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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 3601-3607, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302143

RESUMO

Using time-lapsed ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we investigate the thermal oxidation of single-crystalline Ir(100) films toward rutile IrO2(110) in situ. We initially observe the formation of a carbon-free surface covered with a complete monolayer of oxygen, based on the binding energies of the Ir 4f and O 1s core level peaks. During a rather long induction period with nearly constant oxygen coverage, the work function of the surface changes continuously as sensed by the gas phase O 1s signal. The sudden and rapid formation of the IrO2 rutile phase with a thickness above 3 nm, manifested by distinct binding energy changes and substantiated by quantitative XPS analysis, provides direct evidence that the oxide film is formed via an autocatalytic growth mechanism that was previously proposed for PbO and RuO2.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(32): 12839-12848, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373808

RESUMO

While loading of cocatalysts is one of the most widely investigated strategies to promote the efficiency of photoelectrodes, the understanding of their functionality remains controversial. We established new hybrid molecular photoanodes with cobalt-based molecular cubane cocatalysts on hematite as a model system. Photoelectrochemical and rate law analyses revealed an interesting functionality transition of the {Co(II)4O4}-type cocatalysts. Their role changed from predominant hole reservoirs to catalytic centers upon modulation of the applied bias. Kinetic analysis of the photoelectrochemical processes indicated that this observed transition arises from the dynamic equilibria of photogenerated surface charge carriers. Most importantly, we confirmed this functional transition of the cocatalysts and the related kinetic properties for several cobalt-based molecular and heterogeneous catalysts, indicating wide applicability of the derived trends. Additionally, complementary analytical characterizations show that a transformation of the applied molecular species occurs at higher applied bias, pointing to a dynamic interplay connecting molecular and heterogeneous catalysis. Our insights promote the essential understanding of efficient (molecular) cocatalyzed photoelectrode systems to design tailor-made hybrid devices for a wide range of catalytic applications.

3.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 30(42): 424002, 2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30160653

RESUMO

Instability of ultrathin surface oxides on alloys under environmental conditions can limit the opportunities for applications of these systems when the thickness control of the insulating oxide film is crucial for device performance. A procedure is developed to directly deposit self-assembled monolayers (SAM) from solvent onto substrates prepared under ultra-high vacuum conditions without exposure to air. As an example, rhenium photosensitizers functionalized with carboxyl linker groups are attached to ultrathin alumina grown on NiAl(1 1 0). The thickness change of the oxide layer during the SAM deposition is quantified by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and can be drastically reduced to one atomic layer. The SAM acts as a capping layer, stabilizing the oxide thin film under environmental conditions. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy elucidates the band alignment in the resulting heterostructure. The method for molecule attachment presented in this manuscript can be extended to a broad class of molecules vulnerable to pyrolysis upon evaporation and presents an elegant method for attaching molecular layers on solid substrates that are sensitive to air.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(15): 5102-5109, 2018 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29401394

RESUMO

Graphene oxides are promising materials for novel electronic devices or anchoring of the active sites for catalytic applications. Here we focus on understanding the atomic oxygen (AO) binding and mobility on different regions of graphene (Gr) on Ru(0001). Differences in the Gr/Ru lattices result in the superstructure, which offers an array of distinct adsorption sites. We employ scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory to map out the chemical identity and stability of prepared AO functionalities in different Gr regions. The AO diffusion is utilized to establish that in the regions that are close to the metal substrate the terminally bonded enolate groups are strongly preferred over bridge-bonded epoxy groups. No oxygen species are observed on the graphene regions that are far from the underlying Ru, indicating their low relative stability. This study provides a clear fundamental basis for understanding the local structural, electronic factors and C-Ru bond strengthening/weakening processes that affect the stability of enolate and epoxy species.

5.
J Phys Chem B ; 122(2): 640-648, 2018 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28792757

RESUMO

Titanium dioxide/graphene composites have recently been demonstrated to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 in visible light. To better understand the interactions of TiO2 with graphene we have investigated the growth of TiO2 nanoclusters on single-layer graphene/Ru(0001) using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Deposition of Ti in the O2 background at 300 K resulted in the formation of nanoclusters nucleating on intrinsic defects in the graphene (Gr) layer. The saturation nanocluster density decreased as the substrate temperature was increased from 300 to 650 K, while deposition at 700 K resulted in the significant etching of the Gr layer. We have also prepared nanoclusters with Ti2O3 stoichiometry using lower O2 pressures at 650 K. Thermal stability of the TiO2 nanoclusters prepared at 300 K was evaluated with AES and STM. No change in oxidation state for the TiO2 nanoclusters or etching of the Gr layer was observed up to ∼900 K. Annealing studies revealed that cluster ripening proceeds via a Smoluchowski mechanism below 800 K. Above 800 K, the changes in cluster shapes indicate an onset of diffusion within the clusters. At even higher temperatures, the nanoclusters undergo reduction to TiOx (x ≈ 1-1.5) which is accompanied by oxidation and etching of the Gr. Our studies demonstrate that highly thermally stable TiOx nanoclusters of controlled composition and morphology can be prepared on Gr supports.

6.
J Phys Chem B ; 122(2): 721-729, 2018 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28862459

RESUMO

The interaction of CO with the Fe3O4(001)-(√2 × âˆš2)R45° surface was studied using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the latter both under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions and in CO pressures up to 1 mbar. In general, the CO-Fe3O4 interaction is found to be weak. The strongest adsorption occurs at surface defects, leading to small TPD peaks at 115, 130, and 190 K. Desorption from the regular surface occurs in two distinct regimes. For coverages up to two CO molecules per (√2 × âˆš2)R45° unit cell, the desorption maximum shows a large shift with increasing coverage, from initially 105 to 70 K. For coverages between 2 and 4 molecules per (√2 × âˆš2)R45° unit cell, a much sharper desorption feature emerges at ∼65 K. Thermodynamic analysis of the TPD data suggests a phase transition from a dilute 2D gas into an ordered overlayer with CO molecules bound to surface Fe3+ sites. XPS data acquired at 45 K in UHV are consistent with physisorption. Some carbon-containing species are observed in the near-ambient-pressure XPS experiments at room temperature but are attributed to contamination and/or reaction with CO with water from the residual gas. No evidence was found for surface reduction or carburization by CO molecules.

7.
ACS Nano ; 9(8): 8617-26, 2015 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26230753

RESUMO

Cerium oxide is an important catalytic material known for its ability to store and release oxygen, and as such, it has been used in a range of applications, both as an active catalyst and as a catalyst support. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy, we investigated oxygen interactions with CeOx nanoclusters on a complete graphene monolayer-covered Ru(0001) surface at elevated temperatures (600-725 K). Under oxidizing conditions (PO2 = 1 × 10(-7) Torr), oxygen intercalation under the graphene layer is observed. Time dependent studies demonstrate that the intercalation proceeds via spillover of oxygen from CeOx nanoclusters through the graphene (Gr) layer onto the Ru(0001) substrate and extends until the Gr layer is completely intercalated. Atomically resolved images further show that oxygen forms a p(2 × 1) structure underneath the Gr monolayer. Temperature dependent studies yield an apparent kinetic barrier for the intercalation of 1.21 eV. This value correlates well with the theoretically determined value for the reduction of small CeO2 clusters reported previously. At higher temperatures, the intercalation is followed by a slower etching of the intercalated graphene (apparent barrier of 1.60 eV). Vacuum annealing of the intercalated Gr leads to the formation of carbon monoxide, causing etching of the graphene film, demonstrating that the spillover of oxygen is not reversible. In agreement with previous studies, no intercalation is observed on a complete graphene monolayer without CeOx clusters, even in the presence of a large number of point defects. These studies demonstrate that the easily reducible CeOx clusters act as intercalation gateways capable of efficiently delivering oxygen underneath the graphene layer.

8.
ACS Nano ; 8(7): 7531-7, 2014 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24945923

RESUMO

The atomic-scale mechanisms underlying the growth of Ag on the (√2×√2)R45°-Fe3O4(001) surface were studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory based calculations. For coverages up to 0.5 ML, Ag adatoms populate the surface exclusively; agglomeration into nanoparticles occurs only with the lifting of the reconstruction at 720 K. Above 0.5 ML, Ag clusters nucleate spontaneously and grow at the expense of the surrounding material with mild annealing. This unusual behavior results from a kinetic barrier associated with the (√2×√2)R45° reconstruction, which prevents adatoms from transitioning to the thermodynamically favorable 3D phase. The barrier is identified as the large separation between stable adsorption sites, which prevents homogeneous cluster nucleation and the instability of the Ag dimer against decay to two adatoms. Since the system is dominated by kinetics as long as the (√2×√2)R45° reconstruction exists, the growth is not well described by the traditional growth modes. It can be understood, however, as the result of supersaturation within an adsorption template system.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 53(18): 4714-6, 2014 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24677419

RESUMO

A combination of photoemission, atomic force, and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy measurements shows that excess electrons in the TiO2 anatase (101) surface are trapped at step edges. Consequently, steps act as preferred adsorption sites for O2 . In density functional theory calculations electrons localize at clean step edges, this tendency is enhanced by O vacancies and hydroxylation. The results show the importance of defects for the wide-ranging applications of titania.

10.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 117(49): 26060-26069, 2013 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24353755

RESUMO

The interaction of water with oxide surfaces is of great interest for both fundamental science and applications. We present a combined theoretical (density functional theory (DFT)) and experimental (scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and photoemission spectroscopy (PES)) study of water interaction with the two-dimensional titania overlayer that terminates the SrTiO3(110)-(4 × 1) surface and consists of TiO4 tetrahedra. STM and core-level and valence band PES show that H2O neither adsorbs nor dissociates on the stoichiometric surface at room temperature, whereas it does dissociate at oxygen vacancies. This is in agreement with DFT calculations, which show that the energy barriers for water dissociation on the stoichiometric and reduced surfaces are 1.7 and 0.9 eV, respectively. We propose that water weakly adsorbs on two-dimensional, tetrahedrally coordinated overlayers.

11.
Nat Mater ; 12(8): 724-8, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23749267

RESUMO

The coarsening of catalytically active metal clusters is often accelerated by the presence of gases, but the role played by gas molecules is difficult to ascertain and varies from system to system. We use scanning tunnelling microscopy to follow the CO-induced coalescence of Pd adatoms supported on the Fe3O4(001) surface at room temperature, and find Pd-carbonyl species to be responsible for mobility in this system. Once these reach a critical density, clusters nucleate; subsequent coarsening occurs through cluster diffusion and coalescence. Whereas CO induces the mobility in the Pd/Fe3O4 system, surface hydroxyls have the opposite effect. Pd atoms transported to surface OH groups are no longer susceptible to carbonyl formation and remain isolated. Following the evolution from well-dispersed metal adatoms into clusters, atom-by-atom, allows identification of the key processes that underlie gas-induced mass transport.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(21): 216103, 2012 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23003284

RESUMO

Gold deposited on the Fe3O4(001) surface at room temperature was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This surface forms a (√2 × âˆš2)R45° reconstruction, where pairs of Fe and neighboring O ions are slightly displaced laterally producing undulating rows with "narrow" and "wide" hollow sites. At low coverages, single Au adatoms adsorb exclusively at the narrow sites, with no significant sintering up to annealing temperatures of 400 °C. We propose the strong site preference to be related to charge and orbital ordering within the first subsurface layer of Fe3O4(001)-(√2 × âˆš2)R45°. Because of its high thermal stability, this could prove an ideal model system for probing the chemical reactivity of single atomic species.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 133(32): 12650-5, 2011 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21740022

RESUMO

An array of surface science measurements has revealed novel water adsorption behavior at the Fe(3)O(4)(001) surface. Following room temperature exposure to water, a low coverage of hydrogen atoms is observed, with no associated water hydroxyl group. Mild annealing of the hydrogenated surface leads to desorption of water via abstraction of surface oxygen atoms, leading to a reduction of the surface. These results point to an irreversible splitting of the water molecule. The observed phenomena are discussed in the context of recent DFT calculations (Mulakaluri, N.; Pentcheva, R.; Scheffler, M. J. Phys. Chem. C 2010, 114, 11148), which show that the Jahn-Teller distorted surface isolates adsorbed H in a geometry that could kinetically hinder recombinative desorption. In contrast, the adsorption geometry facilitates interaction between water hydroxyl species, which are concluded to leave the surface following a reactive desorption process, possibly via the creation of O(2).

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