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1.
Drug Saf ; 45(1): 45-64, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928484

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: RELAY was a global, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study that demonstrated superior progression-free survival (PFS) for ramucirumab plus erlotinib (RAM + ERL) versus placebo plus erlotinib (PBO + ERL) in the first-line treatment of patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 deletion or exon 21 (L858R) mutation-positive, metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). OBJECTIVE: This article provides an in-depth analysis of the safety profile of RAM + ERL versus PBO + ERL observed in RELAY. METHODS: Eligible patients met these criteria: stage IV NSCLC; EGFR exon 19 deletion or exon 21 substitution (L858R) mutation; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1; and no central nervous system metastases. Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive erlotinib 150 mg/day orally plus either ramucirumab 10 mg/kg intravenously or matching placebo once every 2 weeks, until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was PFS. Safety was evaluated based on reported treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) and clinical laboratory assessments. RESULTS: The safety population comprised 446 patients (221 in RAM+ERL arm; 225 in PBO + ERL arm) who received at least one dose of study drug between January 2016 and February 2018. The overall incidence of grade ≥ 3 AEs was higher with RAM + ERL than with PBO + ERL, primarily driven by grade 3 hypertension. Grade ≥ 3 dermatitis acneiform and diarrhea were also reported more frequently in the RAM + ERL arm. The increased incidence of AEs with RAM + ERL was easily detected through routine monitoring and managed through dose adjustments and appropriate supportive care. CONCLUSION: This in-depth safety analysis from RELAY supports that RAM + ERL, irrespective of the increased incidence of AEs, does not affect a patient's ability to benefit from treatment. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02411448.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24503, 2021 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969967

RESUMO

It is partially unknown whether the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection persists with time. To address this issue, we detected the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in different groups of individuals previously diagnosed with COVID-19 disease (group 1 and 2), or potentially exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection (group 3 and 4), and in a representative group of individuals with limited environmental exposure to the virus due to lockdown restrictions (group 5). The primary outcome was specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the different groups assessed by qualitative and quantitative analysis at baseline, 3 and 6 months follow-up. The seroconversion rate at baseline test was 95% in group 1, 61% in group 2, 40% in group 3, 17% in group 4 and 3% in group 5. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed male gender, close COVID-19 contact and presence of COVID-19 related symptoms strongly associated with serological positivity. The percentage of positive individuals as assessed by the qualitative and quantitative tests was superimposable. At the quantitative test, the median level of SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels measured in positive cases retested at 6-months increased significantly from baseline. The study indicates that assessing antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 through qualitative and quantitative testing is a reliable disease surveillance tool.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(24)2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944952

RESUMO

Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog (KRAS) gene mutations are among the most common driver alterations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite their high frequency, valid treatment options are still lacking, mainly due to an intrinsic complexity of both the protein structure and the downstream pathway. The increasing knowledge about different mutation subtypes and co-mutations has paved the way to several promising therapeutic strategies. Despite the best results so far having been obtained in patients harbouring KRAS exon 2 p.G12C mutation, even the treatment landscape of non-p.G12C KRAS mutation positive patients is predicted to change soon. This review provides a comprehensive and critical overview of ongoing studies into NSCLC patients with KRAS mutations other than p.G12C and discusses future scenarios that will hopefully change the story of this disease.

4.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 169: 103536, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801697

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertions occur rarely among different cancer types, with the highest frequency reported among non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, particularly adenocarcinomas (ADCs). Exon 20 insertions fall back in the tyrosine kinase domain, and can be clustered into two principal groups represented by in frame insertions and three to 21 bp (corresponding to 1-7 amino acids) duplications within amino acids 762 and 774. The identification of these alterations is key for an adequate management of NSCLC patients due to the possibility to treat these patients with specific targeted therapies. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, able to detect several hotspot gene mutations for different patients simultaneously, is the best detection approach due to its higher sensitivity and specificity compared to other techniques. Here we reviewed the principal biological characteristics, the main detection technologies and treatment options for NSCLC patients harbouring EGFR exon 20 insertions.

5.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 101: 102308, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757306

RESUMO

We are witnessing a silent revolution in the treatment of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with a series of practice-changing clinical trials enriching the therapeutic perspectives of lung cancer patients with potentially curable disease. The ADAURA study marked the advent of precision medicine and biomarker testing to the early stages setting. The IMPower-010 trial interrupted the negative trend of adjuvant lung cancer immunotherapy, paving the way to the application of immune-checkpoint inhibition in the resected disease. The ITACA trial definitively established no role for tailored adjuvant chemotherapy in NSCLC, while the Lung Art data questioned the efficacy of post-operative radiotherapy for pN2 resected disease. Growing evidence is supporting MRD as effective adjuvant prognostic biomarker to stratify disease's recurrence risk after radical interventions and select best candidates to the adjuvant strategies. This work summarizes the recent major breakthroughs in lung cancer adjuvant treatment, and provides a snapshot of the current real-world scenario, discussing the upcoming challenges and opportunities featuring the clinical management of early stage NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Protocolos Antineoplásicos/classificação , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
6.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 169: 103525, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813925

RESUMO

AIMS: The KWAY project aims to investigate the economic sustainability of the up-front NGS technologies adoption in the analysis of clinically relevant molecular alterations in NSCLC patients. METHODS: The diagnostic workflow and the related sustained costs of five Italian referral centers were assessed in four different evolving scenarios were analyzed. For each scenario, two alternative testing strategies were evaluated: the Maximized Standard strategy and the Maximized NGS strategy. RESULTS: For each center, the robustness of obtained results was verified through a deterministic sensitivity analysis, observing the variation of total costs based on a variation of ±20 % of the input parameters and ensuring that results would present a consistent behavior compared to the original ones. CONCLUSIONS: our project, highlighted that the adoption of NGS allows to save personnel time dedicated to testing activities and to reduce the overall cost of testing per patient.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128667, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648011

RESUMO

Importance: Many patients with cancer who would benefit from psychosocial care do not receive it. Implementation strategies may favor the integration of psychosocial care into practice and improve patient outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Humanization in Cancer Care (HuCare) Quality Improvement Strategy vs standard care as improvement of at least 1 of 2 domains (emotional or social function) of patient health-related quality of life at baseline and 3 months. A key secondary aim included investigation of the long-term effect. Design, Setting, and Participants: HuCare2 was a multicenter, incomplete, stepped-wedge cluster randomized clinical trial, conducted from May 30, 2016, to August 28, 2019, in three 5-center clusters of cancer centers representative of hospital size and geographic location in Italy. The study was divided into 5 equally spaced epochs. Implementation sequence was defined by a blinded statistician; the nature of the intervention precluded blinding for clinical staff. Participants included consecutive adult outpatients with newly diagnosed cancer of any type and stage starting medical cancer treatment. Interventions: The HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy comprised (1) clinician communication training, (2) on-site visits for context analysis and problem-solving, and (3) implementation of 6 evidence-based recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the difference between the means of changes of individual scores in emotional or social functions of health-related quality of life detected at baseline and 3-month follow-up (within each group) and during the postintervention epoch compared with control periods (between groups). Long-term effect of the intervention (at 12 months) was assessed as a secondary outcome. Intention-to-treat analysis was used. Results: A total of 762 patients (475 [62.3%] women) were enrolled (400 HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy and 362 usual care); mean (SD) age was 61.4 (13.1) years. The HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy significantly improved emotional function during treatment (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22; P = .008) but not social function (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89-1.09; P = .80). Effect on emotional function persisted at 12 months (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.10; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial, the HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy significantly improved the emotional function aspect of health-related quality of life during cancer treatment and at 12 months, indicating a change in clinician behavior and in ward organization. These findings support the need for strategies to introduce psychosocial care; however, more research is needed on factors that may maximize the effects. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03008993.

8.
JTO Clin Res Rep ; 2(2): 100114, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589984

RESUMO

Introduction: The TIGER-3 (NCT02322281) study was initiated to compare the efficacy and safety of rociletinib, a third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that targets EGFR T790M and common EGFR-activating mutations, versus chemotherapy in patients with NSCLC who progressed on first- or second-generation EGFR TKIs. Methods: Patients with advanced or metastatic EGFR-mutated NSCLC with disease progression on standard therapy (previous EGFR TKI and platinum-based chemotherapy) were randomized to oral rociletinib (500 or 625 mg twice daily) or single-agent chemotherapy (pemetrexed, gemcitabine, docetaxel, or paclitaxel). Results: Enrollment was halted when rociletinib development was discontinued in 2016. Of 149 enrolled patients, 75 were randomized to rociletinib (n = 53: 500 mg twice daily; n = 22: 625 mg twice daily) and 74 to chemotherapy. The median investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) was 4.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.6-5.4) in the rociletinib 500-mg group and 5.5 months (95% CI: 1.8-8.1) in the 625-mg group versus 2.5 months (95% CI: 1.4-2.9) in the chemotherapy group. An improved PFS was observed in patients with T790M-positive NSCLC treated with rociletinib (n = 25; 500 mg and 625 mg twice daily) versus chemotherapy (n = 20; 6.8 versus 2.7 mo; hazard ratio = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.28-1.07, p = 0.074). Grade 3 or higher hyperglycemia (24.0%), corrected QT prolongation (6.7%), diarrhea (2.7%), and vomiting (1.3%) were more frequent with rociletinib than chemotherapy (0%, 0%, 1.4%, and 0%, respectively). Conclusions: Rociletinib had a more favorable median PFS versus chemotherapy but had higher rates of hyperglycemia and corrected QT prolongation in patients with advanced EGFR-mutated NSCLC who progressed on previous EGFR TKI. Incomplete enrollment prevented evaluation of the primary efficacy end point.

9.
JTO Clin Res Rep ; 2(7): 100194, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590039

RESUMO

Introduction: Lung adenocarcinomas in young patients (<40 y) are more likely to harbor targetable genomic alterations. This study aimed to determine whether the prevalence of targetable alterations is greater in young adults with lung carcinoma than in the overall lung cancer population. To reach this rare patient population, a web-based platform was used to recruit and enroll patients remotely. Methods: In this prospective study, patients less than 40 years old at the time of primary lung cancer diagnosis with confirmed lung carcinoma were recruited from four global sites and remotely by means of a website. Genotyping data were collected, if available, or obtained by means of next-generation sequencing using the FoundationOne platform. The prevalence of targetable alterations was quantified across patients with advanced adenocarcinoma. Results: Overall, 133 patients across five continents were included, 41% of whom enrolled online. The mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 34 (5.2) years; 79% had stage IV disease at diagnosis. Among patients with adenocarcinoma (n = 115), 112 entered the study with previous genomic testing results and 86 (77%) had targetable alterations in EGFR, ALK, ROS1, MET, ERBB2, or RET. Among those without targetable alterations, 14 received further testing and a targetable alteration was identified in eight (57%). Conclusions: This study revealed the feasibility of using a web-based platform to recruit young patients with lung cancer and revealed that 94 of 112 (84%) with adenocarcinoma at any stage had targetable genomic alterations. Among patients with stage IV adenocarcinoma, 85% had a targetable alteration, which is higher than historical expectations for the general population.

10.
JTO Clin Res Rep ; 2(8): 100205, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590048

RESUMO

Introduction: We retrospectively evaluated outcomes in patients with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to determine whether baseline (i.e., at study enrollment) brain metastases were associated with the efficacy of pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy. Methods: We pooled data for patients with previously treated or untreated PD-L1‒positive (tumor proportion score [TPS], ≥1%) advanced or metastatic NSCLC in KEYNOTE-001 (NCT01295827), KEYNOTE-010 (NCT01905657), KEYNOTE-024 (NCT02142738), and KEYNOTE-042 (NCT02220894). Patients received pembrolizumab (2 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, or 200 mg every 3 wk or 10 mg/kg every 2 wk); chemotherapy was a comparator in all studies except KEYNOTE-001. All studies included patients with previously treated, stable brain metastases. Results: A total of 3170 patients were included, 293 (9.2%) with and 2877 (90.8%) without baseline brain metastases; median (range) follow-up at data cutoff was 12.9 (0.1‒43.7) months. Pembrolizumab improved overall survival versus chemotherapy in patients with or without baseline brain metastases: benefit was seen in patients with PD-L1 TPS ≥50% (0.67 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.44‒1.02] and 0.66 [95% CI: 0.58‒0.76], respectively) and PD-L1 TPS ≥1% (0.83 [95% CI: 0.62‒1.10] and 0.78 [95% CI: 0.71‒0.85], respectively). Progression-free survival was improved, objective response rates were higher, and duration of response was longer with pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy regardless of brain metastasis status. The incidence of treatment-related adverse events with pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy was 66.3% versus 84.4% in patients with brain metastases and 67.2% versus 88.3% in those without. Conclusions: Pembrolizumab monotherapy improved outcomes and was associated with fewer adverse events than chemotherapy in patients with treatment-naive and previously treated PD-L1‒positive advanced/metastatic NSCLC regardless of the presence of baseline treated, stable brain metastases.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(18)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572771

RESUMO

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death, and it is usually diagnosed in advanced stages (stage III or IV). Recently, the availability of targeted strategies and of immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has favorably changed patient prognosis. Treatment outcome is closely related to tumor biology and interaction with the tumor immune microenvironment (TME). While the response in molecular targeted therapies relies on the presence of specific genetic alterations in tumor cells, accurate ICI biomarkers of response are lacking, and clinical outcome likely depends on multiple factors that are both host and tumor-related. This paper is an overview of the ongoing research on predictive factors both from in vitro/ex vivo analysis (ranging from conventional pathology to molecular biology) and in vivo analysis, where molecular imaging is showing an exponential growth and use due to technological advancements and to the new bioinformatics approaches applied to image analyses that allow the recovery of specific features in specific tumor subclones.

12.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393061

RESUMO

Thymic epithelial tumors are rare neoplastic proliferations of thymic epithelial cells. The aggressiveness of these malignancies increases as higher is the histologic subtype, being thymic carcinoma the most aggressive subtype, with a greater tendency to metastatic spread. In metastatic setting, there is no standard treatment after progression on platinum-based chemotherapy. In this scenario, monotherapy treatment either with lenvatinib, a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic properties, or pembrolizumab, an immune-checkpoint inhibitor, has reported clinical activity. Potential combination of both agents may have synergistic activity as reported in other cancer types. PECATI trial is a single-arm, investigator-initiated phase II study aiming to assess the activity and safety of the combination of lenvatinib and pembrolizumab in 43 patients with advanced B3-thymoma or thymic carcinoma who progressed on or after at least one previous line of platinum-based chemotherapy. The primary endpoint of the trial is 5-month progression-free survival rate and the secondary endpoints include overall response rate, duration of response, and overall survival.

13.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(32): 3633-3644, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436928

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (sqNSCLC) is genetically complex with evidence of DNA damage. This phase III study investigated the efficacy and safety of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor veliparib in combination with conventional chemotherapy for advanced sqNSCLC (NCT02106546). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients age ≥ 18 years with untreated, advanced sqNSCLC were randomly assigned 1:1 to carboplatin and paclitaxel with veliparib 120 mg twice daily (twice a day) or placebo twice a day for up to six cycles. The primary end point was overall survival (OS) in the veliparib arm versus the control arm in current smokers, based on phase II findings. Archival tumor samples were provided for biomarker analysis using a 52-gene expression histology classifier (LP52). RESULTS: Overall, 970 patients were randomly assigned to carboplatin and paclitaxel plus either veliparib (n = 486) or placebo (n = 484); 57% were current smokers. There was no significant OS benefit with veliparib in current smokers, with median OS 11.9 versus 11.1 months (hazard ratio [HR], 0.905; 95% CI, 0.744 to 1.101; P = .266). In the overall population, OS favored veliparib; median OS was 12.2 versus 11.2 months (HR, 0.853; 95% CI, 0.747 to 0.974), with no difference in progression-free survival (median 5.6 months per arm). In patients with biomarker-evaluable tumor samples (n = 360), OS favored veliparib in the LP52-positive population (median 14.0 v 9.6 months; HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.89), but favored placebo in the LP52-negative population (median 11.0 v 14.4 months; HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.86). No new safety signals were observed in the experimental arm. CONCLUSION: In current smokers with advanced sqNSCLC, there was no therapeutic benefit of adding veliparib to first-line chemotherapy. The LP52 signature may identify a subgroup of patients likely to derive benefit from veliparib with chemotherapy.

15.
16.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(6): 2876-2889, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295686

RESUMO

The advent of immune-checkpoint inhibitors targeting the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) axis, both as monotherapy and in combination strategies, produced a paradigm change of the treatment algorithm for metastatic, non-oncogene addicted, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Although the great efficacy and the optimal tolerability emerging from clinical studies has been confirmed for the majority of patients treated in the real-word scenario, however the potential activity and safety profile of these agents in uncommon NSCLC populations remains still controversial. Particularly, patients with previously diagnosed autoimmune disease or concomitant steroids treatment at the time of immunotherapy initiation represent two special subgroups of patients not unusual in the real-word practice, to whom the clinical implication of immune-checkpoint inhibitors administration is largely unknown. In this review we provided an updated literature overview, summarizing available evidence and reporting practical suggestions, which may guide physicians in their clinical management of these NSCLC sub-populations.

17.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 99: 102256, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261032

RESUMO

The evaluation of the homologous recombination repair (HRR) status is emerging as a predictive tumor agnostic biomarker for poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition across different tumor types and testing for HRR-signature is currently a developing area with promising therapeutic implications. Treatment with PARP inhibitors (PARPi) either as single agent or in combination with chemotherapy have shown so far limited activity in patients with thoracic malignancies. A deeper understanding of the biological background underlying HRR-deficient tumors, along with the recent advent of new effective targeted and immunotherapeutic agents, prompted the design of a new generation of clinical trials investigating novel PARPi-combinations in patients with lung cancer as well as malignant pleural mesothelioma. In this review we briefly summarize the biological basis of the DNA damage response pathway inhibition and provide an updated and detailed overview of clinical trials testing different PARPi-combinations strategies in patients with thoracic malignancies.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Torácicas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação , Neoplasias Torácicas/genética
18.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(23): 2574-2585, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236916

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This meta-analysis aims to combine and analyze randomized clinical trials comparing computed tomography lung screening (CTLS) versus either no screening (NS) or chest x-ray (CXR) in subjects with cigarette smoking history, to provide a precise and reliable estimation of the benefits and harms associated with CTLS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from all published randomized trials comparing CTLS versus either NS or CXR in a highly tobacco-exposed population were collected, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Subgroup analyses by comparator (NS or CXR) were performed. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and relative 95% CIs were calculated for dichotomous outcomes. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Nine eligible trials (88,497 patients) were included. Pooled analysis showed that CTLS is associated with: a significant reduction of lung cancer-related mortality (overall RR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.98; NS RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.92); a significant increase of early-stage tumors diagnosis (overall RR, 2.84; 95% CI 1.76 to 4.58; NS RR, 3.33; 95% CI, 2.27 to 4.89; CXR RR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.23); a significant decrease of late-stage tumors diagnosis (overall RR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.83; NS RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.80); a significant increase of resectability rate (NS RR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.76 to 3.74); a nonsignificant reduction of all-cause mortality (overall RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.05); and a significant increase of overdiagnosis rate (NS, 38%; 95% CI, 14 to 63). The analysis of lung cancer-related mortality by sex revealed nonsignificant differences between men and women (P = .21; I-squared = 33.6%). CONCLUSION: Despite there still being uncertainty about overdiagnosis estimate, this meta-analysis suggested that the CTLS benefits outweigh harms, in subjects with cigarette smoking history, ultimately supporting the systematic implementation of lung cancer screening worldwide.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos
19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pembrolizumab is approved in monotherapy for the first-line (1L) of advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients with high PD-L1 (≥50%). Despite a proportion of patients achieve long-term survival, about one-third of patients experience detrimental survival outcomes, including early death, hyperprogression, and fast progression. The impact of clinical factors on early progression (EP) development has not been widely explored. METHODS: We designed a retrospective, multicenter study involving five Italian centers, in patients with metastatic NSCLC with PD-L1 ≥ 50%, treated with Pembrolizumab in a 1L setting. EP was defined as a progressive disease within three months from pembrolizumab initiation. Baseline clinical factors of patients with and without EP were collected and analyzed. Logistic regression was performed to identify clinical factors associated with EP and an EP prognostic score was developed based on the logistic model. RESULTS: Overall, 321 out of 336 NSCLC patients treated with 1L pembrolizumab provided all the data for the analysis. EP occurred in 137 (42.7%) patients; the median PFS was 3.8 months (95% CI: 2.9-4.7), and median OS was not reached in the entire study population. Sex, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS), steroids, metastatic sites ≥2, and the presence of liver/pleural metastasis were confirmed as independent factors for EP by multivariate analysis. By combining these factors, we developed an EP prognostic score ranging from 0-13, with three-risk group stratification: 0-2 (good prognosis), 3-6 (intermediate prognosis), and 7-13 (poor prognosis). The area under the curve (AUC) of the model was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.70-0.81). CONCLUSIONS: We identified six clinical factors independently associated with EP. We developed a prognostic score model for EP-risk to potentially improve clinical practice and patient selection for 1L pembrolizumab in NSCLC with high PD-L1, in the real-world clinical setting.

20.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 164: 103404, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214609

RESUMO

Giving the potential contribute in cancer initiation and progression, lung microbiota represents a promising topic in cancer research, although still unexplored. We performed a systematic literature search to identify clinical studies evaluating lung microbiota composition, its correlation with lung cancer patients' clinico-pathological features and prognosis. Of the identified 370 studies, 21 were eligible and included. Although studies were heterogeneous, lung cancer resulted to be enriched in peculiar microbial communities, with differences in composition and diversity according to clinico-pathological parameters. Few studies explored how lung microbiota influences cancer outcome. In light of these findings and borrowing the suggestions coming from gut microbiota, we speculate that respiratory microbiome may influence pathogenesis, progression and outcome of lung cancer. Taking advantage of the experience of chronical lung diseases, prospective studies should be designed to evaluate lung microbiota changes throughout any phase of lung cancer course, particularly with the advent of immunotherapy as pivotal treatment.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Microbiota , Humanos , Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos
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