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1.
Glycoconj J ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529350

RESUMO

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are genetic diseases characterized by deficient synthesis (CDG type I) and/or abnormal processing (CDG type II) of glycan moieties linked to protein and lipids. The impact of the molecular defects on protein glycosylation and in turn on the clinical phenotypes of patients with CDG is not yet understood. ALG12-CDG is due to deficiency of ALG12 α1,6-mannosyltransferase that adds the eighth mannose residue on the dolichol-PP-oligosaccharide precursor in the endoplasmic reticulum. ALG12-CDG is a severe multisystem disease associated with low to deficient serum immunoglobulins and recurrent infections. We thoroughly investigated the glycophenotype in a patient with novel ALG12 variants and immunodeficiency. We analyzed serum native transferrin, as first line test for CDG and we profiled serum IgG and total serum N-glycans by a combination of consolidated (N-glycan analysis by MALDI MS) and innovative mass spectrometry-based protocols, such as GlycoWorks RapiFluor N-glycan analysis coupled with LC-ESI MS. Intact serum transferrin showed, as expected for a CDG type I defect, underoccupancy of N-glycosylation sites. Surprisingly, total serum proteins and IgG N-glycans showed some specific changes, consisting in accumulating amounts of definite high-mannose and hybrid structures. As a whole, ALG12-CDG behaves as a dual CDG (CDG-I and II defects) and it is associated with distinct, abnormal glycosylation of total serum and IgG N-glycans. Glycan profiling of target glycoproteins may endorse the molecular defect unraveling the complex clinical phenotype of CDG patients.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2083-2090, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368652

RESUMO

Noonan syndrome (NS) is caused by mutations in more than 10 genes, mainly PTPN11, SOS1, RAF1, and RIT1. Congenital heart defects and cardiomyopathy (CMP) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in NS. Although hypertrophic CMP has "classically" been reported in association to RAF1, RIT1, and PTPN11 variants, SOS1 appears to be poorly related to CMP. Patients with NS attending our Center from January 2013 to June 2018 were eligible for inclusion if they carried SOS1 variants and presented with-or developed-CMP. Literature review describing the co-existence of SOS1 mutation and CMP was also performed. We identified six patients with SOS1 variants and CMP (male to female ratio 2:1) including two novel variants. CMP spectrum encompassed: (a) dilated CMP, (b) nonobstructive hypertrophic CMPs, and (c) obstructive hypertrophic CMPs. Survival is 100%. Literature review included 16 SOS1 mutated in CMP. CMP, mainly hypertrophic, has been often reported in association to RAF1, RIT1, and PTPN11 variants. Differently from previous reports, due to the frequent association of SOS1 variants and CMP in our single center experience, we suggest potential underestimated proportion of SOS1 in pediatric CMPs.

3.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(9): e896, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the establishment of chromosomal microarrays in clinical practice, many new microdeletion/microduplication syndromes have been identified, including 18q11.2 microdeletion. Chromosome 18q deletion syndrome is commonly classified into distal deletion and a much rarer proximal interstitial deletion spanning the 18q11.2-q21.1 region. METHODS: We report two new patients and review 27 additional cases in DECIPHER/ClinGen databases and four cases from the literature, with more proximal 18q deletions involving 18q11-q12 (band 1 only; 17.2-43.5 Mb position) deletion. RESULTS: Common presentations of 18q11-q12 deletions include developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID) (82%); speech delay/autism/attention deficit and hyperactivity/other behavioral problems (30%); conotruncal heart defects (15%); and subtle/non-specific facial dysmorphism. The deletion in four out of five cases with cardiac defect was distal to GATA6, suggesting an alternative mechanism other than haploinsufficiency of GATA6 as an underlying cause of cardiac malformations. Precocious puberty with advanced skeletal age was first observed in one patient, suggesting a unique and expanded phenotype of proximal 18q deletion. When comparing genotype-phenotype correlations from the present study with previous reports, the critical regions for selected phenotypes of 18q11-q12 deletion syndrome could be narrowed down as follows: 38.8-43.5 Mb for moderate to severe DD/ID, 19.6-24.4 Mb and 26.9-28.6 Mb for conotruncal heart defect. CONCLUSION: The detailed clinical delineation of the proximal 18q deletions identified in this study should contribute to better understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlations and better long-term care of patients with this rare syndrome.

4.
Acta Myol ; 38(2): 33-36, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309180

RESUMO

Mutations in the LMNA gene are associated with a wide spectrum of disease phenotypes, ranging from neuromuscular, cardiac and metabolic disorders to premature aging syndromes. Skeletal muscle involvement may present with different phenotypes: limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B or LMNA-related dystrophy; autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy; and a congenital form of muscular dystrophy, frequently associated with early onset of arrhythmias. Heart involvement may occur as part of the muscle involvement or independently, regardless of the presence of the myopathy. Notably conduction defects and dilated cardiomyopathy may exist without a muscle disease. This paper will focus on cardiac diseases presenting as the first manifestation of skeletal muscle hereditary disorders such as laminopathies, inspired by two large families with cardiovascular problems long followed by conventional cardiologists who did not suspect a genetic muscle disorder underlying these events. Furthermore it underlines the need for a multidisciplinary approach in these disorders and how the figure of the cardio-myo-geneticist may play a key role in facilitating the diagnostic process, and addressing the adoption of appropriate prevention measures.

5.
Neurogenetics ; 20(3): 145-154, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209758

RESUMO

Both copy number losses and gains occur within subtelomeric 9q34 region without common breakpoints. The microdeletions cause Kleefstra syndrome (KS), whose responsible gene is EHMT1. A 9q34 duplication syndrome (9q34 DS) had been reported in literature, but it has never been characterized by a detailed molecular analysis of the gene content and endpoints. To the best of our knowledge, we report on the first patient carrying the smallest 9q34.3 duplication containing EHMT1 as the only relevant gene. We compared him with 21 reported patients described here as carrying 9q34.3 duplications encompassing the entire gene and extending within ~ 3 Mb. By surveying the available clinical and molecular cytogenetic data, we were able to discover that similar neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) were shared by patient carriers of even very differently sized duplications. Moreover, some facial features of the 9q34 DS were more represented than those of KS. However, an accurate in silico analysis of the genes mapped in all the duplications allowed us to support EHMT1 as being sufficient to cause a NDD phenotype. Wider patient cohorts are needed to ascertain whether the rearrangements have full causative role or simply confer the susceptibility to NDDs and possibly to identify the cognitive and behavioral profile associated with the increased dosage of EHMT1.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1570-1574, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111652

RESUMO

"Apple peel" intestinal atresia is a rare form of small bowel atresia, in which the duodenum or proximal jejunum ends in a blind pouch and the distal small bowel wraps around its vascular supply, in a spiral resembling an apple peel. The etiology of "apple peel" intestinal atresia is presently unknown, although a congenital or acquired intestinal vascular accident can have a role in the pathogenesis. We report a family in which the proband affected by "apple peel" intestinal atresia, had a sibling (an interrupted pregnancy), and a paternal cousin with cardiac left-sided obstructive lesions. Molecular testing for NOTCH1 gene was carried out in the proband, because pathogenic mutations in this gene have been associated with familial and sporadic cardiac left-sided obstructive lesions and vascular anomalies, both isolated or within the spectrum of the Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS). The heterozygous c.2734C>T (p.Arg912Trp) NOTCH1 variant was found in the proband with "apple peel" intestinal atresia and in his father. This result argues for a possible causal relationship between NOTCH1 gene mutations and some forms of intestinal defects, through a vascular mechanism. The spectrum of NOTCH1-associated malformations is widened. Genetic counseling should take into account intrafamilial variable clinical expression and incomplete penetrance.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1615-1621, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145527

RESUMO

Only a few individuals with 12q15 deletion have been described, presenting with a disorder characterized by learning disability, developmental delay, nasal speech, and hypothyroidism. The smallest region of overlap for this syndrome was included in a genomic segment spanning CNOT2, KCNMB4, and PTPRB genes. We report on an additional patient harboring a 12q15 microdeletion encompassing only part of CNOT2 gene, presenting with a spectrum of clinical features overlapping the 12q15 deletion syndrome phenotype. We propose CNOT2 as the phenocritical gene for 12q15 deletion syndrome and its haploinsufficiency being associated with an autosomal dominant disorder, presenting with developmental delay, hypotonia, feeding problems, learning difficulties, nasal speech, skeletal anomalies, and facial dysmorphisms.

10.
Clin Genet ; 96(3): 246-253, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090057

RESUMO

Two distinct genomic disorders have been linked to Xq28-gains, namely Xq28-duplications including MECP2 and Int22h1/Int22h2-mediated duplications involving RAB39B. Here, we describe six unrelated patients, five males and one female, with Xq28-gains distal to MECP2 and proximal to the Int22h1/Int22h2 low copy repeats. Comparison with patients carrying overlapping duplications in the literature defined the MidXq28-duplication syndrome featuring intellectual disability, language impairment, structural brain malformations, microcephaly, seizures and minor craniofacial features. The duplications overlapped for 108 kb including FLNA, RPL10 and GDI1 genes, highly expressed in brain and candidates for the neurologic phenotype.

11.
Ital J Pediatr ; 45(1): 49, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is characterized by alveolar hypoventilation increasing during sleep and affected patients are unable to perceive and respond to hypercarbia with increased ventilation and arousal during sleep. PHOX2B gene mutations are considered as responsible for CCHS. Most of patients with CCHS are heterozygous for polyalanine expansion mutations (PARMs) in exon 3, but 10% of patients with classic CCHS are heterozygous for non-polyalanine expansion mutations (NPARMs) of the PHOX2B gene. METHODS: Data are collected on 3 patients affected by CCHS who referred to the Paediatric Pulmonology Unit of Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital (Rome, Italy) for a multidisciplinary follow-up program between 2000 and 2017. RESULTS: We describe three cases of patients affected by CCHS for which two novel mutations on exon 3 of PHOX2B gene were detected. CONCLUSIONS: The description of these novel mutations and related clinical phenotypes allows to expand the knowledge into NPARM spectrum. Since the presence of Hirschsprung disease is related to NPARMs and the number of alanine repeats, we suggest performing CCHS genetic investigation and periodical assessment also in patients without a clear history of CCHS but affected by Hirschsprung disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Data are retrospectively collected.


Assuntos
Éxons , Doença de Hirschsprung/complicações , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Hipoventilação/congênito , Mutação , Apneia do Sono Tipo Central/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoventilação/genética , Lactente , Masculino
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988269

RESUMO

Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) can be present from the neonatal period to adulthood and can be the result of congenital or acquired insults. In addition, GHD can be classified into two types: isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) and combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). CPHD is a disorder characterized by impaired production of two or more anterior and/or posterior pituitary hormones. Many genes implicated in CPHD remain to be identified. Better genetic characterization will provide more information about the disorder and result in important genetic counselling because a number of patients with hypopituitarism represent familial cases. To date, PROP1 mutations represent the most common known genetic cause of CPHD both in sporadic and familial cases. We report a novel mutation in the PROP1 gene in an infant with CPHD and an enlarged pituitary gland. Close long-term follow-up will reveal other possible hormonal defects and pituitary involution.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Hipopituitarismo/diagnóstico , Hipófise/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Hormônio do Crescimento/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipopituitarismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipopituitarismo/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico
13.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 86, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive lung involvement in Filamin A (FLNA)-related cerebral periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH) has been reported in a limited number of cases. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a new pathogenic FLNA gene variant (c.7391_7403del; p.Val2464Alafs*5) in a male infant who developed progressive lung disease with emphysematous lesions and interstitial involvement. Following lobar resection, chronic respiratory failure ensued necessitating continuous mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy. Cerebral periventricular nodular heterotopia was also present. CONCLUSIONS: We report a novel variant of the FLNA gene, associated with a severe lung disorder and PNVH. The lung disorder led to respiratory failure during infancy and these pulmonary complications may be the first sign of this disorder. Early recognition with thoracic imaging is important to guide genetic testing, neuroimaging and to define optimal timing of potential therapies, such as lung transplant in progressive lung disease.

15.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(5): e634, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycogen storage disease type III (GSDIII) is caused by mutations of AGL gene with debranching enzyme deficiency. Patients with GSDIII manifest fasting hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, hepatopathy, myopathy, and cardiomyopathy. We report on an 18-year-old boy with a profound growth retardation (<3 SD) besides typical clinical features of GSDIII, whereby endocrinological studies were negative. METHODS AND RESULTS: Molecular analysis of AGL gene revealed the homozygous reported variant c.3903_3904insA. Since discordant results from segregation studies showed the carrier status in one parent only, SNP array and short tandem repeats analyses were performed, revealing a paternal disomy of chromosome 1 (UPD1). CONCLUSION: This study describes the first case of GSDIII resulting from UPD1. UPD can play an important role even in case of imprinted genes. DIRAS3 is a maternally imprinted tumor suppressor gene, located on chromosome 1p31, and implicated in growth and oncogenesis. It can be speculated that DIRAS3 overexpression might have a role in the severe short stature of our patient. The study emphasizes the importance of parental segregation analysis especially in patients with recessive conditions to look for specific genetic causes of disease and to estimate properly the risk of family recurrence.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Nanismo/genética , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo III/genética , Fenótipo , Dissomia Uniparental/genética , Adolescente , Nanismo/patologia , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo III/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Dissomia Uniparental/patologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(6)2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909440

RESUMO

To identify whether parent-of-origin effects (POE) of the 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 microdeletion are associated with differences in clinical features in individuals inheriting the deletion, we collected 71 individuals reported with phenotypic data and known inheritance from a clinical cohort, a research cohort, the DECIPHER database, and the primary literature. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to test for differences in specific and grouped clinical symptoms based on parental inheritance and proband gender. Analyses controlled for sibling sets and individuals with additional variants of uncertain significance (VOUS). Among all probands, maternal deletions were associated with macrocephaly (p = 0.016) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD; p = 0.02), while paternal deletions were associated with congenital heart disease (CHD; p = 0.004). Excluding sibling sets, maternal deletions were associated with epilepsy as well as macrocephaly (p < 0.05), while paternal deletions were associated with CHD and abnormal muscular phenotypes (p < 0.05). Excluding sibling sets and probands with an additional VOUS, maternal deletions were associated with epilepsy (p = 0.019) and paternal deletions associated with muscular phenotypes (p = 0.008). Significant gender-based differences were also observed. Our results supported POEs of this deletion and included macrocephaly, epilepsy and ASD in maternal deletions with CHD and abnormal muscular phenotypes seen in paternal deletions.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Impressão Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Fatores Sexuais , Irmãos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797015

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an explosive increase in genetic studies related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This implicated the accumulation of a large amount of molecular data that may be used to verify various hypotheses and models developed to explore the complex genetic component of ASD. Several lines of evidence support the view that structural genomic variation contributes to the pathogenesis of ASD. The introduction of more sophisticated techniques for whole-genome screening, including array comparative genome hybridization and high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism analysis, has allowed to identify an increasing number of ASD susceptibility loci. Copy number variants (CNVs) are the most common type of structural variation in the human genome and are considered important contributors to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders, including ASD. In this review, we describe the accumulated evidence concerning the genetic events associated with ASD, and summarize current knowledge about the clinical relevance of CNVs in these disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos
18.
Psychiatr Genet ; 29(3): 86-90, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724859

RESUMO

About one child in 68 is affected by the autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders linked to intellectual disability, especially in males, intellectual disability being diagnosable in about 60-70% of autistic individuals. The biological bases of ASD are not yet fully known, but they are generally considered multifactorial, although many genes and genomic loci have been proposed to be possibly associated with this condition. In this report, we describe the case of a 14-year-old female Italian proband affected by ASD, carrying a novel ~ 270 kb interstitial microduplication, localized at the distal portion of the 4q13.1 region. The rearrangement was inherited from a mild symptomatic father and included a large part of the single EPHA5 gene, a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the neural development, already indicated to be linked to ASD by previous Genome Wide Association Studies. This imbalance represents, to the best of our knowledge, the smallest duplication identified to date that only impacts the EPHA5 gene. We hypothesize that the duplication of this gene may alter EPHA5 expression and that this may impact the autistic phenotype of the patient.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Receptor EphA5/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Itália , Fenótipo , Receptor EphA5/fisiologia
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(2): 317-321, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561154

RESUMO

Kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome associated with FKBP14 (FKBP14-kEDS) is an ultrarare autosomal recessive disorder reported in less than 30 individuals so far. In its original description, emphasis was put on the mild muscle involvement. Further reports confirm that FKBP14-kEDS is distinguishable from primary muscle disorders by the lack of progressive muscle disease. We report a 15-year-old girl with FKBP14-kEDS as a result of the recurrent c.362dupC variant, who also showed severe involvement of the lower limb muscles. She never attained autonomous walking and presented significant lower limb weakness. Lower limb magnetic resonance imaging showed a pattern of multiple muscle involvement. Further musculoskeletal assessment revealed significant bone mass density reduction of the spine, unilateral congenital hip dysplasia, and occipitoatlantoaxial instability. This patient points out the existence of a wider phenotypic spectrum of FKBP14-kEDS to include early onset muscle disease.

20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(1): 104-112, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565850

RESUMO

Recessive variants in LTBP2 are associated with eye-restricted phenotypes including (a) primary congenital glaucoma and (b) microspherophakia/megalocornea and ectopia lentis with/without secondary glaucoma. Nosology of LTBP2 pathology in humans is apparently in contrast with the consolidated evidence of a wide expression of this gene in the developing embryo. Accordingly, in previously published patients with LTBP2-related eye disease, additional extraocular findings have been occasionally reported and include, among others, high-arched palate, tall stature, and variable cardiac involvement. Anyway, no emphasis was put on such systemic manifestations. Here, we report two unrelated Roma/Gypsy patients first ascertained for a multisystem disorder mainly characterized by primary congenital glaucoma, complex congenital heart defect, tall stature, long fingers, skin striae and dystrophic scarring, and resembling Marfan syndrome. Heart involvement was severe with polyvalvular heart dysplasia in one, and transposition of great arteries, thoracic arterial tortuosity, polyvalvular heart dysplasia, and neo-aortic root dilatation in the other. Both patients were homozygous for the recurrent c.895C>T[p.(R299X)] variant, typically found in individuals of Roma/Gypsy descent with an eye-restricted phenotype. Our findings point out LTBP2 as responsible of a systemic phenotype coherent with the community of syndromes related to anomalies in genes involved in the TGFß-pathway. Among these disorders, LTBP2-related systemic disease emerges as a distinct condition with expanding prognostic implications and autosomal recessive inheritance.

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