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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 204: 593-605, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35157900

RESUMO

Conversion of lignocellulosic biowastes from agricultural industry into nanocrystalline cellulose provides pathway to reduce environmental pollution while enhancing the economic value of biowastes. Nanocellulose (NCC) with uniform morphology was isolated from pepper (Piper nigrum L.) stalk waste (PW) using acid hydrolysis method. The role of inorganic acids (sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid), organic acids (oxalic acid, citric acid, acetic acid) and variation of sonication times were investigated on the physicochemical characteristics, self-assembled structure, crystallinity, particle size, zeta potential and thermal stability of the isolated nanocellulose. Hydrolysis using inorganic acids transformed cellulose from PW into a spherical shaped NCC at ~33-67 nm of average diameter. Meanwhile hydrolysis in organic acids produced rod-shaped NCC at 210-321 nm in length. This study highlighted the role of acidity strength for organic acid and inorganic acid in controlling the level of hydrogen bond dissociation and the dissolution of amorphous fragments, which consequently directing the morphology and the physicochemical properties of NCCs.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Piper nigrum , Celulose/química , Hidrólise , Tamanho da Partícula
2.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(22)2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832181

RESUMO

Hematite (α-Fe2O3) with uniform hexagonal flake morphology has been successfully synthesized using a combination of gelatin as natural template with F127 via hydrothermal method. The resulting hematite was investigated as adsorbent and photocatalyst for removal of ibuprofen as pharmaceutical waste. Hexagonal flake-like hematite was obtained following calcination at 500 °C with the average size was measured at 1-3 µm. Increasing the calcination temperature to 700 °C transformed the uniform hexagonal structure into cubic shape morphology. Hematite also showed high thermal stability with increasing the calcination temperatures; however, the surface area was reduced from 47 m2/g to 9 m2/g. FTIR analysis further confirmed the formation Fe-O-Fe bonds, and the main constituent elements of Fe and O were observed in EDX analysis for all samples. α-Fe2O3 samples have an average adsorption capacity of 55-25.5 mg/g at 12-22% of removal efficiency when used as adsorbent for ibuprofen. The adsorption capacity was reduced as the calcination temperatures increased due to the reduction of available surface area of the hexagonal flakes after transforming into cubes. Photocatalytic degradation of ibuprofen using hematite flakes achieved 50% removal efficiency; meanwhile, combination of adsorption and photocatalytic degradation further removed 80% of ibuprofen in water/hexane mixtures.

3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(28): 37354-37370, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712959

RESUMO

Red mud as industrial waste from bauxite was utilized as a precursor for the synthesis of mesoporous ZSM-5. A high concentration of iron oxide in red mud was successfully removed using alkali fusion treatment. Mesoporous ZSM-5 was synthesized using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) as a template via dual-hydrothermal method, and the effect of crystallization time was investigated towards the formation of mesopores. Characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), N2 adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated the formation of cubic crystallite ZSM-5 with high surface area and mesopore volume within 6 h of crystallization. Increasing the crystallization time revealed the evolution of highly crystalline ZSM-5; however, the surface area and mesoporosity were significantly reduced. The effect of mesoporosity was investigated on the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of MB adsorption on mesoporous ZSM-5 was carried out at a variation of adsorption parameters such as the concentration of MB solution, the temperatures of solution, and the amount of adsorbent. Finally, methanol, 1-butanol, acetone, hydrochloric acid (HCl), and acetonitrile were used as desorbing agents to investigate the reusability and stability of mesoporous ZSM-5 as an adsorbent for MB removal.


Assuntos
Azul de Metileno , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Cinética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
4.
RSC Adv ; 11(36): 21885-21896, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35480811

RESUMO

The activity of mesoporous Al-MCM-41 for deoxygenation of Reutealis trisperma oil (RTO) was enhanced via modification with NiO nanoparticles. Deoxygenation at atmospheric pressure and under H2 free conditions required acid catalysts to ensure the removal of the oxygenated fragments in triglycerides to form liquid hydrocarbons. NiO at different weight loadings was impregnated onto Al-MCM-41 and the changes of Lewis/Brønsted acidity and mesoporosity of the catalysts were investigated. The activity of Al-MCM-41 was enhanced when impregnated with NiO due to the increase of Lewis acidity originating from NiO nanoparticles and the mesoporosity of Al-MCM-41. Increasing the NiO loading enhanced the Lewis acidity but not Brønsted acidity, leading to a higher conversion towards liquid hydrocarbon yield. Impregnation with 10% of NiO on Al-MCM-41 increased the conversion of RTO to hydrocarbons via the deoxygenation pathway and reduced the products from cracking reaction, consequently enhancing the green diesel (C11-C18) hydrocarbon products.

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