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1.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070971

RESUMO

The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has refocused attention to the betacoronaviruses, only eight years after the emergence of another zoonotic betacoronavirus, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). While the wild source of SARS-CoV-2 may be disputed, for MERS-CoV, dromedaries are considered as source of zoonotic human infections. Testing 100 immune-response genes in 121 dromedaries from United Arab Emirates (UAE) for potential association with present MERS-CoV infection, we identified candidate genes with important functions in the adaptive, MHC-class I (HLA-A-24-like) and II (HLA-DPB1-like), and innate immune response (PTPN4, MAGOHB), and in cilia coating the respiratory tract (DNAH7). Some of these genes previously have been associated with viral replication in SARS-CoV-1/-2 in humans, others have an important role in the movement of bronchial cilia. These results suggest similar host genetic pathways associated with these betacoronaviruses, although further work is required to better understand the MERS-CoV disease dynamics in both dromedaries and humans.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Camelus/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Zoonoses/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Brônquios/citologia , Brônquios/fisiologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Camelus/genética , Camelus/imunologia , Cílios/fisiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Mucosa Respiratória/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Emirados Árabes Unidos , Replicação Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/imunologia , Zoonoses/genética , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999846

RESUMO

Capillaria hepatica (syn. Calodium hepaticum) is a parasitic nematode of rodents, rarely infecting humans. An asymptomatic Israeli adult male with extensive travel history was diagnosed with a liver mass on routine post-thymectomy follow-up. Imaging and computer tomography (CT) guided biopsy were inconclusive. Surgical excision revealed an eosinophilic granuloma with fragments of a nematode suspected to be C. hepatica. Molecular methods verified the diagnosis, and the patient was treated empirically. This is the first case of hepatic capillariasis described in Israel, and the first to be diagnosed using molecular methods.

3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960696

RESUMO

Knowledge of the level and duration of protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 after primary infection is of crucial importance for preventive approaches. Currently, there is a lack of evidence on the persistence of specific antibodies. We investigated the generation and maintenance of neutralizing antibodies of convalescent SARS-CoV-2-afflicted patients over a ten-month period post-primary infection using an immunofluorescence assay, a commercial chemiluminescent immunoassay and an in-house enzyme-linked neutralization assay. We present the successful application of an improved version of the plaque-reduction neutralization assay which can be analysed optometrically to simplify data interpretation. Based on the results of the enzyme-linked neutralization assay, neutralizing antibodies were maintained in 77.4% of convalescent individuals without relevant decay over ten months. Furthermore, a positive correlation between severity of infection and antibody titre was observed. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2-afflicted individuals have been proven to be able to develop and maintain neutralizing antibodies over a period of ten months after primary infection. Findings suggest long-lasting presumably protective humoral immune responses after wild-type infection.

4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501762

RESUMO

Borna disease (BD), a frequently fatal neurologic disorder caused by Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1), has been observed for decades in horses, sheep, and other mammals in certain regions of Europe. The bicoloured white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon) was identified as a persistently infected species involved in virus transmission. Recently, BoDV-1 attracted attention as a cause of fatal encephalitis in humans. Here, we report investigations on BoDV-1-infected llamas from a farm in a BD endemic area of Switzerland, and alpacas from holdings in a region of Germany where BD was last seen in the 1960s but not thereafter. All New World camelids showed apathy and abnormal behaviour, necessitating euthanasia. Histologically, severe non-suppurative meningoencephalitis with neuronal Joest-Degen inclusion bodies was observed. BoDV-1 was confirmed by immunohistology, RT-qPCR, and sequencing in selected animals. Analysis of the llama herd over 20 years showed that losses due to clinically suspected BD increased within the last decade. BoDV-1 whole-genome sequences from one Swiss llama and one German alpaca and-for comparison-from one Swiss horse and one German shrew were established. They represent the first published whole-genome sequences of BoDV-1 clusters 1B and 3, respectively. Our analysis suggests that New World camelids may have a role as a sentinel species for BoDV-1 infection, even when symptomatic cases are lacking in other animal species.

5.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506644

RESUMO

The geographic location and heterogeneous multi-ethnic population of Dubai (United Arab Emirates; UAE) provide a unique setting to explore the global molecular epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 and relationship between different viral strains and disease severity. We systematically selected (i.e. every 100th individual in the central Dubai COVID-19 database) 256 patients by age, sex, disease severity and month to provide a representative sample of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients (nasopharyngeal swab PCR positive) during the first wave of the UAE outbreak (January to June 2020). Sociodemographic and clinical data were extracted from medical records and full SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences extracted from nasopharyngeal swabs were analysed. Older age was significantly associated with COVID-19-associated hospital admission and mortality. Overweight/obese or diabetic patients were 3-4 times more likely to be admitted to hospital and intensive care unit (ICU). Sequencing data showed multiple independent viral introductions into the UAE from Europe, Iran and Asia (29 January-18 March), and these early strains seeded significant clustering consistent with almost exclusive community-based transmission between April and June 2020. Majority of sequenced strains (N = 60, 52%) were from the European cluster consistent with the higher infectivity rates associated with the D614G mutation carried by most strains in this cluster. A total of 986 mutations were identified in 115 genomes, 272 were unique (majority were missense, n = 134) and 20/272 mutations were novel. A missense (Q271R) and synonymous (R41R) mutation in the S and N proteins, respectively, were identified in 2/27 patients with severe COVID-19 but not in patients with mild or moderate disease (0/86; p = .05, Fisher's Exact Test). Both patients were women (51-64 years) with no significant underlying health conditions. The same two mutations were identified in a healthy 37-year-old Indian man who was hospitalized in India due to COVID-19. Our findings provide evidence for continued community-based transmission of the European strains in the Dubai population and highlight new mutations that might be associated with severe disease in otherwise healthy adults.

6.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339336

RESUMO

Using molecular techniques and bioinformatics tools, we studied the vector-host interactions and the molecular epidemiology of West Nile virus (WNV) in western Iran. Mosquitoes were collected during 2017 and 2018. DNA typing assays were used to study vector-host interactions. Mosquitoes were screened by RT-PCR for the genomes of five virus families. WNV-positive samples were fully sequenced and evolutionary tree and molecular architecture were constructed by Geneious software and SWISS-MODEL workspace, respectively. A total of 5028 mosquito specimens were collected and identified. The most prevalent species was Culex (Cx.) pipiens complex (57.3%). Analysis of the blood-feeding preferences of blood-fed mosquitoes revealed six mammalian and one bird species as hosts. One mosquito pool containing non-blood-fed Cx. theileri and one blood-fed Culex pipiens pipiens (Cpp.) biotype pipiens were positive for WNV. A phylogram indicated that the obtained WNV sequences belonged to lineage 2, subclade 2 g. Several amino acid substitutions suspected as virulence markers were observed in the Iranian WNV strains. The three-dimensional structural homology model of the E-protein identified hot spot domains known to facilitate virus invasion and neurotropism. The recent detection of WNV lineage 2 in mosquitoes from several regions of Iran in consecutive years suggests that the virus is established in the country.


Assuntos
Vetores de Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/transmissão , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Genômica/métodos , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional , Prevalência , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(10)2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092132

RESUMO

Ocellatins are peptides produced in the skins of frogs belonging to the genus Leptodactylus that generally display weak antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria only. Peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from Leptodactylus insularum Barbour 1906 and Leptodactylus nesiotus Heyer 1994, collected in the Icacos Peninsula, Trinidad, led to the purification and structural characterization of five ocellatin-related peptides from L. insularum (ocellatin-1I together with its (1-16) fragment, ocellatin-2I and its (1-16) fragment, and ocellatin-3I) and four ocellatins from L. nesiotus (ocellatin-1N, -2N, -3N, and -4N). While ocellatins-1I, -2I, and -1N showed a typically low antimicrobial potency against Gram-negative bacteria, ocellatin-3N (GIFDVLKNLAKGVITSLAS.NH2) was active against an antibiotic-resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae and reference strains of Escherichia coli, K. pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range 31.25-62.5 µM), and was the only peptide active against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 31.25 µM) and Enterococcus faecium (MIC = 62.5 µM). The therapeutic potential of ocellatin-3N is limited by its moderate hemolytic activity (LC50 = 98 µM) against mouse erythrocytes. The peptide represents a template for the design of long-acting, non-toxic, and broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents for targeting multidrug-resistant pathogens.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17720, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082405

RESUMO

International travel played a significant role in the early global spread of SARS-CoV-2. Understanding transmission patterns from different regions of the world will further inform global dynamics of the pandemic. Using data from Dubai in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a major international travel hub in the Middle East, we establish SARS-CoV-2 full genome sequences from the index and early COVID-19 patients in the UAE. The genome sequences are analysed in the context of virus introductions, chain of transmissions, and possible links to earlier strains from other regions of the world. Phylogenetic analysis showed multiple spatiotemporal introductions of SARS-CoV-2 into the UAE from Asia, Europe, and the Middle East during the early phase of the pandemic. We also provide evidence for early community-based transmission and catalogue new mutations in SARS-CoV-2 strains in the UAE. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the global transmission network of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Viagem , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
9.
Viruses ; 12(8)2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806715

RESUMO

West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are genetically related neurotropic mosquito-borne flaviviruses, which frequently co-circulate in nature. Despite USUV seeming to be less pathogenic for humans than WNV, the clinical manifestations induced by these two viruses often overlap and may evolve to produce severe neurological complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of WNV and USUV infection on human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells (hNSCs), as a model of the neural progenitor cells in the developing fetal brain and in adult brain. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus with known tropism for NSCs, was used as the positive control. Infection of hNSCs and viral production, effects on cell viability, apoptosis, and innate antiviral responses were compared among viruses. WNV displayed the highest replication efficiency and cytopathic effects in hNSCs, followed by USUV and then ZIKV. In these cells, both WNV and USUV induced the overexpression of innate antiviral response genes at significantly higher levels than ZIKV. Expression of interferon type I, interleukin-1ß and caspase-3 was significantly more elevated in WNV- than USUV-infected hNSCs, in agreement with the higher neuropathogenicity of WNV and the ability to inhibit the interferon response pathway.

10.
Clin Chem ; 66(11): 1450-1458, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the gradual reopening of economies and resumption of social life, robust surveillance mechanisms should be implemented to control the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Unlike RT-qPCR, SARS-CoV-2 whole genome sequencing (cWGS) has the added advantage of identifying cryptic origins of the virus, and the extent of community-based transmissions versus new viral introductions, which can in turn influence public health policy decisions. However, the practical and cost considerations of cWGS should be addressed before it is widely implemented. METHODS: We performed shotgun transcriptome sequencing using RNA extracted from nasopharyngeal swabs of patients with COVID-19, and compared it to targeted SARS-CoV-2 genome amplification and sequencing with respect to virus detection, scalability, and cost-effectiveness. To track virus origin, we used open-source multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tools to compare the assembled SARS-CoV-2 genomes to publicly available sequences. RESULTS: We found considerable improvement in whole genome sequencing data quality and viral detection using amplicon-based target enrichment of SARS-CoV-2. With enrichment, more than 99% of the sequencing reads mapped to the viral genome, compared to an average of 0.63% without enrichment. Consequently, an increase in genome coverage was obtained using substantially less sequencing data, enabling higher scalability and sizable cost reductions. We also demonstrated how SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences can be used to determine their possible origin through phylogenetic analysis including other viral strains. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 whole genome sequencing is a practical, cost-effective, and powerful approach for population-based surveillance and control of viral transmission in the next phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Pandemias , Filogenia , Vigilância da População , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/economia
11.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397688

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is due to infection caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus that impacts the lower respiratory tract. The spectrum of symptoms ranges from asymptomatic infections to mild respiratory symptoms to the lethal form of COVID-19 which is associated with severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, and fatality. To address this global crisis, up-to-date information on viral genomics and transcriptomics is crucial for understanding the origins and global dispersion of the virus, providing insights into viral pathogenicity, transmission, and epidemiology, and enabling strategies for therapeutic interventions, drug discovery, and vaccine development. Therefore, this review provides a comprehensive overview of COVID-19 epidemiology, genomic etiology, findings from recent transcriptomic map analysis, viral-human protein interactions, molecular diagnostics, and the current status of vaccine and novel therapeutic intervention development. Moreover, we provide an extensive list of resources that will help the scientific community access numerous types of databases related to SARS-CoV-2 OMICs and approaches to therapeutics related to COVID-19 treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Genômica , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
12.
Malar J ; 19(1): 69, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Passerine birds are frequently infected with diverse haemosporidian parasites. While infections are traditionally considered benign in wild birds, recent studies demonstrated mortalities of passerine species due to exo-erythrocytic development of the parasites, which can damage organs in affected hosts. However, exo-erythrocytic development remains insufficiently investigated for most haemosporidian species and thus little is known about the virulence of tissue stages in wild passerine birds. The aim of the present study was to investigate natural haemosporidian infections in deceased Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) and to determine parasite burden and associated histological effects. METHODS: For molecular analysis, blood and tissue samples from 306 thrushes were screened for Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon parasites by nested PCR. For the detection of parasite stages in organ samples, tissue sections were subjected to chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) using genus- and species-specific probes targeting the rRNAs of parasites. Exo-erythrocytic parasite burden was semi-quantitatively assessed and histological lesions were evaluated in haematoxylin-eosin-stained sections. RESULTS: By PCR, 179 of 277 Eurasian blackbirds and 15 of 29 song thrushes were positive for haemosporidians. Parasites of all three genera were detected, with Plasmodium matutinum LINN1 and Plasmodium vaughani SYAT05 showing the highest prevalence. CISH revealed significant differences in exo-erythrocytic parasite burden between lineages in Eurasian blackbirds, with P. matutinum LINN1 frequently causing high exo-erythrocytic parasite burdens in various organs that were associated with histological alterations. Song thrushes infected with P. matutinum LINN1 and birds infected with other haemosporidian lineages showed mostly low exo-erythrocytic parasite burdens. Two Eurasian blackbirds infected with Leucocytozoon sp. TUMER01 showed megalomeronts in various organs that were associated with inflammatory reactions and necroses. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that P. matutinum LINN1, a common lineage among native thrushes, regularly causes high exo-erythrocytic parasite burdens in Eurasian blackbirds, which may result in disease and mortalities, indicating its high pathogenic potential. The findings further illustrate that the same parasite lineage may show different levels of virulence in related bird species which should be considered when assessing the pathogenicity of haemosporidian parasite species. Finally, the study provides evidence of virulent Leucocytozoon sp. TUMER01 infections in two Eurasian blackbirds caused by megalomeront formation.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/fisiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Aves Canoras/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Áustria , Bolsa de Fabricius/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Haemosporida/genética , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Haemosporida/patogenicidade , Coração/parasitologia , Hibridização In Situ/métodos , Hibridização In Situ/veterinária , Rim/parasitologia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Especificidade da Espécie , Virulência
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(5): 1019-1021, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097111

RESUMO

We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in dromedary camels and attached ticks at 3 locations in the United Arab Emirates. Results revealed a high prevalence of CCHFV-reactive antibodies in camels and viral RNA in ticks and camel serum, suggesting the virus is endemic in this country.

14.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 18(2): 145-154, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914833

RESUMO

Introduction: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne human and animal pathogen with nearly worldwide distribution. In Europe, the virus is endemic with seasonal regional outbreaks that have increased in frequency over the last 10 years. A massive outbreak occurred across southern and central Europe in 2018 with the number of confirmed human cases increasing up to 7.2-fold from the previous year, and expanding to include previously virus-free regions.Areas covered: This review focuses on potential causes that may explain the 2018 European WNV outbreak. We discuss the role genetic, ecological, and environmental aspects may have played in the increased activity during the 2018 transmission season, summarizing the latest epidemiological and virological publications.Expert opinion: Optimal environmental conditions, specifically increased temperature, were most likely responsible for the observed outbreak. Other factors cannot be ruled out due to limited available information, including factors that may influence host/vector abundance and contact. Europe will likely experience even larger-scale outbreaks in the coming years. Increased surveillance efforts should be implemented with a focus on early-warning detection methods, and large-scale host and vector surveys should continue to fill gaps in knowledge.

15.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 298-307, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505099

RESUMO

Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus closely related to West Nile virus, emerged in Austria in 2001, when it caused a considerable mass-mortality of Eurasian blackbirds. Cases in birds increased until 2003 and quickly declined thereafter, presumably due to developing herd immunity. Since 2006, no further cases were recorded, until two blackbirds were tested positive in 2016. In Hungary, USUV first appeared in 2005 and has caused only sporadic infections since then. Initially, the only genetic USUV lineage found across both countries was Europe 1. This changed in 2015/2016, when Europe 2 emerged, which has since then become the prevalent lineage. Due to dispersal of these strains and introduction of new genetic lineages, USUV infections are now widespread across Europe. In 2009, the first cases of USUV-related encephalitis were described in humans, and the virus has been frequently detected in blood donations since 2016. To monitor USUV infections among the Austrian wild bird population in 2017/2018, 86 samples were investigated by RT-PCR. In 67 of them, USUV nucleic acid was detected (17 in 2017, 50 in 2018). The majority of succumbed birds were blackbirds, found in Vienna and Lower Austria. However, the virus also spread westwards to Upper Austria and southwards to Styria and Carinthia. In Hungary, 253 wild birds were examined, but only six of them were infected with USUV (five in 2017, one in 2018). Thus, in contrast to the considerable increase in USUV-associated bird mortality in Austria, the number of infections in Hungary declined after a peak in 2016. Except for one case of USUV lineage Africa 3 in Austria in 2017, Europe 2 remains the most prevalent genetic lineage in both countries. Since USUV transmission largely depends on temperature, which affects vector populations, climate change may cause more frequent USUV outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/veterinária , Flavivirus/isolamento & purificação , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Animais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/mortalidade , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Aves , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Flavivirus/genética , Infecções por Flavivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia , Geografia , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Temperatura
16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(3): 1189-1197, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840920

RESUMO

We report details of the first seven equine cases of confirmed West Nile neuroinvasive disease in Austria. The cases presented during summer and autumn of 2016 (n = 2), 2017 (n = 3) and 2018 (n = 2). All horses showed gait abnormalities and 6 of 7 horses exhibited fasciculations and/or tremors, and we provide video recordings of these. Three horses also showed cranial nerve involvement. Following rapid improvement, three horses were discharged. Four horses were euthanized due to the severity of clinical signs and subjected to neuropathological examination. West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 nucleic acid was detected in 5 of 7 horses, and WNV-specific neutralizing antibodies in all 7 horses. In addition, serologic evidence of WNV infection was found in two out of fourteen in-contact horses. Horses may be considered a sentinel species for human WNV infections, integrating human and veterinary medicine and thus contributing to the one health concept.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Animais , Áustria , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Masculino , Espécies Sentinelas , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/complicações , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/diagnóstico , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/fisiologia
17.
Viruses ; 11(11)2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683893

RESUMO

Prevalence studies have demonstrated a global distribution of equine hepacivirus (EqHV), a member of the family Flaviviridae. However, apart from a single case of vertical transmission, natural routes of EqHV transmission remain elusive. Many known flaviviruses are horizontally transmitted between hematophagous arthropods and vertebrate hosts. This study represents the first investigation of potential EqHV transmission by mosquitoes. More than 5000 mosquitoes were collected across Austria and analyzed for EqHV ribonucleic acid (RNA) by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Concurrently, 386 serum samples from horses in eastern Austria were analyzed for EqHV-specific antibodies by luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) and for EqHV RNA by RT-qPCR. Additionally, liver-specific biochemistry parameters were compared between EqHV RNA-positive horses and EqHV RNA-negative horses. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted in comparison to previously published sequences from various origins. No EqHV RNA was detected in mosquito pools. Serum samples yielded an EqHV antibody prevalence of 45.9% (177/386) and RNA prevalence of 4.15% (16/386). EqHV RNA-positive horses had significantly higher glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) levels (p = 0.013) than control horses. Phylogenetic analysis showed high similarity between nucleotide sequences of EqHV in Austrian horses and EqHV circulating in other regions. Despite frequently detected evidence of EqHV infection in Austrian horses, no viral RNA was found in mosquitoes. It is therefore unlikely that mosquitoes are vectors of this flavivirus.


Assuntos
Culicidae/virologia , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/transmissão , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Áustria/epidemiologia , Feminino , Glutamato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/transmissão , Hepatite C/virologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/genética
18.
Microorganisms ; 7(10)2019 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614950

RESUMO

Lednice virus (LEDV) has been detected in Culex modestus mosquitoes in several European countries within the last six decades. In this study, phylogenetic analyses of the complete genome segments confirm that LEDV belongs to the Turlock orthobunyavirus (Orthobunyavirus, Peribunyaviridae) species and is closely related to Umbre, Turlock, and Kedah viruses.

19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(6): 1050-1057, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107223

RESUMO

West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) circulate in several European Union (EU) countries. The risk of transfusion-transmitted West Nile virus (TT-WNV) has been recognized, and preventive blood safety measures have been implemented. We summarized the applied interventions in the EU countries and assessed the safety of the blood supply by compiling data on WNV positivity among blood donors and on reported TT-WNV cases. The paucity of reported TT-WNV infections and the screening results suggest that blood safety interventions are effective. However, limited circulation of WNV in the EU and presumed underrecognition or underreporting of TT-WNV cases contribute to the present situation. Because of cross-reactivity between genetically related flaviviruses in the automated nucleic acid test systems, USUV-positive blood donations are found during routine WNV screening. The clinical relevance of USUV infection in humans and the risk of USUV to blood safety are unknown.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Segurança do Sangue , União Europeia , Infecções por Flavivirus/epidemiologia , Flavivirus , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Transfusão de Sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Flavivirus/transmissão , Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/prevenção & controle , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/transmissão , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia
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