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1.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_3): S218-S227, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469549

RESUMO

Since 2010, the introduction of an effective serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine has led to the near-elimination of invasive Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A disease in Africa's meningitis belt. However, a significant burden of disease and epidemics due to other bacterial meningitis pathogens remain in the region. High-quality surveillance data with laboratory confirmation is important to monitor circulating bacterial meningitis pathogens and design appropriate interventions, but complete testing of all reported cases is often infeasible. Here, we use case-based surveillance data from 5 countries in the meningitis belt to determine how accurately estimates of the distribution of causative pathogens would represent the true distribution under different laboratory testing strategies. Detailed case-based surveillance data was collected by the MenAfriNet surveillance consortium in up to 3 seasons from participating districts in 5 countries. For each unique country-season pair, we simulated the accuracy of laboratory surveillance by repeatedly drawing subsets of tested cases and calculating the margin of error of the estimated proportion of cases caused by each pathogen (the greatest pathogen-specific absolute error in proportions between the subset and the full set of cases). Across the 12 country-season pairs analyzed, the 95% credible intervals around estimates of the proportion of cases caused by each pathogen had median widths of ±0.13, ±0.07, and ±0.05, respectively, when random samples of 25%, 50%, and 75% of cases were selected for testing. The level of geographic stratification in the sampling process did not meaningfully affect accuracy estimates. These findings can inform testing thresholds for laboratory surveillance programs in the meningitis belt.

2.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_3): S174-S183, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa has traditionally experienced large outbreaks of meningitis mainly caused by Neisseria meningitidis. More recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae has been recognized as a cause of meningitis outbreaks in the region. Little is known about the natural history and epidemiology of these outbreaks, and, in contrast to meningococcal meningitis, there is no agreed definition for a pneumococcal meningitis epidemic. The aim of this analysis was to systematically review and understand pneumococcal meningitis outbreaks in Africa between 2000 and 2018. METHODS: Meningitis outbreaks were identified using a systematic literature review and analyses of meningitis surveillance databases. Potential outbreaks were included in the final analysis if they reported at least 10 laboratory-confirmed meningitis cases above baseline per week with ≥50% of cases confirmed as pneumococcus. RESULTS: A total of 10 potential pneumococcal meningitis outbreaks were identified in Africa between 2000 and 2018. Of these, 2 were classified as confirmed, 7 were classified as possible, and 1 was classified as unlikely. Three outbreaks spanned more than 1 year. In general, the outbreaks demonstrated lower peak attack rates than meningococcal meningitis outbreaks and had a predominance of serotype 1. Patients with pneumococcal meningitis tended to be older and had higher case fatality rates than meningococcal meningitis cases. An outbreak definition, which includes a weekly district-level incidence of at least 10 suspected cases per 100 000 population per week, with >10 cumulative confirmed cases of pneumococcus per year, would have identified all 10 potential outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: Given the frequency of and high case fatality from pneumococcal meningitis outbreaks, public health recommendations on vaccination strategies and the management of outbreaks are needed. Improved laboratory testing for S. pneumoniae is critical for early outbreak identification.

3.
Vaccine ; 39(43): 6370-6377, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In March 2017, Burkina Faso introduced meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV) into the Expanded Programme on Immunization. MACV is administered to children aged 15-18 months, concomitantly with the second dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2). One year after MACV introduction, we assessed the sources and content of immunization information available to caregivers and explored motivations and barriers that influence their decision to seek MACV for their children. METHODS: Twenty-four focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with caregivers of children eligible for MACV and MCV2. Data collection occurred in February-March 2018 in four purposively selected districts, each from a separate geographic region; within each district, caregivers were stratified into groups based on whether their children were unvaccinated or vaccinated with MACV. FGDs were recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: We identified many different sources and content of information about MACV and MCV2 available to caregivers. Healthcare workers were most commonly cited as the main sources of information; caregivers also received information from other caregivers in the community. Caregivers' motivations to seek MACV for their children were driven by personal awareness, engagements with trusted messengers, and perceived protective benefits of MACV against meningitis. Barriers to MACV and MCV2 uptake were linked to the unavailability of vaccines, immunization personnel not providing doses, knowledge gaps about the 15-18 month visit, practical constraints, past negative experiences, sociocultural influences, and misinformation, including misunderstanding about the need for MCV2. CONCLUSIONS: MACV and MCV2 uptake may be enhanced by addressing vaccination barriers and effectively communicating vaccination information and benefits through trusted messengers such as healthcare workers and other caregivers in the community. Educating healthcare workers to avoid withholding vaccines, likely due to fear of wastage, may help reduce missed opportunities for vaccination.


Assuntos
Meningite Meningocócica , Vacinas Meningocócicas , Burkina Faso , Cuidadores , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Motivação , Sorogrupo , Vacinação , Vacinas Conjugadas
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cruise travel contributed to SARS-CoV-2 transmission when there were relatively few cases in the United States. By March 14, 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a No Sail Order suspending U.S. cruise operations; the last U.S. passenger ship docked on April 16. METHODS: We analyzed SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on cruises in U.S. waters or carrying U.S. citizens and used regression models to compare voyage characteristics. We used compartmental models to simulate the potential impact of four interventions (screening for COVID-19 symptoms; viral testing on two days and isolation of positive persons; reduction of passengers by 40%, crew by 20%, and port visits to one) for 7-day and 14-day voyages. RESULTS: During January 19-April 16, 2020, 89 voyages on 70 ships had known SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks; 16 ships had recurrent outbreaks. There were 1,669 RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections and 29 confirmed deaths. Longer voyages were associated with more cases (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.17, p < 0.0001). Mathematical models showed that 7-day voyages had about 70% fewer cases than 14-day voyages. On 7-day voyages, the most effective interventions were reducing the number of individuals onboard (43-49% reduction in total infections) and testing passengers and crew (42-43% reduction in total infections). All four interventions reduced transmission by 80%, but no single intervention or combination eliminated transmission. Results were similar for 14-day voyages. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on cruises were common during January-April 2020. Despite all interventions modeled, cruise travel still poses a significant SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): e448-e457, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Diamond Princess cruise ship was the site of a large outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Of 437 Americans and their travel companions on the ship, 114 (26%) tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: We interviewed 229 American passengers and crew after disembarkation following a ship-based quarantine to identify risk factors for infection and characterize transmission onboard the ship. RESULTS: The attack rate for passengers in single-person cabins or without infected cabinmates was 18% (58/329), compared with 63% (27/43) for those sharing a cabin with an asymptomatic infected cabinmate, and 81% (25/31) for those with a symptomatic infected cabinmate. Whole genome sequences from specimens from passengers who shared cabins clustered together. Of 66 SARS-CoV-2-positive American travelers with complete symptom information, 14 (21%) were asymptomatic while on the ship. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive Americans, 10 (9%) required intensive care, of whom 7 were ≥70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the high risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission on cruise ships. High rates of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in cabinmates of individuals with asymptomatic infections suggest that triage by symptom status in shared quarters is insufficient to halt transmission. A high rate of intensive care unit admission among older individuals complicates the prospect of future cruise travel during the pandemic, given typical cruise passenger demographics. The magnitude and severe outcomes of this outbreak were major factors contributing to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's decision to halt cruise ship travel in US waters in March 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Navios , Diamante , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Quarentena , SARS-CoV-2 , Viagem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(12): 1418-1425, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the first 2 years after a nationwide mass vaccination campaign of 1-29-year-olds with a meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MenAfriVac) in Burkina Faso, carriage and disease due to serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis were nearly eliminated. We aimed to assess the long-term effect of MenAfriVac vaccination on meningococcal carriage and herd immunity. METHODS: We did four cross-sectional studies of meningococcal carriage in people aged 9 months to 36 years in two districts of Burkina Faso between May 2, 2016, and Nov 6, 2017. Demographic information and oropharyngeal swabs were collected. Meningococcal isolates were characterised using whole-genome sequencing. FINDINGS: Of 14 295 eligible people, 13 758 consented and had specimens collected and laboratory results available, 1035 of whom were meningococcal carriers. Accounting for the complex survey design, prevalence of meningococcal carriage was 7·60% (95% CI 5·67-9·52), including 6·98% (4·86-9·11) non-groupable, 0·48% (0·01-0·95) serogroup W, 0·10% (0·01-0·18) serogroup C, 0·03% (0·00-0·80) serogroup E, and 0% serogroup A. Prevalence ranged from 5·44% (95% CI 4·18-6·69) to 9·14% (6·01-12·27) by district, from 4·67% (2·71-6·64) to 11·17% (6·75-15·59) by round, and from 3·39% (0·00-8·30) to 10·43% (8·08-12·79) by age group. By clonal complex, 822 (88%) of 934 non-groupable isolates were CC192, all 83 (100%) serogroup W isolates were CC11, and nine (69%) of 13 serogroup C isolates were CC10217. INTERPRETATION: Our results show the continued effect of MenAfriVac on serogroup A meningococcal carriage, for at least 7 years, among vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts. Carriage prevalence of epidemic-prone serogroup C CC10217 and serogroup W CC11 was low. Continued monitoring of N meningitidis carriage will be crucial to further assess the effect of MenAfriVac and inform the vaccination strategy for future multivalent meningococcal vaccines. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.


Assuntos
Vacinação em Massa , Infecções Meningocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Meningocócicas/imunologia , Neisseria meningitidis/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções Meningocócicas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(12): 347-352, 2020 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214086

RESUMO

An estimated 30 million passengers are transported on 272 cruise ships worldwide each year* (1). Cruise ships bring diverse populations into proximity for many days, facilitating transmission of respiratory illness (2). SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has since spread worldwide to at least 187 countries and territories. Widespread COVID-19 transmission on cruise ships has been reported as well (3). Passengers on certain cruise ship voyages might be aged ≥65 years, which places them at greater risk for severe consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection (4). During February-March 2020, COVID-19 outbreaks associated with three cruise ship voyages have caused more than 800 laboratory-confirmed cases among passengers and crew, including 10 deaths. Transmission occurred across multiple voyages of several ships. This report describes public health responses to COVID-19 outbreaks on these ships. COVID-19 on cruise ships poses a risk for rapid spread of disease, causing outbreaks in a vulnerable population, and aggressive efforts are required to contain spread. All persons should defer all cruise travel worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prática de Saúde Pública , Navios , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 254, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV) was introduced in 2017 into the routine childhood immunization schedule (at 15-18 months of age) in Burkina Faso to help reduce meningococcal meningitis burden. MACV was scheduled to be co-administered with the second dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2), a vaccine already in the national schedule. One year following the introduction of MACV, an assessment was conducted to qualitatively examine health workers' perceptions of MACV introduction, identify barriers to uptake, and explore opportunities to improve coverage. METHODS: Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with different cadres of health workers in four purposively selected districts in Burkina Faso. Districts were selected to include urban and rural areas as well as high and low MCV2 coverage areas. Respondents included health workers at the following levels: regional health managers (n = 4), district health managers (n = 4), and frontline healthcare providers (n = 4). All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Four themes emerged around supply and health systems barriers, demand-related barriers, specific challenges related to MACV and MCV2 co-administration, and motivations and efforts to improve vaccination coverage. Supply and health systems barriers included aging cold chain equipment, staff shortages, overworked and poorly trained staff, insufficient supplies and financial resources, and challenges with implementing community outreach activities. Health workers largely viewed MACV introduction as a source of motivation for caregivers to bring their children for the 15- to 18-month visit. However, they also pointed to demand barriers, including cultural practices that sometimes discourage vaccination, misconceptions about vaccines, and religious beliefs. Challenges in co-administering MACV and MCV2 were mainly related to reluctance among health workers to open multi-dose vials unless enough children were present to avoid wastage. CONCLUSIONS: To improve effective administration of vaccines in the second-year of life, adequate operational and programmatic planning, training, communication, and monitoring are necessary. Moreover, clear policy communication is needed to help ensure that health workers do not refrain from opening multi-dose vials for small numbers of children.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Meningocócicas/administração & dosagem , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo A , Burkina Faso , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Vacinas Conjugadas
9.
J Infect Dis ; 220(220 Suppl 4): S263-S265, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671435

RESUMO

Since the progressive introduction of the meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine within Africa's meningitis belt beginning in 2010, the burden of meningitis due to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (NmA) has substantially decreased. Non-A serogroups C/W/X are now the most prevalent. Surveillance within the belt has historically focused on the clinical syndrome of meningitis, the classic presentation for NmA, and may not adequately capture other presentations of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). The clinical presentation of infection due to serogroups C/W/X includes nonmeningeal IMD, and there is a higher case-fatality ratio associated with these non-A serogroups; however, data on the nonmeningeal IMD burden within the belt are scarce. Expanding surveillance to capture all cases of IMD, in accordance with the World Health Organization's updated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance standards and in preparation for the anticipated introduction of a multivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine within Africa's meningitis belt, will enhance meningococcal disease prevention across the belt.


Assuntos
Meningite Meningocócica/epidemiologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Humanos , Meningite Meningocócica/microbiologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/microbiologia , Neisseria meningitidis/classificação , Vigilância da População , Sorogrupo
10.
J Infect Dis ; 220(220 Suppl 4): S190-S197, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671437

RESUMO

In 2016, Mali reported a bacterial meningitis outbreak consisting of 39 suspected cases between epidemiologic weeks 9 and 17 with 15% case fatality ratio in the health district of Ouéléssebougou, 80 kilometers from the capital Bamako. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens from 29 cases were tested by culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction; 22 (76%) were positive for bacterial meningitis pathogens, 16 (73%) of which were Neisseria meningitidis (Nm). Of the Nm-positive specimens, 14 (88%) were N meningitidis serogroup C (NmC), 1 was NmW, and 1 was nongroupable. Eight NmC isolates recovered by culture from the outbreak were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Genomics analysis revealed that all 8 isolates belonged to a new sequence type (ST) 12446 of clonal complex 10217 that formed a distinct clade genetically similar to ST-10217, a NmC strain that recently caused large epidemics of meningitis in Niger and Nigeria. The emergence of a new ST of NmC associated with an outbreak in the African meningitis belt further highlights the need for continued molecular surveillance in the region.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo , Meningite Meningocócica/epidemiologia , Meningite Meningocócica/microbiologia , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo C/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Geografia Médica , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Mali/epidemiologia , Meningite Meningocócica/diagnóstico , Meningite Meningocócica/história , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo C/classificação , Filogenia , Estações do Ano , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Infect Dis ; 220(220 Suppl 4): S165-S174, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The MenAfriNet Consortium supports strategic implementation of case-based meningitis surveillance in key high-risk countries of the African meningitis belt: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Niger, and Togo. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology in these 5 countries in 2015-2017. METHODS: Case-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory results. Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Haemophilus influenzae cases were confirmed and N. meningitidis/H. influenzae were serogrouped/serotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction, culture, or latex agglutination. We calculated annual incidence in participating districts in each country in cases/100 000 population. RESULTS: From 2015-2017, 18 262 suspected meningitis cases were reported; 92% had a CSF specimen available, of which 26% were confirmed as N. meningitidis (n = 2433; 56%), S. pneumoniae (n = 1758; 40%), or H. influenzae (n = 180; 4%). Average annual incidences for N. meningitidis, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae, respectively, were 7.5, 2.5, and 0.3. N. meningitidis incidence was 1.5 in Burkina Faso, 2.7 in Chad, 0.4 in Mali, 14.7 in Niger, and 12.5 in Togo. Several outbreaks occurred: NmC in Niger in 2015-2017, NmC in Mali in 2016, and NmW in Togo in 2016-2017. Of N. meningitidis cases, 53% were NmC, 30% NmW, and 13% NmX. Five NmA cases were reported (Burkina Faso, 2015). NmX increased from 0.6% of N. meningitidis cases in 2015 to 27% in 2017. CONCLUSIONS: Although bacterial meningitis epidemiology varied widely by country, NmC and NmW caused several outbreaks, NmX increased although was not associated with outbreaks, and overall NmA incidence remained low. An effective low-cost multivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine could help further control meningococcal meningitis in the region.


Assuntos
Meningites Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Meningites Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Meningites Bacterianas/história , Meningites Bacterianas/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Infect Dis ; 220(220 Suppl 4): S233-S243, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After successful meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV) campaigns since 2010, Burkina Faso introduced MACV in March 2017 into the routine Expanded Programme for Immunization schedule at age 15-18 months, concomitantly with second-dose measles-containing vaccine (MCV2). We examined MCV2 coverage in pre- and post-MACV introduction cohorts to describe observed changes regionally and nationally. METHODS: A nationwide household cluster survey of children 18-41 months of age was conducted 1 year after MACV introduction. Coverage was assessed by verification of vaccination cards or recall. Two age groups were included to compare MCV2 coverage pre-MACV introduction (30-41 months) versus post-MACV introduction (18-26 months). RESULTS: In total, 15 925 households were surveyed; 7796 children were enrolled, including 3684 30-41 months of age and 3091 18-26 months of age. Vaccination documentation was observed for 86% of children. The MACV routine coverage was 58% (95% confidence interval [CI], 56%-61%) with variation by region (41%-76%). The MCV2 coverage was 62% (95% CI, 59%-65%) pre-MACV introduction and 67% (95% CI, 64%-69%) post-MACV introduction, an increase of 4.5% (95% CI, 1.3%-7.7%). Among children who received routine MACV and MCV2, 93% (95% CI, 91%-94%) received both at the same visit. Lack of caregiver awareness about the 15- to 18-month visit and vaccine unavailability were common reported barriers to vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: A small yet significant increase in national MCV2 coverage was observed 1 year post-MACV introduction. The MACV/MCV2 coadministration was common. Findings will help inform strategies to strengthen second-year-of-life immunization coverage, including to address the communication and vaccine availability barriers identified.


Assuntos
Meningite Meningocócica/epidemiologia , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Meningocócicas/administração & dosagem , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo A/imunologia , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Masculino , Vacinação em Massa , Meningite Meningocócica/microbiologia , Vacinas Meningocócicas/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Cobertura Vacinal , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Infect Dis ; 220(220 Suppl 4): S198-S205, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671443

RESUMO

Nationwide case-based meningitis surveillance was established in Burkina Faso following the introduction of meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine in 2010. However, timely tracking and arrival of cerebrospinal fluid specimens for confirmation at national reference laboratories remained suboptimal. To better understand this gap and identify bottlenecks, the Burkina Faso Ministry of Health, along with key partners, developed and implemented a cloud-based System for Tracking Epidemiological Data and Laboratory Specimens (STELAB), allowing for timely nationwide data reporting and specimen tracking using barcodes. STELAB was adapted to Burkina Faso's infrastructure to ensure suitability, functionality, flexibility, and sustainability. We describe the design, development, and implementation of STELAB. In addition, we discuss strategies used to promote sustainability, lessons learned during the first year of implementation, and future directions. STELAB's novel design and country-driven approach has the potential to achieve sustainable real-time data reporting and specimen tracking for the first time in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Computação em Nuvem , Meningite Meningocócica/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Identificação de Pacientes , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Geografia Médica , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Lactente , Meningite Meningocócica/história , Meningite Meningocócica/microbiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Infect Dis ; 220(220 Suppl 4): S253-S262, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2013, Burkina Faso introduced 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) into the routine childhood immunization program, to be administered to children at 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age. We evaluated the impact of PCV13 on pneumococcal meningitis. METHODS: Using nationwide surveillance, we gathered demographic/clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results for meningitis cases. Pneumococcal cases were confirmed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or latex agglutination; strains were serotyped using PCR. We compared annual incidence (cases per 100 000) 4 years after PCV13's introduction (2017) to average pre-PCV13 incidence (2011-2013). We adjusted incidence for age and proportion of cases with CSF tested at national laboratories. RESULTS: In 2017, pneumococcal meningitis incidence was 2.7 overall and 10.5 (<1 year), 3.8 (1-4 years), 3.5 (5-14 years), and 1.4 (≥15 years) by age group. Compared to 2011-2013, PCV13-serotype incidence was significantly lower among all age groups, with the greatest decline among children aged <1 year (77%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 65%-84%). Among all ages, the drop in incidence was larger for PCV13 serotypes excluding serotype 1 (79%; 95% CI, 72%-84%) than for serotype 1 (52%; 95% CI, 44%-59%); incidence of non-PCV13 serotypes also declined (53%; 95% CI, 37%-65%). In 2017, 45% of serotyped cases among all ages were serotype 1 and 12% were other PCV13 serotypes. CONCLUSIONS: In Burkina Faso, meningitis caused by PCV13 serotypes continues to decrease, especially among young children. However, the concurrent decline in non-PCV13 serotypes and short pre-PCV13 observation period complicate evaluation of PCV13's impact. Efforts to improve control of serotype 1, such as switching from a 3 + 0 schedule to a 2 + 1 schedule, may improve overall control of pneumococcal meningitis in this setting.


Assuntos
Meningite Pneumocócica/epidemiologia , Meningite Pneumocócica/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Adolescente , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Meningite Pneumocócica/história , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Sorogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Vacinação , Vacinas Conjugadas
16.
J Infect Dis ; 220(220 Suppl 4): S155-S164, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The MenAfriNet consortium was established in 2014 to support implementation of case-based meningitis surveillance in 5 countries in the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Niger, and Togo. Assessing surveillance performance is critical for interpretation of the collected data and implementation of future surveillance-strengthening initiatives. METHODS: Detailed epidemiologic and laboratory data were collected on suspected meningitis cases through case-based meningitis surveillance in participating districts in 5 countries. Performance of case-based surveillance was evaluated through sensitivity of case ascertainment in case-based versus aggregate meningitis surveillance and an analysis of surveillance indicators. RESULTS: From 2015 to 2017, 18 262 suspected meningitis cases were identified through case-based surveillance and 16 262 were identified through aggregate surveillance, for a case ascertainment sensitivity of 112.3%. Among suspected cases, 16 885 (92.5%) had a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen collected, 13 625 (80.7%) of which were received at a national reference laboratory. Among these, 13 439 (98.6%) underwent confirmatory testing, and, of those tested, 4371 (32.5%) were confirmed for a bacterial pathogen. CONCLUSIONS: Overall strong performance for case ascertainment, CSF collection, and laboratory confirmation provide evidence for the quality of MenAfriNet case-based surveillance in evaluating epidemiologic trends and informing future vaccination strategies.


Assuntos
Meningite Meningocócica/epidemiologia , Neisseria meningitidis , Vigilância da População , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Análise de Dados , Geografia Médica , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Meningite Meningocócica/história , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Neisseria meningitidis/imunologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
J Infect Dis ; 220(220 Suppl 4): S279-S285, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671452

RESUMO

In sub-Saharan Africa, bacterial meningitis remains a significant public health problem, especially in the countries of the meningitis belt, where Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A historically caused large-scale epidemics. In 2014, MenAfriNet was established as a consortium of partners supporting strategic implementation of case-based meningitis surveillance to monitor meningitis epidemiology and impact of meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV). MenAfriNet improved data quality through use of standardized tools, procedures, and laboratory diagnostics. MenAfriNet surveillance and study data provided evidence of ongoing MACV impact, characterized the burden of non-serogroup A meningococcal disease (including the emergence of a new epidemic clone of serogroup C), and documented the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. New vaccines and schedules have been proposed for future implementation to address the remaining burden of meningitis. To support the goals of "Defeating Meningitis by 2030," MenAfriNet will continue to strengthen surveillance and support research and modeling to monitor the impact of these programs on meningitis burden in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Meningite Meningocócica/epidemiologia , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Meningocócicas/imunologia , Neisseria meningitidis/imunologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Vacinação em Massa , Infecções Meningocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Meningocócicas/administração & dosagem , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Vigilância da População
18.
J Infect Dis ; 220(220 Suppl 4): S148-S154, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671453

RESUMO

Meningococcal meningitis remains a significant public health threat, especially in the African meningitis belt where Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A historically caused large-scale epidemics. With the rollout of a novel meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV) in the belt, the World Health Organization recommended case-based meningitis surveillance to monitor MACV impact and meningitis epidemiology. In 2014, the MenAfriNet consortium was established to support strategic implementation of case-based meningitis surveillance in 5 key countries: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Niger, and Togo. MenAfriNet aimed to develop a high-quality surveillance network using standardized laboratory and data collection protocols, develop sustainable systems for data management and analysis to monitor MACV impact, and leverage the surveillance platform to perform special studies. We describe the MenAfriNet consortium, its history, strategy, implementation, accomplishments, and challenges.


Assuntos
Informática Médica/métodos , Meningite Meningocócica/imunologia , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Meningocócicas/imunologia , Neisseria meningitidis/imunologia , África/epidemiologia , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Vacinas Meningocócicas/administração & dosagem , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Vigilância da População
19.
J Infect ; 76(3): 270-279, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluate early impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on pneumococcal meningitis in Burkina Faso. METHODS: Nationwide surveillance gathered demographic/clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results for meningitis cases. Pneumococcal cases were confirmed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or latex agglutination, and strains serotyped using PCR. We compared incidence (cases per 100,000) in the early post-PCV13 period (2014 and 2015) to average pre-PCV13 incidence (2011-2013). RESULTS: In 2015, age-specific pneumococcal meningitis incidences were 8.7 (<1 year), 2.4 (1-4 years), 6.5 (5-14 years), and 2.6 (≥15 years). Compared to 2011-2013, PCV13-serotype incidence among all ages decreased by 32% (95%CI: 23%-39%), with significant decreases among children aged <1 year (76%; 95%CI: 64%-84%) and 1-4 years (58%, 95%CI: 40%-71%). Among all ages, incidence of PCV13 serotypes besides serotype 1 decreased (68%; 95%CI: 59%-75%), but serotype 1 incidence did not. Incidence of non-PCV13 serotypes also decreased (47%; 95%CI: 29%-60%). Among children aged <1 year, serotypes 12F/12A/12B/44/46 (17%), 1 (12%), and 5 (10%) predominated. CONCLUSIONS: Following PCV13 introduction, PCV13-serotype meningitis incidence in young children significantly decreased. PCV13 impact on serotype 1 and disease in older children and adults requires continued monitoring.


Assuntos
Meningite Pneumocócica/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Incidência , Lactente , Meningite Pneumocócica/epidemiologia , Meningite Pneumocócica/imunologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(49): 1352-1356, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29240724

RESUMO

On February 16, 2017, the Ministry of Health in Zamfara State, in northwestern Nigeria, notified the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) of an increased number of suspected cerebrospinal meningitis (meningitis) cases reported from four local government areas (LGAs). Meningitis cases were subsequently also reported from Katsina, Kebbi, Niger, and Sokoto states, all of which share borders with Zamfara State, and from Yobe State in northeastern Nigeria. On April 3, 2017, NCDC activated an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to coordinate rapid development and implementation of a national meningitis emergency outbreak response plan. After the outbreak was reported, surveillance activities for meningitis cases were enhanced, including retrospective searches for previously unreported cases, implementation of intensified new case finding, and strengthened laboratory confirmation. A total of 14,518 suspected meningitis cases were reported for the period December 13, 2016-June 15, 2017. Among 1,339 cases with laboratory testing, 433 (32%) were positive for bacterial pathogens, including 358 (82.7%) confirmed cases of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C. In response, approximately 2.1 million persons aged 2-29 years were vaccinated with meningococcal serogroup C-containing vaccines in Katsina, Sokoto, Yobe, and Zamfara states during April-May 2017. The outbreak was declared over on June 15, 2017, after high-quality surveillance yielded no evidence of outbreak-linked cases for 2 consecutive weeks. Routine high-quality surveillance, including a strong laboratory system to test specimens from persons with suspected meningitis, is critical to rapidly detect and confirm future outbreaks and inform decisions regarding response vaccination.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Meningite Meningocócica/microbiologia , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo C/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Meningite Meningocócica/epidemiologia , Vacinas Meningocócicas/administração & dosagem , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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