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1.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(9): e202000907, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027362

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on surgical site infection (SSI) rates in women undergoing breast cancer surgery in two tertiary hospitals in Brazil. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial. A total of 124 women without independent risk factors for SSI were randomly assigned to receive either cefazolin (antibiotic group, n = 62) or placebo (control group, n = 62) as preoperative prophylaxis. After surgery, all surgical wounds were examined once a week, for four weeks, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions and classifications for SSI. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were homogeneous between the two groups. Only one patient in the antibiotic group developed SSI, which was classified as superficial incisional. The overall SSI rate was low, with no significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: Antibiotic prophylaxis had no significant effect on reducing SSI rates in women without independent risk factors for SSI undergoing breast cancer surgery.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Neoplasias da Mama , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Brasil , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
3.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 138(3): 253-258, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, accounting for one million deaths annually. Greater understanding of the causal risk factors is needed, especially in large urban centers. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the epidemiological profile and temporal trend of suicides over two decades and correlate prevalence with social indicators. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive population-based longitudinal retrospective study conducted in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A temporal trend series for suicide mortality in this city was constructed based on data from the Ministry of Health's mortality notification system, covering 2000-2017. It was analyzed using classic demographic variables relating to social factors. RESULTS: Suicide rates were high throughout this period, increasing from 4.6/100,000 inhabitants in the 2000s to 4.9/100,000 in 2017 (mean: 4.7/100,000). The increase in mortality was mainly due to increased male suicide, which went from 6.0/100,000 to the current 8.0/100,000. Other higher coefficients corresponded to social risk factors, such as being a young adult (25-44 years old), being more educated (eight years of schooling) and having white ethnicity (67.2%). Suicide was also twice as likely to occur at home (47.8%). CONCLUSION: High suicide rates were seen over the period 2000-2017, especially among young adults and males. High schooling levels and white ethnicity were risk factors. The home environment is the crucial arena for preventive action. One special aspect of primary prevention is the internet and especially social media, which provides a multitude of information for suicide prevention.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
4.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(3): 253-258, May-June 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1139683

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Suicide is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, accounting for one million deaths annually. Greater understanding of the causal risk factors is needed, especially in large urban centers. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the epidemiological profile and temporal trend of suicides over two decades and correlate prevalence with social indicators. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive population-based longitudinal retrospective study conducted in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A temporal trend series for suicide mortality in this city was constructed based on data from the Ministry of Health's mortality notification system, covering 2000-2017. It was analyzed using classic demographic variables relating to social factors. RESULTS: Suicide rates were high throughout this period, increasing from 4.6/100,000 inhabitants in the 2000s to 4.9/100,000 in 2017 (mean: 4.7/100,000). The increase in mortality was mainly due to increased male suicide, which went from 6.0/100,000 to the current 8.0/100,000. Other higher coefficients corresponded to social risk factors, such as being a young adult (25-44 years old), being more educated (eight years of schooling) and having white ethnicity (67.2%). Suicide was also twice as likely to occur at home (47.8%). CONCLUSION: High suicide rates were seen over the period 2000-2017, especially among young adults and males. High schooling levels and white ethnicity were risk factors. The home environment is the crucial arena for preventive action. One special aspect of primary prevention is the internet and especially social media, which provides a multitude of information for suicide prevention.

5.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(9): e202000907, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130680

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose To assess the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on surgical site infection (SSI) rates in women undergoing breast cancer surgery in two tertiary hospitals in Brazil. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial. A total of 124 women without independent risk factors for SSI were randomly assigned to receive either cefazolin (antibiotic group, n = 62) or placebo (control group, n = 62) as preoperative prophylaxis. After surgery, all surgical wounds were examined once a week, for four weeks, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions and classifications for SSI. Results Baseline characteristics were homogeneous between the two groups. Only one patient in the antibiotic group developed SSI, which was classified as superficial incisional. The overall SSI rate was low, with no significant difference between groups. Conclusion Antibiotic prophylaxis had no significant effect on reducing SSI rates in women without independent risk factors for SSI undergoing breast cancer surgery.

6.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(10): e201901007, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826150

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To conduct a scope review of the experimental model described by Walker and Mason, by identifying and analyzing the details of the method. METHODS: The authors searched Pubmed-Medline, Cochrane-Bireme and PEDro databases for articles published between January 2016 and December 2018, using the following search queries: burns, burn injuries, models animal, and animal experimentation. All articles whose authors used Walker and Mason's model - with or without changes to the method in Wistar rats - were included in this study. RESULTS: The search identified 45 mentions of Walker and Mason's model; however, after reading each summary, 20 were excluded (of which 5 due to duplicity). The inconsistencies observed after the scope review were: water temperature, length of time of exposure of the experimental model's skin to water, extent of the burnt area, and the description of the thickness/depth of the injury. CONCLUSIONS: Reproducibility of a scientific method is the basis to prove the veracity of the observed results. Thus, it is necessary to have a greater number of publications that adopt a reproducible scientific method, for this review found inconsistencies in the description of Walker and Mason's model.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Temperatura Alta , Animais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pele/lesões , Fatores de Tempo , Água
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(10): e201901007, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054673

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: To conduct a scope review of the experimental model described by Walker and Mason, by identifying and analyzing the details of the method. Methods: The authors searched Pubmed-Medline, Cochrane-Bireme and PEDro databases for articles published between January 2016 and December 2018, using the following search queries: burns, burn injuries, models animal, and animal experimentation. All articles whose authors used Walker and Mason's model - with or without changes to the method in Wistar rats - were included in this study. Results: The search identified 45 mentions of Walker and Mason's model; however, after reading each summary, 20 were excluded (of which 5 due to duplicity). The inconsistencies observed after the scope review were: water temperature, length of time of exposure of the experimental model's skin to water, extent of the burnt area, and the description of the thickness/depth of the injury. Conclusions: Reproducibility of a scientific method is the basis to prove the veracity of the observed results. Thus, it is necessary to have a greater number of publications that adopt a reproducible scientific method, for this review found inconsistencies in the description of Walker and Mason's model.


Assuntos
Animais , Queimaduras/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Temperatura Alta , Pele/lesões , Fatores de Tempo , Água , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 46(2): e2108, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of inguinal hernia in the preoperative period of patients submitted to inguinal herniorrhaphy. METHODS: we conducted a retrospective, descriptive, analytical study, based on data obtained from the charts of patients submitted to inguinal herniorrhaphy between January 2016 and December 2017 and who underwent ultrasonography in the preoperative period. The sample consisted of 232 patients, and we compared the results of the ultrasonography with the complaints, physical examination and intraoperative findings. RESULTS: ultrasonography was in agreement with inguinal hernia complaint in 52% of patients (p=0.019). There was a disagreement between the percentage of patients who presented a hernia at the physical examination not confirmed by the ultrasound examination (28.57%) and the percentage of hernias identified only by the complementary examination (8.93%), with statistical significance (p=0.0291). When comparing the ultrasound findings with the intraoperative ones, 32.70% of patients presenting with hernia had normal ultrasonography, with statistical significance for discordance (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: ultrasound was an unreliable method to help diagnosis in dubious cases of inguinal hernia, and dispensable when the diagnosis was confirmed by typical complaints and compatible physical examination.


Assuntos
Hérnia Inguinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 46(2): e2108, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003089

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a acurácia da ultrassonografia no diagnóstico de hérnia inguinal no pré-operatório de pacientes submetidos à herniorrafia inguinal. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo descritivo, analítico, baseado em dados obtidos dos prontuários de pacientes submetidos à herniorrafia inguinal entre janeiro de 2016 e dezembro de 2017 e que realizaram ultrassonografia no período pré-operatório. A amostra foi composta por 232 pacientes e foram comparados os resultados da ultrassonografia com as queixas, exame físico e achados intraoperatórios desses pacientes. Resultados: a ultrassonografia apresentou concordância com a queixa de hérnia inguinal em 52% dos pacientes (p=0,019). Houve discordância entre a porcentagem de pacientes que apresentaram hérnia ao exame físico não confirmada pelo exame ultrassonográfico (28,57%) e a porcentagem de hérnias identificadas somente ao exame complementar (8,93%), com significância estatística (p=0,0291). Quando comparados os resultados ultrassonográficos com achados intraoperatórios, 32,70% dos pacientes que apresentavam hérnia tinham ultrassonografia normal com significância estatística para discordância (p=0,001). Conclusão: a ultrassonografia mostrou-se método não confiável para auxiliar no diagnóstico em casos duvidosos de hérnia inguinal e dispensável quando o diagnóstico era confirmado por queixas típicas e exame físico compatível.


ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of inguinal hernia in the preoperative period of patients submitted to inguinal herniorrhaphy. Methods: we conducted a retrospective, descriptive, analytical study, based on data obtained from the charts of patients submitted to inguinal herniorrhaphy between January 2016 and December 2017 and who underwent ultrasonography in the preoperative period. The sample consisted of 232 patients, and we compared the results of the ultrasonography with the complaints, physical examination and intraoperative findings. Results: ultrasonography was in agreement with inguinal hernia complaint in 52% of patients (p=0.019). There was a disagreement between the percentage of patients who presented a hernia at the physical examination not confirmed by the ultrasound examination (28.57%) and the percentage of hernias identified only by the complementary examination (8.93%), with statistical significance (p=0.0291). When comparing the ultrasound findings with the intraoperative ones, 32.70% of patients presenting with hernia had normal ultrasonography, with statistical significance for discordance (p=0.001). Conclusion: ultrasound was an unreliable method to help diagnosis in dubious cases of inguinal hernia, and dispensable when the diagnosis was confirmed by typical complaints and compatible physical examination.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Ultrassonografia/normas , Hérnia Inguinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Período Pré-Operatório , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Período Intraoperatório , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Rev. bras. geriatr. gerontol. (Online) ; 22(2): e180122, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020592

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: to verify if the prevalence of dementia differs between widowed and non-widowed elderly persons and between genders, and to analyse if there is an association with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Method: a retrospective cross-sectional observational study of patients treated at a Behavioral Neurology outpatient clinic from 1999 to 2009 was carried out, employing anamnesis, physical and neurological examination, the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Sociodemographic (schooling and age) and clinical (age of onset of symptoms and time since onset of symptoms, MMSE and CDR) variables were analyzed. The differences were evaluated by the Mann Whitney test, using a significance value of p<0.05. Results: of 208 patients diagnosed with dementia, 73 (35.1%) were widowed and 135 (64.9%) were non-widowed. Those who were widowed were older than those who were non-widowed (p<0.001) when diagnosed with dementia. This difference in age remained when gender (p<0.001), widowed and widowed women (p<0.001) and widowed and non-widowed men (p<0.001) were compared. The time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was greater in widowed than in non-widowed men [55.6 (± 86.3) vs. 43.4 (± 44.8) months], although the difference was not statistically significant. Widowed patients with dementia had lower schooling, regardless of gender (p<0.05). Conclusion: the prevalence of dementia differed between widowed and non-widowed individuals, being higher among non-widows. There was an association between widowhood and the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, with differences between the genders. The loss of a spouse can generate different outcomes among men and women, necessitating measures with a specific focus on prevention and strategies of care in dementia.


Resumo Objetivo: Verificar se a prevalência de demência difere entre viúvos e não viúvos, e analisar se há associação com características sociodemográficas e clínicas, bem como diferenças entre os sexos. Método: Estudo observacional transversal retrospectivo que analisou prontuários de pacientes atendidos em um ambulatório de Neurologia do Comportamento de 1999 a 2009 através de anamnese, exame físico e neurológico, Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) e Miniexame do Estado Mental (MEEM). Avaliou-se variáveis sociodemográficas (escolaridade e idade) e clínicas (idade e tempo do início dos sintomas, MEEM e CDR). As diferenças foram avaliadas pelo teste de Mann Whitney, admitindo-se p<0,05. Resultados: Dos 208 pacientes com diagnóstico de demência, 73 (35,1%) eram viúvos e 135 (64,9%) não viúvos. Os viúvos eram mais velhos que os não viúvos (p<0,001) quando foram diagnosticados com demência. Essa diferença na idade manteve-se comparando os sexos (p<0,001), mulheres viúvas e não viúvas (p<0,001) e homens viúvos e não viúvos (p<0,001). O tempo do início dos sintomas até o diagnóstico foi maior em homens viúvos quando comparado aos não viúvos [55,6 (±86,3) vs 43,4 (±44,8) meses] mas sem significância estatística. Os viúvos com demência tinham menor escolaridade, independente do sexo (p<0,05). Conclusão: A prevalência de demência diferiu entre viúvos e não viúvos, sendo maior nos não viúvos. Houve associação da viuvez com características clínicas e sociodemográficas com diferença entre os sexos. A perda do cônjuge pode gerar diferentes desfechos entre homens e mulheres, necessitando de medidas com enfoque específico na prevenção e estratégias de cuidado na demência.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Epidemiologia , Viuvez , Demência , Doença de Alzheimer
11.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(6): 543-548, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-977392

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: ENT patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome have a tendency of collapsing the upper airways in addition to anatomical obstacles. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is related to the increased risk of difficult airway and also increased perioperative complications. In order to identify these patients in the preoperative period, the STOP Bang questionnaire has been highlighted because it is summarized and easy to apply. Objectives: Evaluate through the STOP Bang questionnaire whether patients undergoing ENT surgery with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome have a higher risk of complications, particularly the occurrence of difficult airway. Casuistry and methods: Measurements of anatomical parameters for difficult airway and questionnaire application for clinical prediction of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were performed in 48 patients with a previous polysomnographic study. Results: The sample detected difficult airway in about 18.7% of patients, all of them with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. This group had older age, cervical circumference > 40 cm, ASA II and Cormack III/IV. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome had higher body mass index, cervical circumference, and frequent apnea. In subgroup analysis, the group with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome showed a significantly higher SB score compared to patients without this syndrome or with a mild/moderate obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Conclusions: The STOP Bang questionnaire was not able to predict difficult airway and mild obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but it identified marked obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. All patients with difficult airway had moderate and marked obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, although this syndrome did not involve difficult airway. The variables Cormack III/IV and BMI greater than 35 kg.m−2 were able to predict difficult airway and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, respectively.


Resumo Introdução: Os pacientes cirúrgicos otorrinolaringológicos portadores da síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono apresentam, além de obstáculos anatômicos, tendência ao colapso das vias aéreas superiores. Síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono está relacionada ao maior risco de via aérea difícil e também aumento de complicações perioperatórias. A fim de se identificar esses pacientes no período pré-operatório, tem se destacado o questionário STOP Bang, por ser resumido e de fácil aplicação. Objetivos: Avaliar se pacientes submetidos à cirurgia otorrinolaringológica com diagnóstico de síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono pelo questionário STOP Bang apresentariam maior risco de complicações, particularmente ocorrência de via aérea difícil. Casuística e métodos: Feitas medidas de parâmetros anatômicos para via aérea difícil e administrado questionário para predição clínica de síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono em 48 pacientes com estudo polissonográfico prévio. Resultados: A amostra detectou via aérea difícil em 18,7% dos pacientes, todos portadores de síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono. Esse grupo apresentava maior idade, circunferência cervical > 40 cm, ASA II e Cormack III/IV. Os pacientes com síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono apresentaram maior índice de massa corpórea, circunferência cervical e frequência de apneia observada. Na análise de subgrupos, o grupo com síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono acentuada mostrou significantemente maior pontuação no SB quando comparado com pacientes sem síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono ou com síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono leve/moderada. Conclusões: O questionário STOP Bang não foi capaz de predizer via aérea difícil e nem síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono leve e moderada, mas identificou síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono acentuada. Todos pacientes com via aérea difícil apresentaram síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono moderada e acentuada, apesar desta síndrome não implicar em via aérea difícil. As variáveis Cormack III/IV e IMC maior do que 35 Kg.m-2 foram capazes de predizer via aérea difícil e síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono respectivamente.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/complicações , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Correlação de Dados , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Rev Bras Anestesiol ; 68(6): 543-548, 2018.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29274675

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: ENT patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome have a tendency of collapsing the upper airways in addition to anatomical obstacles. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is related to the increased risk of difficult airway and also increased perioperative complications. In order to identify these patients in the preoperative period, the STOP Bang questionnaire has been highlighted because it is summarized and easy to apply. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate through the STOP Bang questionnaire whether patients undergoing ENT surgery with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome have a higher risk of complications, particularly the occurrence of difficult airway. CASUISTRY AND METHODS: Measurements of anatomical parameters for difficult airway and questionnaire application for clinical prediction of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were performed in 48 patients with a previous polysomnographic study. RESULTS: The sample detected difficult airway in about 18.7% of patients, all of them with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. This group had older age, cervical circumference > 40cm, ASA II and Cormack III/IV. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome had higher body mass index, cervical circumference, and frequent apnea. In subgroup analysis, the group with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome showed a significantly higher SB score compared to patients without this syndrome or with a mild/moderate obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The STOP Bang questionnaire was not able to predict difficult airway and mild obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but it identified marked obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. All patients with difficult airway had moderate and marked obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, although this syndrome did not involve difficult airway. The variables Cormack III/IV and BMI greater than 35 Kg.m-2 were able to predict difficult airway and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, respectively.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/complicações , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Adulto , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico
13.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 44(6): 560-566, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to identify the main risk factors associated with the development of complications in patients with acute appendicitis. METHODS: we conducted a case-control study of 402 patients with acute appendicitis hospitalized in a secondary hospital, divided into two groups: the control group, with 373 patients who progressed without postoperative complications (Group 1) and the study group, with 29 patients who presented complications (Group 2). We evaluated demographic data, signs and symptoms of the disease, imaging tests and hospitalization data. RESULTS: factors associated with complications were fever, radiological and sonographic changes, abrupt positive decompression and diarrhea. Migration of pain, nausea, vomiting and abrupt positive decompression were the findings that were significantly more frequent in both groups (p = 0.05). The duration of signs and symptoms in days in group 2 was significantly higher than in group 1, with a median of three days for the group with complications (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: alterations in imaging, fever, diarrhea, positive abrupt decompression, duration of symptoms and lower age are associated with a higher frequency of complications in acute appendicitis, which reinforces the importance of anamnesis, physical examination and indication of complementary exams in the approach of these patients.


Assuntos
Apendicite/complicações , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 44(6): 560-566, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-896627

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective : to identify the main risk factors associated with the development of complications in patients with acute appendicitis. Methods: we conducted a case-control study of 402 patients with acute appendicitis hospitalized in a secondary hospital, divided into two groups: the control group, with 373 patients who progressed without postoperative complications (Group 1) and the study group, with 29 patients who presented complications (Group 2). We evaluated demographic data, signs and symptoms of the disease, imaging tests and hospitalization data. Results: factors associated with complications were fever, radiological and sonographic changes, abrupt positive decompression and diarrhea. Migration of pain, nausea, vomiting and abrupt positive decompression were the findings that were significantly more frequent in both groups (p = 0.05). The duration of signs and symptoms in days in group 2 was significantly higher than in group 1, with a median of three days for the group with complications (p = 0.05). Conclusion: alterations in imaging, fever, diarrhea, positive abrupt decompression, duration of symptoms and lower age are associated with a higher frequency of complications in acute appendicitis, which reinforces the importance of anamnesis, physical examination and indication of complementary exams in the approach of these patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: identificar os principais fatores de risco associados ao desenvolvimento de complicações em pacientes portadores de apendicite aguda. Métodos: estudo caso controle de dados dos prontuários de 402 pacientes internados com apendicite aguda em um hospital de nível secundário, separados em dois grupos: grupo controle, com 373 pacientes que evoluíram sem complicações pós-operatórias (Grupo 1) e grupo estudo, com 29 pacientes que apresentaram complicações (Grupo 2). Foram avaliados dados demográficos, sinais e sintomas da doença, exames de imagem e dados da internação. Resultados: os fatores associados às complicações foram febre, alterações radiológicas e ultrassonográficas, descompressão brusca positiva e diarreia. Migração da dor, náuseas, vômitos e descompressão brusca positiva foram os achados significativamente mais frequentes nos dois grupos (p=0,05). Já a duração dos sinais e sintomas, em dias, no grupo 2 foi significativamente maior que no grupo 1, com mediana de três dias para o grupo com complicações (p=0,05). Conclusão: alterações nos exames de imagem, febre, diarreia, descompressão brusca positiva, tempo de duração de sintomas e menor faixa etária estão associados à maior frequência de complicações na apendicite aguda, o que reforça a importância da anamnese, do exame físico e da indicação de exames complementares na abordagem desses pacientes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Apendicite/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Aguda , Fatores de Risco , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 21(2): 126-133, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-892799

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Maxillary sinus disease is common and numerous disorders can affect this anatomical area. Abnormalities can be classified as: non-neoplastic, neoplastic benign, and neoplastic malignant. Objective Evaluate through CT the prevalence of diseases in maxillary sinuses, using the Radiology Department's database of a hospital in São Paulo city. Methods The sample consisted of 762 facial CT scans that we divided into three groups: Group A (12-19 years old); Group B (20-49 years old); Group C (above 50 years old); and male or female. We considered the following pathological processes: I - Mucoperiosteal Thickening; II - Chronic Sinusitis; III - Chronic Odontogenic Sinusitis; IV - Rhinosinusitis; V - Polypoid Lesions; VI - Bone Lesions; VII - Neoplasms; VIII - Antrolith; IX - Foreign Bodies; X - Oroantral Fistula. Results Our study found that 305 exams (40.02%) were normal and 457 exams (59.97%) were abnormal. We found the following disease frequencies: focal mucoperiosteal thickening (21.25%); polypoid lesions (10.76%); chronic sinusitis (7.48%); chronic odontogenic sinusitis (2.29%); neoplasms (2.03%); rhinosinusitis (1.77%); bone lesions, foreign bodies and oroantral fistula in 0.65%; 0.13% and 0.06% respectively. There was no significant difference between male and female, and Groups A, B, or C when relating the frequencies of abnormalities found. There was no significant difference between male and female and the age group for the side of the altered maxillary sinus. Conclusion We observed a high prevalence of sinus maxillary diseases. Mucoperiosteal thickening; acute, chronic, and odontogenic sinusitis; polypoid lesions and neoplasms have high prevalence in maxillary sinuses. Thus, facial CT exam was effective for the evaluation of diseases in maxillary sinuses.

16.
Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 21(2): 126-133, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28382118

RESUMO

Introduction Maxillary sinus disease is common and numerous disorders can affect this anatomical area. Abnormalities can be classified as: non-neoplastic, neoplastic benign, and neoplastic malignant. Objective Evaluate through CT the prevalence of diseases in maxillary sinuses, using the Radiology Department's database of a hospital in São Paulo city. Methods The sample consisted of 762 facial CT scans that we divided into three groups: Group A (12-19 years old); Group B (20-49 years old); Group C (above 50 years old); and male or female. We considered the following pathological processes: I - Mucoperiosteal Thickening; II - Chronic Sinusitis; III - Chronic Odontogenic Sinusitis; IV - Rhinosinusitis; V - Polypoid Lesions; VI - Bone Lesions; VII - Neoplasms; VIII - Antrolith; IX - Foreign Bodies; X - Oroantral Fistula. Results Our study found that 305 exams (40.02%) were normal and 457 exams (59.97%) were abnormal. We found the following disease frequencies: focal mucoperiosteal thickening (21.25%); polypoid lesions (10.76%); chronic sinusitis (7.48%); chronic odontogenic sinusitis (2.29%); neoplasms (2.03%); rhinosinusitis (1.77%); bone lesions, foreign bodies and oroantral fistula in 0.65%; 0.13% and 0.06% respectively. There was no significant difference between male and female, and Groups A, B, or C when relating the frequencies of abnormalities found. There was no significant difference between male and female and the age group for the side of the altered maxillary sinus. Conclusion We observed a high prevalence of sinus maxillary diseases. Mucoperiosteal thickening; acute, chronic, and odontogenic sinusitis; polypoid lesions and neoplasms have high prevalence in maxillary sinuses. Thus, facial CT exam was effective for the evaluation of diseases in maxillary sinuses.

17.
Breast ; 31: 22-25, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27810695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess patient-reported outcomes of breast reconstruction with implants, using the BREAST-Q, in the late postoperative period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 114 women previously operated due to breast cancer, in the late postoperative period (range 6-24 months) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, and were allocated to either the mastectomy group (MG, n = 57) or reconstruction group (RG, n = 57). Patients in MG and RG, respectively, completed the Brazilian versions of Mastectomy and Reconstruction Modules of the BREAST-Q. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 46.6 and 44.3 years in MG and RG, respectively. All patients underwent chemotherapy and 6% and 11% of patients underwent radiotherapy in MG and RG, respectively. Patients in the RG reported higher satisfaction with surgical outcome (P < 0.0001). However, no significant between-group differences were found in physical and sexual well-being, or satisfaction with the plastic surgeon, medical team, and office staff. CONCLUSION: Breast reconstruction with implants increased patient satisfaction with the surgical outcome, but did not influence patients' physical and sexual well-being or their satisfaction with the treatment received.


Assuntos
Implante Mamário/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Adulto , Brasil , Implante Mamário/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia/psicologia , Mastectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Período Pós-Operatório , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Trials ; 17(1): 567, 2016 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27899130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of antibiotics in surgical procedures where the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) is low remains uncertain. There is, to date, no evidence to justify the routine use of antibiotics in postoperative reduction mammaplasty. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of postoperative antibiotic treatment on the occurrence of SSI after breast reduction surgery. METHODS: This is a double-blind randomized clinical trial with 124 breast hypertrophy patients allocated to two treatment groups: antibiotic (n = 62) and placebo (n = 62). All patients will undergo reduction mammoplasty, performed by the same surgical team. The surgeons will raise the nipple-areola complex by the superomedial pedicle technique. The patients will receive antibiotics intravenously during anesthetic induction and every 6 hours thereafter during their 24-hour hospital stay. During discharge from the hospital, each patient will receive a numbered package containing either cephalexin or placebo capsules and will be directed to take one capsule every 6 hours for 7 days. Neither the surgery team nor the patients will know the contents of the capsules. Patients will be monitored for the occurrence of SSI once weekly during the first 30 days following hospital discharge by a single surgeon who is blinded to their treatment group. SSI will be evaluated based on the definition adopted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. DISCUSSION: Due to the variety of risk factors for SSI and limited case studies, conclusions regarding the effect of antibiotics on the occurrence of SSIs following reduction mammaplasty are potentially biased. In recent studies, perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis was effective in preventing infection and is therefore recommended in clinical practice. However, antibiotic use in the postoperative period still remains controversial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02569866 . Registered on 4 October 2015.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Protocolos Clínicos , Mamoplastia/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 14(3): 338-345, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27759821

RESUMO

Objective:: To evaluate and compare the knowledge of dental undergraduate students about oral cancer. Methods:: The students were divided into two groups according to semester attended in the undergraduate course: Group A, the first semester; and Group B, seventh semester. They were asked to answer a questionnaire about epidemiology, risk factors, clinical aspects, therapeutic solutions and oral self-examination. For statistical analysis, the Fisher's exact test, the Cochran's G test and Kendall's concordance test were used, with significance level set at 0.05. Results:: Regarding the prevalent sex, only 8.0% of Group A and 56.0% of Group B judged males as the frequent affected by the disease (p=0.0006). In terms of age, 84.0% of the Group B and 44.0% of the Group A estimated that most cases were diagnosed over 40 years (p=0.0072). Smoking was identified as the major risk factor for 64.0% and 91.6% of Groups A and B, respectively (p=0.0110). On issues related to sex, ethnicity, age, risk factors, self-examination, treatment, professional responsible for treatment and profile of an individual with the disease, the seventh-semester showed significantly higher correct answer percentages than first-semester undergraduates. Conclusion:: There was significant correlation between the right and wrong answers given by first and seventh semester students, making necessary a specific approach directed to their lack of knowledge. Objetivo:: Avaliar e comparar o conhecimento de acadêmicos de odontologia sobre câncer bucal. Métodos:: Os acadêmicos foram divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com o semestre cursado na graduação: Grupo A, primeiro semestre; e Grupo B: sétimo semestre. Eles foram convidados a responderem um questionário referente a epidemiologia, fatores de risco, aspectos clínicos, soluções terapêuticas e autoexame bucal. Para a análise estatística dos resultados, foram utilizados o teste exato de Fisher, o teste G de Cochran e o teste de concordância de Kendall, com nível de significância estabelecido em 0,05. Resultados:: Somente 8,0% do Grupo A e 56,0% do Grupo B julgaram o sexo masculino como aquele frequentemente acometido pela lesão (p=0,0006). Em relação à faixa etária, 84,0% do Grupo B e 44,0% do Grupo A estimaram que a maioria dos casos era diagnosticada acima dos 40 anos (p=0,0072). O tabagismo foi apontado como principal fator de risco por 64,0% e 91,6% dos alunos dos Grupos A e B, respectivamente (p=0,0110). Nas questões referentes a sexo, etnia, faixa etária, fatores de risco, autoexame, tratamento, profissional responsável pelo tratamento e perfil de um indivíduo portador da lesão, os alunos do sétimo semestre apresentaram percentagens de respostas corretas significantemente maiores que as dos discentes do primeiro semestre. Conclusão:: Houve significativa concordância entre os erros e acertos dos discentes do primeiro e sétimo semestres, sendo necessária uma abordagem específica direcionada à deficiência por eles apresentadas.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias Bucais , Estudantes de Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Educação em Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 14(3): 338-345, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-796981

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate and compare the knowledge of dental undergraduate students about oral cancer. Methods: The students were divided into two groups according to semester attended in the undergraduate course: Group A, the first semester; and Group B, seventh semester. They were asked to answer a questionnaire about epidemiology, risk factors, clinical aspects, therapeutic solutions and oral self-examination. For statistical analysis, the Fisher's exact test, the Cochran's G test and Kendall's concordance test were used, with significance level set at 0.05. Results: Regarding the prevalent sex, only 8.0% of Group A and 56.0% of Group B judged males as the frequent affected by the disease (p=0.0006). In terms of age, 84.0% of the Group B and 44.0% of the Group A estimated that most cases were diagnosed over 40 years (p=0.0072). Smoking was identified as the major risk factor for 64.0% and 91.6% of Groups A and B, respectively (p=0.0110). On issues related to sex, ethnicity, age, risk factors, self-examination, treatment, professional responsible for treatment and profile of an individual with the disease, the seventh-semester showed significantly higher correct answer percentages than first-semester undergraduates. Conclusion: There was significant correlation between the right and wrong answers given by first and seventh semester students, making necessary a specific approach directed to their lack of knowledge.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar e comparar o conhecimento de acadêmicos de odontologia sobre câncer bucal. Métodos: Os acadêmicos foram divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com o semestre cursado na graduação: Grupo A, primeiro semestre; e Grupo B: sétimo semestre. Eles foram convidados a responderem um questionário referente a epidemiologia, fatores de risco, aspectos clínicos, soluções terapêuticas e autoexame bucal. Para a análise estatística dos resultados, foram utilizados o teste exato de Fisher, o teste G de Cochran e o teste de concordância de Kendall, com nível de significância estabelecido em 0,05. Resultados: Somente 8,0% do Grupo A e 56,0% do Grupo B julgaram o sexo masculino como aquele frequentemente acometido pela lesão (p=0,0006). Em relação à faixa etária, 84,0% do Grupo B e 44,0% do Grupo A estimaram que a maioria dos casos era diagnosticada acima dos 40 anos (p=0,0072). O tabagismo foi apontado como principal fator de risco por 64,0% e 91,6% dos alunos dos Grupos A e B, respectivamente (p=0,0110). Nas questões referentes a sexo, etnia, faixa etária, fatores de risco, autoexame, tratamento, profissional responsável pelo tratamento e perfil de um indivíduo portador da lesão, os alunos do sétimo semestre apresentaram percentagens de respostas corretas significantemente maiores que as dos discentes do primeiro semestre. Conclusão: Houve significativa concordância entre os erros e acertos dos discentes do primeiro e sétimo semestres, sendo necessária uma abordagem específica direcionada à deficiência por eles apresentadas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Estudantes de Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Bucais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Sexuais , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Etários , Educação em Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos
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