without hip symptoms or radiographic signs of FAI. Interestingly, the epiphyseal tubercle height and length were smaller and the metaphyseal fossa was larger in hips with cam-type FAI, suggesting varying inner bone surface morphology of the growth plate. The docking mechanism between the epiphyseal tubercle and the metaphyseal fossa is important for epiphyseal stability, particularly at early ages when the peripheral cupping is not fully developed. An underdeveloped tubercle and a large fossa could be associated with a reduction in stability, while excessive peripheral cupping growth would be a factor related to improved physeal stability. This is further supported by observed side-to-side differences in tubercle and fossa morphology in patients with unilateral FAI. Further longitudinal studies would be worthwhile to study the causality and compensatory mechanisms related to epiphyseal and metaphyseal bony morphology in pathogenesis cam-type FAI. Such information will lay the foundation for developing imaging biomarkers to predict the risk of FAI or to monitor its progress, which are critical in clinical care planning. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, prognostic study.


Assuntos
Impacto Femoroacetabular/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Epífises/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Impacto Femoroacetabular/fisiopatologia , Impacto Femoroacetabular/cirurgia , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Fêmur/cirurgia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Modelagem Computacional Específica para o Paciente , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 479(5): 947-959, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although femoral retroversion has been linked to the onset of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), and may result from a rotation of the femoral epiphysis around the epiphyseal tubercle leading to femoral retroversion, femoral version has rarely been described in patients with SCFE. Furthermore, the prevalence of actual femoral retroversion and the effect of different measurement methods on femoral version angles has yet to be studied in SCFE. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Do femoral version and the prevalence of femoral retroversion differ between hips with SCFE and the asymptomatic contralateral side? (2) How do the mean femoral version angles and the prevalence of femoral retroversion change depending on the measurement method used? (3) What is the interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility of these measurement methods? METHODS: For this retrospective, controlled, single-center study, we reviewed our institutional database for patients who were treated for unilateral SCFE and who had undergone a pelvic CT scan. During the period in question, the general indication for obtaining a CT scan was to define the surgical strategy based on the assessment of deformity severity in patients with newly diagnosed SCFE or with previous in situ fixation. After applying prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria, we included 79 patients. The mean age was 15 ± 4 years, 48% (38 of 79) of the patients were male, and 56% (44 of 79) were obese (defined as a BMI > 95th percentile (mean BMI 34 ± 9 kg/m2). One radiology resident (6 years of experience) measured femoral version of the entire study group using five different methods. Femoral neck version was measured as the orientation of the femoral neck. Further measurement methods included the femoral head's center and differed regarding the level of landmarks for the proximal femoral reference axis. From proximal to distal, this included the most-proximal methods (Lee et al. and Reikerås et al.) and most-distal methods (Tomczak et al. and Murphy et al.). Most proximally (Lee et al. method), we used the most cephalic junction of the greater trochanter as the landmark and, most distally, we used the center base of the femoral neck superior to the lesser trochanter (Murphy et al.). The orientation of the distal femoral condyles served as the distal reference axis for all five measurement methods. All five methods were compared side-by-side (involved versus uninvolved hip), and comparisons among all five methods were performed using paired t-tests. The prevalence of femoral retroversion (< 0°) was compared using a chi-square test. A subset of patients was measured twice by the first observer and by a second orthopaedic resident (2 years of experience) to assess intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver reliability; for this assessment, we used intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS: The mean femoral neck version was lower in hips with SCFE than in the contralateral side (-2° ± 13° versus 7° ± 11°; p < 0.001). This yielded a mean side-by side difference of -8° ± 11° (95% CI -11° to -6°; p < 0.001) and a higher prevalence of femoral retroversion in hips with SCFE (58% [95% CI 47% to 69%]; p < 0.001) than on the contralateral side (29% [95% CI 19% to 39%]). These differences between hips with SCFE and the contralateral side were higher and ranged from -17° ± 11° (95% CI -20° to -15°; p < 0.001) based on the method of Tomczak et al. to -22° ± 13° (95% CI -25° to -19°; p < 0.001) according to the method of Murphy et al. The mean overall femoral version angles increased for hips with SCFE using more-distal landmarks compared with more-proximal landmarks. The prevalence of femoral retroversion was higher in hips with SCFE for the proximal methods of Lee et al. and Reikerås et al. (91% [95% CI 85% to 97%] and 84% [95% CI 76% to 92%], respectively) than for the distal measurement methods of Tomczak et al. and Murphy et al. (47% [95% CI 36% to 58%] and 60% [95% CI 49% to 71%], respectively [all p < 0.001]). We detected mean differences ranging from -19° to 4° (all p < 0.005) for 8 of 10 pairwise comparisons in hips with SCFE. Among these, the greatest differences were between the most-proximal methods and the more-distal methods, with a mean difference of -19° ± 7° (95% CI -21° to -18°; p < 0.001), comparing the methods of Lee et al. and Tomczak et al. In hips with SCFE, we found excellent agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] > 0.80) for intraobserver reproducibility (reader 1, ICC 0.93 to 0.96) and interobserver reliability (ICC 0.95 to 0.98) for all five measurement methods. Analogously, we found excellent agreement (ICC > 0.80) for intraobserver reproducibility (reader 1, range 0.91 to 0.96) and interobserver reliability (range 0.89 to 0.98) for all five measurement methods in healthy contralateral hips. CONCLUSION: We showed that femoral neck version is asymmetrically decreased in unilateral SCFE, and that differences increase when including the femoral head's center. Thus, to assess the full extent of an SCFE deformity, femoral version measurements should consider the position of the displaced epiphysis. The prevalence of femoral retroversion was high in patients with SCFE and increased when using proximal anatomic landmarks. Since the range of femoral version angles was wide, femoral version cannot be predicted in a given hip and must be assessed individually. Based on these findings, we believe it is worthwhile to add evaluation of femoral version to the diagnostic workup of children with SCFE. Doing so may better inform surgeons as they contemplate when to use isolated offset correction or to perform an additional femoral osteotomy for SCFE correction based on the severity of the slip and the rotational deformity. To facilitate communication among physicians and for the design of future studies, we recommend consistently reporting the applied measurement technique. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, prognostic study.


Assuntos
Retroversão Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Escorregamento das Epífises Proximais do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Retroversão Óssea/fisiopatologia , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Epífises/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Escorregamento das Epífises Proximais do Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Child Orthop ; 14(3): 167-174, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32582383

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate whether body mass index (BMI) percentile impacts the morphology of the capital femoral epiphysis in children and adolescents without hip disorders. Methods: We assessed 68 subjects with healthy hips who underwent a pelvic CT for evaluation of appendicitis. There were 32 male patients (47%) and the mean age was 11.6 years (sd 2.3). The BMI (k/m2) was calculated for sex- and age-related percentiles according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. CT images were segmented, and the epiphysis and metaphysis were reformatted using 3D software. We measured the epiphyseal tubercle (height, width and length), the metaphyseal fossa (depth, width and length) and the peripheral cupping of the epiphysis. All measurements were normalized to the diameter of the epiphysis. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to assess the correlations between the variables measured and BMI percentile adjusted for age. Results: Following adjustment to age, increased BMI correlated to decreased tubercle height (r =-0.34; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.53 to -0.11; p = 0.005), decreased tubercle length (r = -0.32; 95%CI -0.52 to -0.09; p = 0.008) and decreased tubercle width (r = -0.3; 95% CI -0.5 to -0.07; p = 0.01). There was no correlation between BMI and metaphyseal fossa and epiphyseal cupping measurements. Conclusion: The association between increased BMI percentile and decreased epiphyseal tubercle size, without changes of the metaphyseal fossa and peripheral cupping suggests another morphological change of the femur that may be associated with decreased growth plate resistance to shear stress. Further study is necessary to investigate whether the epiphyseal tubercle size plays a role in the pathogenesis of slipped capital femoral epiphysis in obese children and adolescents. Level of Evidence: Level IV.

11.
J Child Orthop ; 14(3): 184-189, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32582385

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the 3D morphology of the metaphyseal fossa among mild, moderate and severe stable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) and normal hips. Methods: We identified pelvic CT of 51 patients (55% male; mean 12.7 years (sd 1.9; 8-15)) with stable SCFE. In all, 16 of 51 hips (31%) had mild, 14 (27%) moderate and 21 (41%) severe SCFE. A total of 80 patients (50% male; mean age 11.5 years (sd 2.3; 8 to 15)) with normal hips who underwent pelvic CT due to abdominal pain made up the control cohort. CT scans were segmented, and the femur was reformatted using 3D software. We measured the metaphyseal fossa depth, width, length and surface area after the epiphysis was subtracted from the metaphysis in the 3D model. Results: The metaphyseal fossa width was significantly larger in severe (adjusted difference: 6.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1 to 11.8; p = 0.001), moderate (6.5%; 95% CI 0.8 to 12.2; p = 0.02) and mild SCFE (6.2%; 95% CI 0.8 to 11.6; p = 0.01), in comparison with normal hips. Severe SCFE showed larger fossa length compared with mild SCFE (6.8%; 95% CI 0.6 to 13.0; p = 0.02) and normal hips (6.0%; 95% CI 1.4 to 10.6; p = 0.004). The fossa surface area was larger in severe (3.5%; 95% CI 1.3 to 5.7; p < 0.001) and moderate SCFE (2.7%; 95% CI 0.1 to 5.2; p = 0.03) when compared with normal hips. There were no differences in fossa depth between SCFE and normal hips. Conclusion: The metaphyseal fossa is wider and more extensive but not deeper in hips with moderate and severe SCFE in comparison with normal hips. Although hips with severe SCFE had larger length and surface area than mild SCFE hips, further research is needed to clarify whether enlargement of the metaphyseal fossa is a consequence of slip progression. Level of Evidence: III.

12.
Radiology ; 296(2): 381-390, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515680

RESUMO

Background Assessment of femoral torsion at preoperative hip imaging is commonly recommended. However, it is unclear whether MRI is as accurate as CT and how different methods affect femoral torsion measurements. Purpose To compare MRI- and CT-based assessment of femoral torsion by using four commonly used measurement methods in terms of agreement, reproducibility, and reliability and to compare femoral torsion angles between the four different measurement methods. Materials and Methods This retrospective study evaluated patients with hip pain who underwent CT and 3-T MRI of the hip including sequences of the pelvis and distal condyles between May 2017 and June 2018. The four measurement methods differed regarding the landmark levels for the proximal femoral reference axis and included measurements at the level of the greater trochanter, femoral neck, base of the femoral neck, and level of the lesser trochanter. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed. Results Forty-five patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 19 years ± 5; 27 female) and 57 hips were evaluated. Inter- and intrarater reliability were excellent for each of the four CT- and MRI-based measurement methods (ICC range, 0.97-0.99). Mean difference between CT- and MRI-based measurement ranged from 0.3° ± 3.4 (P = .58) to 2.1° ± 4.1 (P < .001). Differences between CT and MRI were within the corresponding ICC variation for all four measurement methods. Mean torsion angles were greater by 17.6° for CT and 18.7° for MRI (all P < .001) between the most proximal to the most distal measurement methods. Conclusion MRI- and CT-based femoral torsion measurements showed high agreement and comparable reliability and reproducibility but were dependent on the level of selected landmarks used to define the proximal reference axis. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Zoga in this issue.


Assuntos
Fêmur , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Fêmur/anatomia & histologia , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Child Orthop ; 14(2): 98-105, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351621

RESUMO

Purpose: Our primary research question was to investigate the severity of deformity and articular damage as well as outcomes in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy compared with open surgery for the treatment of symptomatic slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) deformity. Methods: Retrospective review of surgical treatment of symptomatic SCFE deformity with a minimum one-year follow-up. Patients were divided into three groups: the arthroscopic group, surgical hip dislocation(SHD) group and SHD with femoral osteotomy (SHD+ITO) group. Deformity severity was quantified. Hip outcome was assessed by the modified Merle d'Aubigné Postel (MDP) scores. Results: There were more severe slips treated by SHD and SHD+ITO. There was more severe deformity in the SHD+ITO group than the arthroscopy group (p < 0.001). There were more full thickness acetabular cartilage defects in the SHD and the SHD+ITO groups (> 40%) compared with the arthroscopy group (11%; p = 0.03). The SHD+ITO and SHD group had lower MDP scores compared with the arthroscopy group both before and after surgery but no difference was detected in the amount of improvement from surgery across groups (p > 0.05). Moderate and severe SCFEs had worse preoperative scores but improvement was not different compared with mild SCFEs (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Patients undergoing open treatment had more severe SCFE deformity with more extensive articular damage at reconstructive surgery compared with patients undergoing arthroscopy. All groups with SCFE deformity had improved pain and hip function postoperatively. Level of Evidence: III.

14.
J Orthop Res ; 38(12): 2634-2639, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427362

RESUMO

The epiphyseal tubercle, a posterosuperior projection of the epiphysis into the metaphysis, serves as the axis of rotation in slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) and a source of physeal stability. We hypothesized that in a biomechanical model of single screw fixation of stable SCFE, a screw passing through the epiphyseal tubercle (the axis of rotation) would confer less rotational stability than a centrally placed screw. Three femurs were selected from a sample population of 8- to 15-year-old healthy hips to represent three stages of maturation: a "young" femur with a prominent epiphyseal tubercle and decreased epiphyseal cupping around the metaphysis, a "median" femur with a subsiding tubercle, and a "mature" femur with a subsided epiphyseal tubercle and increased peripheral epiphyseal cupping. Specimens were three-dimensional printed with one of two screw trajectories: passing centrally in the epiphysis or directly through the epiphyseal tubercle. Resistance to rotational displacement was measured through stiffness and maximum torque over 30° degrees of displacement. In the "young" model, epiphyseal tubercle screw position conferred less rotational stiffness and required less maximum torque during rotational displacement when compared to a centrally placed screw (P < .001). In the "median" and "mature" models where the tubercle has subsided and is replaced by peripheral epiphyseal cupping, screw position through the tubercle was associated with equal or greater rotational stiffness and maximum torque during displacement as a centrally placed screw.


Assuntos
Escorregamento das Epífises Proximais do Fêmur/cirurgia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Parafusos Ósseos , Criança , Epífises/cirurgia , Humanos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Impressão Tridimensional , Torque
15.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 478(7): 1648-1656, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is one of the most-used surgical techniques to treat symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. Although good functional and radiographic short-term and long-term outcomes have been reported, several complications after PAO have been described. One complication that may compromise clinical results is nonunion of an osteotomy. However, the exact prevalence and risk factors associated with nonunion are poorly elucidated. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What proportion of patients have complete bony healing versus nonunion during the first year after PAO? (2) What is the clinical and functional impact of nonunion at a minimum of 1 year after PAO, as assessed by the modified Harris hip score (mHHS) and the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS)? (3) What patient-specific or surgery-specific factors are associated with nonunion at 6 months and at a minimum of 1 year postoperatively? METHODS: Between January 2012 and December 2015, we retrospectively identified 314 patients who underwent PAO at our institution. During this period, 28 patients with a diagnosis different from symptomatic acetabular dysplasia (reverse PAO for acetabular over-coverage: n = 25; PAO for skeletal chondrodysplasia: n = 3) underwent PAO but were ineligible to participate. Hence, 286 patients underwent PAO to treat symptomatic acetabular dysplasia during the study period and were considered eligible. Inclusion criteria were patients with a complete set of postoperative radiographs (AP, Dunn lateral, and false-profile) at 12 months or more postoperatively. Eighteen percent (51 of 286) of the patients underwent staged, bilateral PAOs, but we only included the first PAO. Finally, 14% (41 of 286) of the patients were excluded because they had an incomplete set of postoperative radiographs at 12 months or more. The study comprised 245 patients. Eighty-five percent (209 of 245) of the patients were female and the mean age at surgery was 24 years ± 9 years. The healing status (complete healing vs. nonunion) was recorded for ischial, superior pubic, supraacetabular, and posterior column osteotomies at each subsequent visit. Nonunion was defined as noncontiguous osseous union with a persistent radiolucent line across any osteotomy site and was recorded at 3 months, approximately 6 months, and approximately 12 months postoperatively. Calculation of Cohen's kappa statistic coefficients showed the classification had perfect interobserver agreement (0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.93), but there was moderate intraobserver agreement between those who healed and those with nonunion. The HOOS and mHHS were collected preoperatively and at a minimum of 1 year after PAO. The HOOS contains five separate subscales for pain, symptoms, activity of daily living, sport and recreational function, and hip-related quality of life. The HOOS responses are normalized on a scale of 0 (worst) to 100 (best). The mHHS includes pain and function scales and is overall interpreted on a scale from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). Eighty-six percent (211 of 245) of the patients with a complete set of images at their 12-month visit completed the mHHS and 89% (217 of 245) completed the HOOS. We collected information from the patients' medical records about their symptomatic status and additional treatment for nonunion. A logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with nonunion at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. RESULTS: Only 45% (96 of 215) of the patients had complete radiographic healing of all osteotomy sites at the 6-month visit and 55% (119 of 215) had not healed completely. However, 92% (225 of 245) demonstrated complete radiographic healing of all osteotomy sites at approximately 1 year postoperatively. The proportion of nonunion at a minimum of 12 months after PAO was 8% (20 of 245 patients). There was no difference in the mHHS after 1 year or more of follow-up between patients with nonunion and patients with complete healing after PAO (nonunion mean mHHS: 73; 95% CI, 62-85 versus healed: 82; 95% CI, 80-85; p = 0.13) and HOOS pain (nonunion mean HOOS pain: 80; 95% CI, 71-90 versus healed: 86; 95% CI, 83-88; p = 0.16). Similarly, no difference was identified for HOOS symptoms (nonunion mean: 72; 95% CI, 63-80 versus healed: 78; 95% CI, 75-81; p = 0.11), HOOS activities of daily living (nonunion mean: 86; 95% CI, 78-94 versus healed: 91; 95% CI, 89-93; p = 0.09), HOOS sports and recreation (nonunion mean: 70; 95% CI, 57-83 versus healed: 78; 95% CI, 75-82; p = 0.18); and HOOS quality of life (nonunion mean: 60; 95% CI, 46-75 versus healed: 69; 95% CI, 65-72; p = 0.28). After controlling for potentially confounding variables such as gender, age, chisel type, and preoperative anterior center-edge angle, we found that higher BMI (per 1 k/m; odds ratio 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.22; p < 0.01), older age (per 1 year; OR 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08; p < 0.01) and more-severe acetabular dysplasia as assessed by a decreased preoperative lateral center-edge angle (per 1°; OR 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11; p < 0.01) were independently associated with nonunion of one or more osteotomy sites at 6 months postoperatively. Only age was an independent predictor of nonunion at 12 months postoperatively (per 1 year; OR 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.11; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study helps us to understand radiographic healing during the first year after PAO to treat symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. Fewer than half of the patients had complete healing of their osteotomies at 6 months postoperatively. More than 90% of patients can expect to have completely healed osteotomy sites at 12 months postoperatively. Surgeons should avoid unnecessary interventions if nonunion is observed radiographically at 6 months postoperatively. Although there was no difference in the HOOS and mHHS between patients with nonunion and those with complete healing, further research with a larger cohort is needed to clarify the impact of nonunion on clinical and functional outcomes after PAO. Surgeons should consider using strategies to enhance osteotomy healing in those who undergo PAO, such as optimizing vitamin D levels and using local bone grafts in older patients, those with a high BMI, and patients with severe acetabular dysplasia. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/cirurgia , Luxação do Quadril/cirurgia , Osteotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Cicatrização , Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Acetábulo/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Luxação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Luxação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Hip Preserv Surg ; 7(1): 49-56, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382429

RESUMO

To evaluate the acetabular morphology in healed Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease after skeletal maturity using computed tomography (CT) scan and to compare with matched controls. We identified 33 (37 hips) patients with healed Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease and closed triradiate cartilage who underwent pelvic CT scan. Each patient was matched based on sex, age and side to a subject with no history of hip disease who had undergone pelvic CT evaluation because of abdominal pain. Both cohorts had 23 (70%) males and mean age of 16.4-16.5 ± 3.6 years. Two independent readers assessed lateral center-edge angle (LCEA), acetabular inclination angle (IA), acetabular depth-width ratio (ADR), acetabular version 10 mm below the dome (cranial) and at the acetabular center and anterior (AASA) and posterior acetabular sector angles (PASA). All measurements had good to excellent interobserver agreement (intraclass coefficients ≥ 0.87). The hips in the Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease cohort had a smaller mean ± standard deviation (SD) superior, anterior and posterior acetabular coverage as assessed by LCEA (13.2° ± 10.7° versus 28.2° ± 3.4°; P < 0.0001), IA (11.6° ± 6.7° versus 3.5° ± 2.8°; P < 0.0001), AASA (52.4° ± 9.5° versus 59.3° ± 5.0°; P = 0.001) and PASA (79.3° ± 5.9° versus 92.3° ± 5.5°; P < 0.0001) compared with controls. The acetabulum was shallower (ADR 287 ± 45 versus 323 ± 28; P = 0.0002) and the acetabular version was decreased cranially (0.4°±9.2° versus 8.2°±6.8°; P = 0.0002) and at the acetabular center (13.7°±5.1° versus 17.2° ±3.8°; P = 0.004) in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease hips. After skeletal maturity, hips with healed Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease have shallower and more cranially retroverted acetabula, with globally reduced coverage of the femoral head compared with age-, sex- and side-matched control hips.

17.
J Arthroplasty ; 35(6S): S113-S118, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is a hip preserving procedure performed often in younger, highly active patients. However, counseling patients is difficult, as there are limited data regarding activity level after PAO. The purpose of this study is to analyze the physical activity levels after PAO in a large, prospective multicenter cohort. METHODS: Prospectively collected data from a multicenter study group included 359 hips treated by PAO for hip dysplasia at a mean age of 25.1 years. Patient demographics, radiographic measures, operative data, and clinical outcomes were evaluated preoperatively, at 1 year, and at minimum 2 years postoperatively. Activity level was assessed with the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) activity score, and patients were stratified into low activity, moderate activity, and high activity groups based on preoperative function. RESULTS: Compared to preoperative scores across the complete cohort, postoperative UCLA scores were improved on average 0.6 points at final follow-up (P = .001). The low activity and moderate activity groups had significant improvement in UCLA scores (P < .001 and P = .0007, respectively), while the high activity groups saw a significant decrease in UCLA activity scores (P < .0001). Modified Harris Hip Score, Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Score Pain, and Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Score Sports and Recreation scores were significantly improved across all preoperative activity levels. Multivariable linear regression (r2 = 0.45) confirmed prior ipsilateral surgery as a predictor for change in UCLA score (P = .002). CONCLUSION: Overall, these data suggest that consistent improvements in activity level and function can be expected following PAO surgery, with greater gains experienced by patients with lower preoperative levels of activity.


Assuntos
Acetábulo , Luxação do Quadril , Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Acetábulo/cirurgia , Adulto , Luxação do Quadril/etiologia , Luxação do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Los Angeles , Osteotomia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 40(7): 334-339, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral cupping of the capital femoral epiphysis over the metaphysis has been reported as a precursor of cam morphology, but may also confer stability of the epiphysis protecting it from slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a novel morphologic parameter of inherent physeal stability, epiphyseal cupping, and the development of SCFE in a dual-center matched-control cohort study. METHODS: We performed a dual-center age-matched and sex-matched cohort study comparing 279 subjects with unilateral SCFE and 279 radiographically normal controls from 2 tertiary children's hospitals. All SCFE patients had at least 18 months of radiographic follow-up for contralateral slip surveillance. Anteroposterior and frog lateral pelvis radiographs were utilized to measure the epiphyseal cupping ratio and the current standard measure of inherent physeal stability, the epiphyseal extension ratio. RESULTS: Control hips were found to have greater epiphyseal cupping than the contralateral uninvolved hip of SCFE subjects both superiorly (0.28±0.08 vs. 0.24±0.06; P<0.001) and anteriorly (0.22±0.07 vs. 0.19±0.06; P<0.001). The 58/279 (21%) subjects who went on to develop contralateral slip had decreased epiphyseal cupping superiorly (0.25±0.07 vs. 0.23±0.05; P=0.03) and anteriorly (0.20±0.06 vs. 0.17±0.04; P<0.001). When we compared controls with hips that did not progress to contralateral slip and hips that further developed a contralateral SCFE, 1-way ANOVA demonstrated a stepwise decrease in epiphyseal cupping and epiphyseal extension ratio in the anterior and superior planes from control hips to contralateral hips without subsequent slip to contralateral hips that developed a SCFE (P<0.01 for each). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides further evidence that epiphyseal cupping around the metaphysis is associated with decreased likelihood of SCFE and may reflect increased inherent physeal stability. Epiphyseal cupping may represent an adaptive mechanism to stabilize the epiphysis during adolescence at the long-term cost of the eventual development of associated cam-femoroacetabular impingement deformity. LEVELS OF EVIDENCE: Level III-prognostic Study.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Impacto Femoroacetabular , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril , Escorregamento das Epífises Proximais do Fêmur , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Impacto Femoroacetabular/diagnóstico , Impacto Femoroacetabular/etiologia , Impacto Femoroacetabular/prevenção & controle , Lâmina de Crescimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril/patologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Escorregamento das Epífises Proximais do Fêmur/diagnóstico , Escorregamento das Epífises Proximais do Fêmur/fisiopatologia
19.
J Orthop Res ; 38(10): 2213-2219, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091139

RESUMO

The epiphyseal tubercle plays an important role in epiphyseal stabilization. While the majority of studies have focused on tubercle morphology, there is a paucity of information on the morphological features of the metaphyseal fossa, where the tubercle sits on the metaphysis. The goal of this study was to determine the developmental changes in the capital femoral metaphyseal fossa. Computed tomography of the pelvis from 80 children and adolescents 8-15 years old were used to create three-dimensional models of the proximal femur. Depth, width, length, and surface area of the metaphyseal fossa were measured and the impact of age and sex on fossa morphology was assessed using the linear regression and two-way analysis of variance, respectively. The metaphyseal fossa was located in the posterosuperior quadrant of the metaphysis without any variations in the location with increasing age (P > .1). However, with increasing age, there was a reduction in all metaphyseal fossa measurements including the depth, length, width, and surface area (P < .01). No significant differences were noted for the metaphyseal fossa measurements between males and females (P > .1). The metaphyseal fossa reduces in size from 8 to 15 years of age in a similar fashion in males and females. As the metaphyseal fossa adjacent to the tubercle matches the area where a focal radiolucency has been observed in early slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), further studies should clarify the mechanisms by which the interlocking interaction of the epiphyseal tubercle and its fossa contributes to or is affected by SCFE.


Assuntos
Fêmur/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Articulação do Quadril/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 478(5): 1049-1059, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) often is delayed. Although lack of clinical suspicion is the main cause of delayed diagnosis, typical radiographic changes may not be present during the initial phases of SCFE. The peritubercle lucency sign for follow-up of the contralateral hip in patients with unilateral SCFE may be beneficial in assisting the early diagnosis. However, the accuracy and reliability of this sign in patients with SCFE is unknown. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What is the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the peritubercle lucency sign on radiographs for the early diagnosis of SCFE compared with MRI as the gold standard? (2) What are the interobserver and intraobserver reliabilities of the peritubercle lucency sign on radiographs? METHODS: Between 2000 and 2017, 71 patients underwent MRI for an evaluation of pre-slip or a minimally displaced SCFE. Sixty percent of hips (43 of 71) had confirmed SCFE or pre-slip based on the presence of hip pain and MRI changes, and these patients underwent in situ pinning. Three independent experienced observers reviewed MR images of the 71 hips and agreed on the presence of a juxtaphyseal bright-fluid signal suggesting bone marrow edema in these 43 hips with SCFE, and absence MRI changes in the remaining 28 hips. The same three experienced observers and two inexperienced observers, including a general radiologist and an orthopaedic surgery resident, blindly assessed the radiographs for the presence or absence of the peritubercle lucency sign, without information about the diagnosis. Diagnostic accuracy measures including sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were evaluated. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements were calculated using kappa statistics. RESULTS: The overall accuracy of the peritubercle lucency sign on radiographs was 94% (95% CI 91 to 96), sensitivity was 97% (95% CI 95 to 99), specificity was 89% (95% CI 90 to 96), PPV was 93% (95% CI 90 to 96), and NPV was 95% (95% CI 92 to 99). All accuracy parameters were greater than 85% for the five observers, regardless of experience level. Intraobserver agreement was perfect (kappa 1.0), and interobserver agreement was excellent for the peritubercle lucency sign on radiographs across the five observers (kappa 0.81 [95% CI 0.73 to 0.88]). The reliability was excellent for experienced observers (kappa 0.88 [95% CI 0.74 to 1.00]) and substantial for inexperienced observers (kappa 0.70 [95% CI 0.46 to 0.93]), although no difference was found with the numbers available (p = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: The peritubercle lucency sign on radiographs is accurate and reliable for the early diagnosis of SCFE compared with MRI as the gold standard. Improving the early diagnosis of SCFE may be possible with increased awareness, high clinical suspicion, and a scrutinized evaluation of radiographs including an assessment of the peritubercle lucency sign. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, diagnostic study.


Assuntos
Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Radiografia , Escorregamento das Epífises Proximais do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Criança , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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