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1.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124627, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548173

RESUMO

Nitrogen contamination remains a severe environmental problem and a major threat to sustainable development worldwide. A systematic analysis of the literature indicates that the partial nitritation-anammox (PN/AMX) process is still actively studied as a viable option for energy-efficient and feasible technology for the sustainable treatment of N- rich wastewaters, since its initial discovery in 1990. Notably, the mainstream PN/AMX process application remains the most challenging bottleneck in AMX technology and fascinates the world's attention in AMX studies. This paper discusses the recent trends and developments of PN/AMX research and analyzes the results of recent years of research on the PN/AMX from lab-to full-scale applications. The findings would deeply improve our understanding of the major challenges under mainstream conditions and next-stage research on the PN/AMX process. A great deal of efforts has been made in the process engineering, PN/AMX bacteria populations, predictive modeling, and the full-scale implementations during the past 22 years. A series of new and excellent experimental findings at lab, pilot and full-scale levels including good nitrogen removal performance even under low temperature (15-10 °C) around the world were achieved. To date, pilot- and full-scale PN/AMX have been successfully used to treat different types of industrial sewage, including black wastewater, sludge digester liquids, landfill leachate, monosodium glutamate wastewater, etc. Supplementing the qualitative analysis, this review also provides a quantitative bibliometrics study and evaluates global perspectives on PN/AMX research published during the past 22 years. Finally, general trends in the development of PN/AMX research are summarized with the aim of conveying potential future trajectories. The current review offers a valuable orientation and global overview for scientists, engineers, readers and decision makers presently focusing on PN/AMX processes.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/análise , Bactérias/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Esgotos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Bibliometria , Nitrogênio/análise , Oxirredução , Esgotos/microbiologia , Glutamato de Sódio/análise
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 419-441, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096373

RESUMO

While there has been a significant recent improvement in the removal of pollutants in natural and engineered systems, trace organic chemicals (TrOCs) are posing a major threat to aquatic environments and human health. There is a critical need for developing potential strategies that aim at enhancing metabolism and/or cometabolism of these compounds. Recently, knowledge regarding biodegradation of TrOCs by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) has been widely developed. This review aims to delineate an up-to-date version of the ecophysiology of AOB and outline current knowledge related to biodegradation efficiencies of the frequently reported TrOCs by AOB. The paper also provides an insight into biodegradation pathways by AOB and transformation products of these compounds and makes recommendations for future research of AOB. In brief, nitrifying WWTFs (wastewater treatment facilities) were superior in degrading most TrOCs than non-nitrifying WWTFs due to cometabolic biodegradation by the AOB. To fully understand and/or enhance the cometabolic biodegradation of TrOCs by AOB, recent molecular research has focused on numerous crucial factors including availability of the compounds to AOB, presence of growth substrate (NH4-N), redox potentials, microorganism diversity (AOB and heterotrophs), physicochemical properties and operational parameters of the WWTFs, molecular structure of target TrOCs and membrane-based technologies, may all significantly impact the cometabolic biodegradation of TrOCs. Still, further exploration is required to elucidate the mechanisms involved in biodegradation of TrOCs by AOB and the toxicity levels of formed products.


Assuntos
Amônia/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Oxirredução
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 639: 742-759, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803045

RESUMO

Domestic wastewater and agricultural runoff are increasingly viewed as major threats to both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems due to the introduction of non-point source inorganic (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus and metals) and organic (e.g., pesticides and pharmaceutical residues) pollutants. With rapid economic growth and social change in rural regions, it is important to examine the treatment systems in rural and remote areas for high efficiency, low running costs, and minimal maintenance in order to minimize its influence on water bodies and biodiversity. Recently, the use of vegetated drainage ditches (VDDs) has been employed in treatment of domestic sewage and agricultural runoff, but information on the performance of VDDs for treating these pollutants with various new management practices is still not sufficiently summarized. This paper aims to outline and review current knowledge related to the use of VDDs in mitigating these pollutants from domestic sewage and agricultural runoff. Literature analysis has suggested that further research should be carried out to improve ditch characteristics and management strategies inside ditches in order to ensure their effectiveness. Firstly, the reported major ditch characteristics with the most effect on pollutant removal processes (e.g., plant species, weirs, biofilms, and substrates selection) were summarized. The second focus concerns the function of ditch characteristics in VDDs for pollutant removal and identification of possible removal mechanisms involved. Thirdly, we examined factors to consider for establishing appropriate management strategies within ditches and how these could influence the whole ditch design process. The current review promotes areas where future research is needed and highlights clear and sufficient evidence regarding performance and application of this overlooked ditch system to reduce pollutants.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Meio Ambiente , Praguicidas , Fósforo , Esgotos
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 592: 527-534, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28325595

RESUMO

The operating scheme of the Three Gorges Reservoir results in a summer drought in the water-level fluctuation zone during which plants grow vigorously. In the winter inundation season, soaking plants may decompose and release nutrients resulting in water quality deterioration. This study quantifies the contributions of the underwater decomposition of nine dominant plant species in the water-level fluctuation zone to nutrient release. The in-situ litterbag technique was used to study for soaking decomposition over 200days. All soaking plant species decomposed rapidly at an average rate of 1.99±0.33%d-1 in the early stage of soaking (0 to 30days) and at an average rate of only 0.07±0.04%d-1 in the later stage (30 to 200days). After 200days of soaking, the nine plant species released an average of 312.40±39.97gkg-1 organic carbon, 6.71±4.29gkg-1 of nitrogen and 2.25±1.25gkg-1 of phosphorus. A positive relationship was found between soaking plant decomposition rates and initial C/N ratios of 25 to 50, and a negative relationship where the C/N ratios were between 50 and 100. The amounts of total nitrogen or total phosphorus released were significantly negatively correlated with the initial C/N or C/P ratios of the plants. Among the studied plant species, Xanthium sibiricum Patr ex Widder showed high level of nutrient release via soaking decomposition. In contrast, Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers. and Polygonum hydropiper exhibited low levels of nutrient release and are recommended as suitable species for the ecological restoration of the water-level fluctuation zone. Our results demonstrate that after 200days of soaking plant decomposition, the loadings of total organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the water-level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir were 2942.1, 81.1, and 24.7kgha-1, respectively and therefore could potentially damage the aquatic environment of the reservoir.


Assuntos
Inundações , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Plantas , China , Água
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 23(24): 24808-24823, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27658408

RESUMO

Ditches are subjected to a large input of nutrients, trace metals, and arsenic and the enhancement of sedimentation due to human activities. However, the influence of different types of land uses on the distribution and associated environmental risk of metals and arsenic in the Red purple Sichuan Basin remains largely unclear, which is needed for water management. This study was carried out to characterize metal/metalloid status in ditch sediments from different land uses. A total of 68 surface sediment samples (0-5 cm) were collected from open ditches distributed in different land use types, i.e., cultivated ditches (CD), barren land ditches (BLD), roadside ditches (RSD), and residential ditches (RD), within the Sichuan Basin. Mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Mn in both RD and RSD were above the soil background values of Sichuan Basin, but Cd in ditch sediments of the basin posed considerable ecological risk to the environment. Overall, metals/metalloid (except Pb) decreased in the following order of RD > RSD > BLD > CD. Of the different land use types in the hilly region, residential and roadside land uses were likely to adverse effects on aquatic life. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that Mn, As, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, and Al were mainly influenced by natural weathering (erosion), while Pb might come from heavy vehicular traffic. The degree of contamination (Md), enrichment factor (EF), and the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) showed that Cd causes strong sediment pollution in the basin. Sediment quality guidelines SQG-Q values displayed that metals and arsenic created medium-low potential of adverse biological effects. These results provide baseline information on the metals and arsenic pollution in the Sichuan Basin. Awareness of land use type contributions to metals and arsenic requires that these man-made ditches be considered for their mitigation of pollutants in this region.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/análise , Ecologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Análise Multivariada , Medição de Risco
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