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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4375, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152345

RESUMO

To quantify and compare 9-year all-cause mortality risk attributable to modifiable risk factors among older English and Brazilian adults. We used data for participants aged 60 years and older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and the Bagé Cohort Study of Ageing (SIGa-Bagé). The five modifiable risk factors assessed at baseline were smoking, hypertension, diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity. Deaths were identified through linkage to mortality registers. For each risk factor, estimated all-cause mortality hazard ratios (HR) and population attributable fractions (PAF) were adjusted by age, sex, all other risk factors and socioeconomic position (wealth) using Cox proportional hazards modelling. We also quantified the risk factor adjusted wealth gradients in mortality, by age and sex. Among the participants, 659 (ELSA) and 638 (SIGa-Bagé) died during the 9-year follow-up. Mortality rates were higher in SIGa-Bagé. HRs and PAFs showed more similarities than differences, with physical inactivity (PAF 16.5% ELSA; 16.7% SIGa-Bagé) and current smoking (PAF 4.9% for both cohorts) having the strongest association. A clear graded relationship existed between the number of risk factors and subsequent mortality. Wealth gradients in mortality were apparent in both cohorts after full adjustment, especially among men aged 60-74 in ELSA. A different pattern was found among older women, especially in SIGa-Bagé. These findings call attention for the challenge to health systems to prevent and modify the major risk factors related to non-communicable diseases, especially physical inactivity and smoking. Furthermore, wealth inequalities in mortality persist among older adults.

2.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 28(2): e2018085, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the implementation of schistosomiasis mansoni control actions under the Program to Combat Neglected Diseases in three municipalities in Pernambuco state, Brazil. METHODS: implementation analysis was done in 2014, considering the following components - management, epidemiological surveillance, patient care, laboratorial support and health education -; direct observation and interviews were carried out with managers and technical personnel at the state, regional, and municipal levels. RESULTS: partial implementation was found in municipalities A and B 69.7%; 62.2%, while there was full implementation in municipality C 79.5%; contextual weaknesses were found in communication between management levels, insufficient technical-management autonomy of decentralized levels, and professional staff job instability; potentialities identified were - continuing education, political articulation, knowledge about the program, and performance evaluation. CONCLUSION: contextual categories related to development and implementation stood out for their positive influence on the degree of implementation in the municipalities; we recommend intervention in the weaknesses found, in order to ensure program sustainability and institutionalization.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(21): e15769, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124966

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health services utilization is an indirect measure of the rights and equity of a health system. A 2015 survey conducted in the Manaus metropolitan region showed that in the previous year, over 70% of adults visited the doctor and 1 in 3 had visited a dentist. Socioeconomic factors and inequality played a central role in the usage of healthcare services and health situation in this population. Since then, political and economic crisis are evolving in Brazil. This project aims to estimate the prevalence of use of health services and the health status of the adults residing in Manaus in 2019. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a population-based survey of adults (≥18 years old) residing in Manaus. This survey will be conducted in the first half of 2019 with 2300 participants who will be interviewed at home, selected from a probabilistic sampling in 3 stages (census tracts, household, and dweller), and stratified by sex and age quotas based on official estimates. The participants will be interviewed using previously validated tools and questions employed in Brazilian official surveys, which will cover use of health services and supplies, health status, and lifestyle. Primary outcome will be any healthcare usage in the last 15 days. Associations between health services usage and socioeconomic data and health outcomes will be assessed using a Poisson regression with a complex sampling design correction. Results will be reported according to the strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology statement. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This project was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. All participants will sign an informed consent before the interview. The results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed manuscripts, reports, conference presentations, and through the media.


Assuntos
Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(4): e00191718, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066780

RESUMO

This article sought to measure lack of access and use of oral health services by elderly residents of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional population study carried out in 2014, in the city's urban zone, including individuals aged 60 years or more. Sociodemographic and self-reported needs variables were associated with outcomes. We used Poisson regression for the crude and adjusted analyses. We interviewed 1,451 elderly individuals using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of lack of access in the previous year was of 1.8% (95%CI: 0.7-3.0). Elderly individuals who never had a consultation were 3.1% (95%CI: 2.2-4.0) and the prevalence of use of oral health services in the previous years was 38.3%(95%CI 36.0-41.0). Use in the previous year was positively associated with the following variables: younger age (PR = 1.16), having a partner (PR = 1.28), high educational level (PR = 1.31), mouth or teeth problems (PR = 1.93), need for dental prosthesis (PR = 1.36) and being edentulous (PR = 3.11). Lack of access in the previous year was low. Oral health service use was higher than that observed in other states. Findings seem to reflect the expansion of oral health services in the city, especially in the public network, and are useful for health policy planning.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição de Poisson , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 28(1): e2018304, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze variation in craving levels according to individual and behavioral characteristics of crack cocaine users at two public treatment services in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: this was a cross sectional study with a sample of 133 participants; the Cocaine Craving Questionnaire scale was used to verify craving levels. RESULTS: 86% of interviewees had moderate and severe craving levels; regarding individual factors, a higher level of severe craving was found in women (45%), those with brown skin color/"mestizos" (60%), low schooling (46%) and minor psychiatric disorders (59%); regarding behavioral factors, the level of severe craving was higher in users who divorced the last year (44%), those who had problems with the Law (61%), those who practiced violence acts (57%), those using more than four psychoactive substances (67%), and those with heavy crack consumption (57%). CONCLUSION: almost all crack users were found to have high craving levels; these were proportionally higher in some individual and behavioral variables.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/epidemiologia , Cocaína Crack/administração & dosagem , Fissura , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 28(2): e2018085, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012082

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo: avaliar a implantação das ações de controle da esquistossomose mansônica do Programa de Enfrentamento às Doenças Negligenciadas em três municípios de Pernambuco, Brasil. Métodos: análise de implantação, realizada em 2014, considerando-se os componentes de gestão, vigilância epidemiológica, assistência ao paciente e apoio laboratorial, e educação em saúde; utilizaram-se observação direta e entrevistas com gestores e técnicos dos níveis estadual, regional e municipal. Resultados: verificou-se implantação parcial nos municípios A e B 69,7%; 62,2%, enquanto o município C classificou-se como implantado 79,5%; houve fragilidades de contexto relativas à comunicação entre instâncias gestoras, insuficiente autonomia técnico-gerencial dos níveis descentralizados e instabilidade profissional; como potencialidades, identificaram-se educação permanente, articulação política, conhecimento sobre o programa e avaliação de desempenho. Conclusão: categorias contextuais relacionadas com o desenvolvimento e implantação destacaram-se pela influência positiva no nível de implantação dos três municípios; recomenda-se intervir nas fragilidades observadas, para garantia da sustentabilidade e institucionalização do programa.


Resumen Objetivo: evaluar la implantación de las acciones de control de la esquistosomiasis mansoni del Programa de Afrontamiento de Enfermedades Desatendidas en tres municipios de Pernambuco, Brasil. Métodos: análisis de implantación, realizado en 2014, considerando los componentes gestión, vigilancia epidemiológica, asistencia al paciente y apoyo de laboratorio, y educación en salud; se utilizó la observación directa y entrevistas con gestores/técnicos de niveles estadual, regional y municipal. Resultados: implantación parcial en los municipios A y B 69,7%; 62,2%, mientras que el C se clasificó como implantado 79,5%; el contexto demostró fragilidades de comunicación entre instancias gestoras, insuficiente autonomía técnico-gerencial de los niveles descentralizados e inestabilidad profesional; como potencialidades, se identificaron educación permanente, articulación política, conocimiento del programa y evaluación de desempeño. Conclusión: las categorías contextuales relacionadas al desarrollo e implantación se destacaron por la influencia positiva a nivel de implantación de los tres municipios; se recomienda intervenir sobre las fragilidades observadas, para garantizar la sostenibilidad e institucionalización del programa.


Abstract Objective: to evaluate the implementation of schistosomiasis mansoni control actions under the Program to Combat Neglected Diseases in three municipalities in Pernambuco state, Brazil. Methods: implementation analysis was done in 2014, considering the following components - management, epidemiological surveillance, patient care, laboratorial support and health education -; direct observation and interviews were carried out with managers and technical personnel at the state, regional, and municipal levels. Results: partial implementation was found in municipalities A and B 69.7%; 62.2%, while there was full implementation in municipality C 79.5%; contextual weaknesses were found in communication between management levels, insufficient technical-management autonomy of decentralized levels, and professional staff job instability; potentialities identified were - continuing education, political articulation, knowledge about the program, and performance evaluation. Conclusion: contextual categories related to development and implementation stood out for their positive influence on the degree of implementation in the municipalities; we recommend intervention in the weaknesses found, in order to ensure program sustainability and institutionalization.

7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(4): e00191718, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001647

RESUMO

Resumo: O objetivo foi medir a falta de acesso e a utilização dos serviços de saúde bucal por idosos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Estudo transversal de base populacional foi realizado no ano de 2014, na zona urbana do município, incluindo indivíduos com 60 anos e mais. Variáveis sociodemográficas e de necessidade autorreferidas foram associadas aos desfechos. Utilizou-se regressão de Poisson para as análises bruta e ajustada. Foram entrevistados 1.451 idosos mediante um questionário estruturado. Falta de acesso no último ano alcançou uma prevalência de 1,8% (IC95%: 0,7-3,0). Idosos que nunca consultaram somaram 3,1% (IC95%: 2,2-4,0) e a utilização de serviços de saúde bucal no último ano registrou prevalência de 38,3% (IC95%: 36,0-41,0). A utilização no último ano apresentou associação positiva com as seguintes variáveis: faixa etária mais jovem (RP = 1,16), ter companheiro (RP = 1,28), alta escolaridade (RP = 1,31), problema na boca ou nos dentes (RP = 1,93), necessidade de prótese dentária (RP = 1,36) e ser edêntulo (RP = 3,11). A falta de acesso no último ano foi baixa. A utilização de serviços de saúde bucal foi mais alta do que a observada em outros estudos. Os achados parecem refletir a expansão desses serviços, particularmente na rede pública, sendo úteis para as ações de planejamento das políticas de saúde.


Abstract: This article sought to measure lack of access and use of oral health services by elderly residents of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional population study carried out in 2014, in the city's urban zone, including individuals aged 60 years or more. Sociodemographic and self-reported needs variables were associated with outcomes. We used Poisson regression for the crude and adjusted analyses. We interviewed 1,451 elderly individuals using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of lack of access in the previous year was of 1.8% (95%CI: 0.7-3.0). Elderly individuals who never had a consultation were 3.1% (95%CI: 2.2-4.0) and the prevalence of use of oral health services in the previous years was 38.3%(95%CI 36.0-41.0). Use in the previous year was positively associated with the following variables: younger age (PR = 1.16), having a partner (PR = 1.28), high educational level (PR = 1.31), mouth or teeth problems (PR = 1.93), need for dental prosthesis (PR = 1.36) and being edentulous (PR = 3.11). Lack of access in the previous year was low. Oral health service use was higher than that observed in other states. Findings seem to reflect the expansion of oral health services in the city, especially in the public network, and are useful for health policy planning.


Resumen: El objetivo fue medir la falta de acceso y utilización de los servicios de salud bucal por parte de ancianos en Pelotas, Río Grande do Sul, Brasil. Se realizó un estudio transversal de base poblacional durante el año 2014, en la zona urbana del municipio, incluyendo a individuos con 60 años y más. Las variables sociodemográficas y de necesidad autorreferidas se asociaron a los resultados. Se utilizó la regresión de Poisson para los análisis bruto y ajustado. Se entrevistaron a 1.451 ancianos, mediante un cuestionario estructurado. La falta de acceso en el último año alcanzó una prevalencia de 1,8% (IC95%: 0,7-3,0). Los ancianos que nunca consultaron sumaron un 3,1% (IC95%: 2,2-4,0) y la utilización de servicios de salud bucal en el último año tuvo una prevalencia de un 38,3% (IC95%: 36,0-41,0). La utilización durante el último año presentó una asociación positiva con las siguientes variables: franja de edad más joven (RP = 1,16), tener compañero (RP = 1,28), alta escolaridad (RP = 1,31), problema en la boca o en los dientes (RP = 1,93), necesidad de prótesis dental (RP = 1,36) y ser edéntulo (RP = 3,11). La falta de acceso en el último año fue baja. La utilización de servicios de salud bucal fue más alta que la observada en otros estudios. Los resultados parecen reflejar la expansión de los servicios de salud bucal en el municipio, particularmente en la red pública, siendo útiles para las acciones de planificación dentro de las políticas de salud.

8.
Rev. enferm. UFSM ; 8(4): 1-14, out.-dez. 2018.
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: bde-34391

RESUMO

Objetivo: avaliar as relações sociais informais dos idosos com diagnóstico dehipertensão e/ou diabetes, moradores de Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Método: estudotransversal de base populacional. Foram entrevistadas 1.593 pessoas com 60 anos ou mais,das quais 947 tinham diagnóstico de hipertensão e/ou diabetes. A prevalência “relaçõessociais informais” foi distribuída em fraca, moderada e forte. A diferença estatística entre osgrupos foi avaliada com teste qui-quadrado e intervalos de confiança de 95%. Resultados: aprevalência de relações informais fracas foi de 51,0% sendo estatisticamente significativaentre os idosos com idade superior a 74 anos, menor escolaridade e classificaçãosocioeconômica C e D, residindo em domicílios multigeracionais, com maior número depessoas e em áreas cobertas pela Estratégia Saúde da Família. Conclusão: os resultadosreforçam a necessidade de desenvolver mecanismos de proteção social a idosos commorbidades crônicas, de modo a minimizar o risco de viver isolado.(AU)


Aim: to evaluate the informal social relations among the elderly with diagnosisof hypertension and/or diabetes, residing in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul. Method: crosssectional population-based study. A total of 1,593 people aged 60 and over were interviewed,of whom 947 had a diagnosis of hypertension and/or diabetes. Results: The prevalence of"informal social relations" was distributed in weak, moderate and strong. The statisticaldifference among the groups was evaluated with chi-square test and confidence intervals of95%. Results: the percentage of weak informal relationships was 51.0%, with higherproportions among the elderly aged over 74 years, lower educational level, C and Dsocioeconomic classification, residents in multigenerational households, with more peopleand in areas covered by the “Estratégia Saúde da Família” health strategy. Conclusion: theresults reinforce the need to develop social protection mechanisms for the elderly withchronic morbidity, in order to minimize the risk of living alone.(AU)


Objetivo: evaluar las relaciones sociales informales de los ancianos condiagnóstico de hipertensión y/o diabetes, residentes en Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul. Método:estudio transversal de base poblacional. Fueron entrevistadas 1.593 personas con 60 años omás, de ese total, 947 eran hipertensos y/o diabéticos. La prevalencia "relaciones socialesinformales" fue distribuida en débil, moderada y fuerte. La diferencia estadística entre losgrupos fue evaluada por medio de prueba qui-cuadrada y intervalos de confianza de 95%.Resultados: El porcentaje de relaciones informales débiles fue de 51,0%, la cual fue mássignificativa estadísticamente entre los ancianos mayores de 74 años, con menor escolaridady clasificación socioeconómica C y D, que viven en domicilios multigeracionales, con otraspersonas, y en áreas asistidas por la Estrategia Salud de la Familia. Conclusión: existe lanecesidad de desarrollar mecanismos de protección social a los ancianos con morbilidadescrónicas, para minimizar el riesgo de vivir aislado.(AU)


Assuntos
Apoio Social , Idoso , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Hipertensão , Diabetes Mellitus
9.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(11): e00040718, 2018 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484558

RESUMO

Lower socioeconomic level is positively related to multimorbidity and it is possible that the clustering of health conditions carries the same association. The aim of this study was to identify prevalence of multimorbidity and clusters of health conditions among elderly, as well the underlying socioeconomic inequalities. This was a cross-sectional population-based study carried out with 60-year-old individuals. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of 2+, 3+, 4+ or 5+ health conditions in the same individual. Schooling levels and the National Economic Index were used to investigate inequalities in the prevalence of multimorbidities among elderly. Slope and concentration indexes of inequality were used to evaluate absolute and relative differences. A factorial analysis was performed to identify disease clusters. In every ten older adults, about nine, eight, seven and six presented, respectvely, 2+, 3+, 4+ and 5+ health conditions. Three clusters of health conditions were found, involving musculoskeletal/mental/functional disorders, cardiometabolic, and respiratory factors. Higher inequalities were found the higher amount of health conditions (5+), when considering economic level, and for 3+, 4+ and 5+, when considering educational level. These findings show high multimorbidity prevalence among elderly, highlighting the persistence of health inequalities in Southern Brazil. Strategies by the health services need to focus on elderly at lower socioeconomic levels.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Multimorbidade , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Rev Saude Publica ; 52Suppl 2(Suppl 2): 10s, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379288

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the occurrence and factors associated with multimorbidity among Brazilians aged 50 years and over. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in a nation-based cohort of the non-institutionalized population in Brazil. Data were collected between 2015 and 2016. Multimorbidity was assessed from a list of 19 morbidities, which were categorized into ≥ 2 and ≥ 3 diseases. The analysis included the calculation of frequencies and the most frequent 10 pairs and triplets of combinations of diseases. The crude and adjusted analyses evaluated the demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and contextual variables (area of residence, geopolitical region, and coverage of the Family Health Strategy) using Poisson regression. RESULTS: From the total of 9,412 individuals, 67.8% (95%CI 65.6-69.9) and 47.1% (95%CI 44.8-49.4) showed ≥ 2 and ≥ 3 diseases, respectively. In the adjusted analysis, women, older persons, and those who did not consume alcohol had increased multimorbidity. There were no associations with race, area of residence, geopolitical region, and coverage of the Family Health Strategy. The 10 pairs (frequencies observed between 11.6% and 23.2%) and the 10 triplets (frequencies observed between 4.9% and 9.5%) of the most frequent diseases mostly included back problems (15 times) and systemic arterial hypertension (11 times). All combinations were statistically higher than expected by chance. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of multimorbidity was high even among younger individuals (50 to 59 years). Approximately two in three (≥ 2 diseases) and one in two (≥ 3 diseases) individuals aged 50 years and over presented multimorbidity, which represents 26 and 18 million persons in Brazil, respectively. We observed high frequencies of combinations of morbidities.


Assuntos
Multimorbidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
J Comorb ; 8(1): 2235042X18806986, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364915

RESUMO

Background: Multimorbidity is the co-occurrence of two or more diseases in the same individual. One method to identify this condition at an early stage is the use of specific markers for various combinations of morbidities. Nonetheless, evidence related to physiological markers in multimorbidity is limited. Objective: The aim was to perform a systematic review to identify physiological markers associated with multimorbidity. Design: Articles available on PubMed, Register of Controlled Trials, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, Scopus, SocINDEX, Web of Science, LILACS, and SciELO, from their inception to May 2018, were systematically searched and reviewed. The project was registered in PROSPERO under the number CRD42017055522. Results: The systematic search identified 922 papers. After evaluation, 18 articles were included in the full review reporting at least one physiological marker in coexisting diseases or which are strongly associated with the presence of multimorbidity in the future. Only five of these studies examined multimorbidity in general, identifying five physiological markers associated with multimorbidity, namely, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), lipoprotein (Lp), and cystatin C (Cyst-C). Conclusions: There is a paucity of studies related to physiological markers in multimorbidity. DHEAS, IL-6, CRP, Lp, and Cyst-C could be the initial focus for further investigation of physiological markers related to multimorbidity.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1200, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brazil is an endemic country for schistosomiasis in the Latin American and Caribbean countries. Pernambuco is a higher-endemic Brazilian state among the 19 states reporting the disease in the country; schistosomiasis affects 102 (55%) of its 185 municipalities. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment cycles of the SANAR Program (Plan to Reduce and Eliminate Neglected Diseases) in Pernambuco State in Northeast Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in 2014 via a household survey in 117 hyperendemic locations in the state of Pernambuco. We compared the schistosomiasis prevalence rates in hyperendemic locations, aggregated by geographical region, before and after the intervention. The dependent variable was a positive stool test result by the Kato-Katz method, and the main exposure variable was the number of treatment cycles (one/two). The covariables were the regions of the state and socioenvironmental, socioeconomic, demographic and behavioral characteristics. RESULTS: In all, 12,969 individuals were interviewed, 8932 of whom had stool tests. Of these, 4969 (55.6%) underwent two cycles of collective treatment. Changes in the environmental conditions since 2011 were minimal. Comparison before (2011) and after (2014) treatment showed an average schistosomiasis prevalence of 18.6%, decreasing to 4.1% and 2.0% in locations with one and two treatment cycles, respectively. In 2014, the highest schistosomiasis prevalence was found in the forest area (2.8%), while the lowest was found in the northern region (1.2%) of the state. The adjusted analysis showed a lower occurrence of schistosomiasis in individuals living in areas with two treatment cycles than in individuals from areas with just one cycle (PR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.47-0.89). CONCLUSIONS: The political decision made in Pernambuco to implement the SANAR Program in 2011 greatly impacted the burden of schistosomiasis. This program was effective in reducing the occurrence of schistosomiasis in hyperendemic areas in Pernambuco, with a stronger response in areas with two cycles of collective treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 27(3): e2017170, 2018 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30183868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the Family Health Strategy (FHS) coverage time trend in Brazil, its Regions and Federative Units (FUs) in 2006-2016. METHODS: this was an ecological study with time series analysis of Ministry of Health Primary Care Department data; Prais-Winsten regression was used. RESULTS: FHS coverage in Brazil in 2006 and 2016 was 45.3% and 64.0%, respectively, with an increasing trend of coverage (annual variation = 8.4%: 95%CI 7.4;9.3); all five regions showed an increasing trend in coverage, as did the majority of FUs, with the exception of Roraima, Amapá, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte and Paraíba, which showed stability; in 2016, 14 FUs had coverage of between 75 and 100%, and 11 had coverage of between 50 and 74,9%; coverage in São Paulo and Federal District was below 50%. CONCLUSION: although, overall, FHS coverage increased, 13 FUs presented coverages below 75% in 2016; therefore, more efforts are needed to universalize coverage.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Saúde da Família/tendências , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Brasil , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Rev. bras. geriatr. gerontol. (Online) ; 21(4): 397-407, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-958932

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: to verify the prevalence of urinary incontinence and its relationship with physical and mental health indicators in the elderly population of Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Method: a cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in 2008 with 1,593 elderly persons. Poisson regression was used for crude and adjusted analysis between the outcomes and the independent variables. Results: the prevalence of urinary incontinence was 20.7%, being 26.9% among women and 10.3% among men. The associated factors were female gender, age 70 to 74 and 75 years or over, yellow/brown/indigenous ethnicity/skin color and no schooling. The prevalence of functional disability, depression, cognitive deficit and very poor/poor self-perception of health was significantly higher in women with urinary incontinence. Among incontinent men, the same was observed with regard to functional disability and cognitive deficit. Conclusion: the occurrence of urinary incontinence in the elderly is frequent, especially in women, with a significant relationship with physical and mental health conditions in the elderly population. These results support the development of care strategies to prevent incontinence and minimize its health impacts. AU


Resumo Objetivo: verificar a prevalência da incontinência urinária e sua relação com indicadores de saúde física e mental na população idosa de Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Método: estudo transversal de base populacional, realizado em 2008 com 1.593 idosos. Utilizou-se a regressão de Poisson para a análise bruta e ajustada entre os desfechos e as variáveis independentes. Resultados: a prevalência de incontinência urinária foi de 20,7%, sendo 26,9% entre as mulheres e 10,3% entre os homens. Os fatores associados foram sexo feminino, idade de 70 a 74 e 75 anos ou mais, cor da pele amarela/parda/indígena e nenhuma escolaridade. A prevalência de incapacidade funcional, depressão, deficit cognitivo e autopercepção de saúde péssima/ruim foi significativamente maior em mulheres com incontinência urinária. Entre os homens incontinentes, o mesmo foi constatado para a incapacidade funcional e o deficit cognitivo. Conclusão: a ocorrência de incontinência urinária em idosos é frequente, principalmente nas mulheres, relacionando-se significativamente com condições de saúde física e mental na população idosa. Estes resultados oferecem subsídios para a elaboração de estratégias de cuidado para prevenir a incontinência e minimizar seus impactos na saúde. AU


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Incontinência Urinária , Saúde do Idoso , Pessoas com Deficiência
15.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49164

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To measure the prevalence of various care services offered to the elderly with diabetes mellitus in Brazil, and to assess the social inequalities in these services. Methods. This cross-sectional, population-based study was carried out in 2013. The care services offered were evaluated in terms of the following eight indicators: recommendations to lower carbohydrates, to measure blood glucose, and to examine the feet; requests made for blood tests, for glycated hemoglobin tests, and for glycemic curve tests; and whether service users had had their eyes or feet examined in the previous year. We used the slope index of inequality and the concentration index to assess the inequalities among wealth quintiles. Results. A total of 1 685 elderly persons with diabetes were evaluated. Overall, 41.7% of them had had their eyes examined in the preceding year, 35.4% had had their feet examined in the preceding year, and 10.9% had been offered all eight of the care services. The largest absolute differences (in percentage points) between the first (poorest) and fifth (richest) wealth quintiles in terms of the care services that were offered to the users were for: a recommendation to measure blood glucose (25.8), a glycated hemoglobin test request (27.4), a glycemic curve test request (31.9), having the eyes examined in the preceding year (29.3), and having the feet examined in the preceding year (27.0). Conclusion. There were notable inequalities in the prevalences of the care services. In the future, measurement of blood glucose and examination of the feet should be emphasized, especially for elderly persons in a lower socioeconomic level.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Medir la prevalencia de los diversos servicios de atención que se ofrecen a las personas mayores con diabetes mellitus en Brasil y evaluar las desigualdades sociales en dichos servicios. Métodos. Este estudio transversal y basado en la población se llevó a cabo en el 2013. Los servicios de atención que se ofrecen se evaluaron en cuanto a los siguientes ocho indicadores: recomendaciones para reducir los carbohidratos, medir la glucemia y revisarse los pies; solicitudes de análisis de sangre, pruebas de glucohemoglobina y pruebas de la curva de glucemia; y si a los usuarios de los servicios les habían examinado los ojos o los pies en el último año. Usamos el índice de pendiente de la desigualdad y el índice de concentración para evaluar las desigualdades entre los quintiles de riqueza. Resultados. Se evaluó en total a 1.685 personas mayores con diabetes. En términos generales, en el último año les habían examinado los ojos a 41,7% de ellos, en el último año les habían examinado los pies a 35,4% y les habían ofrecido los ocho servicios de atención a 10,9%. Las mayores diferencias absolutas en puntos porcentuales entre el primer quintil de riqueza (los más pobres) y el quinto (los más ricos) en cuanto a los servicios de atención ofrecidos a los usuarios se encontraron en la recomendación de medir la glucemia (25,8), la solicitud de pruebas de glucohemoglobina (27,4), la solicitud de pruebas de curvas de glucemia (31,9), el examen de los ojos en el último año (29,3) y el examen de los pies en el último año (27,0). Conclusiones. Hubo notables desigualdades en la prevalencia de los servicios de atención. En el futuro, debe hacerse énfasis en la medición de la glucemia y el examen de los pies, especialmente en las personas mayores de un nivel socioeconómico bajo.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Medir a prevalência de vários serviços de atenção oferecidos a idosos portadores de diabetes mellitus no Brasil e avaliar desigualdades sociais nestes serviços. Métodos. Estudo transversal, de caráter populacional, realizado em 2013. Os serviços de atenção oferecidos foram avaliados quanto aos oito indicadores a seguir: recomendação de diminuir o consumo de carboidratos, medir a glicemia e examinar os pés; pedido de exames de sangue, hemoglobina glicada e curva glicêmica; e realização de exame dos olhos ou pés nos usuários do serviço durante o ano anterior. Foram utilizados o índice absoluto de desigualdade e o índice de concentração para avaliar as desigualdades entre quintis de renda. Resultados. Foram avaliados 1.685 idosos com diabetes. Destes, 41,7% haviam sido submetidos a exame dos olhos no ano anterior, 35,4% a exame dos pés, e a 10,9% haviam sido oferecidos todos os oito serviços de atenção. As maiores diferenças absolutas (em pontos percentuais) entre o primeiro (mais pobre) e quinto (mais rico) quintis de renda foram constatadas para os seguintes serviços de atenção: recomendação de medir a glicemia (25,8), pedido de exame de hemoglobina glicada (27,4), pedido de exame de curva glicêmica (31,9), exame de olhos no ano anterior (29,3) e exame dos pés no ano anterior (27,0). Conclusão. Foram constatadas desigualdades notáveis na prevalência dos serviços de atenção. Futuramente, deve-se dar ênfase à medição da glicemia e do exame dos pés, principalmente em idosos de nível socioeconômico mais baixo.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Brasil , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Brasil , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde
16.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 27(2): e2017389, 2018 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995106

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: to investigate the provision of health education and promotion actions in primary care, and their association with demographic characteristics and Family Health Strategy (FHS) coverage in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. METHODS: this is a cross-sectional study conducted with 816 teams that adhered to the 2012 Primary Care Access and Quality Improvement Program. RESULTS: the most frequent actions were directed towards people with diabetes (91.2%), hypertension (90.8%) as well as antenatal and postnatal care (84.6%). The least frequent were directed to wards crack, alcohol and other drug users (32.4%), anxiolytic/benzodiazepine users (20.3%), people with tuberculosis (31.4%) and leprosy (21.0%). The greatest provision of health promotion and education actions occurred in smaller municipalities and with greater Family Health coverage. CONCLUSION: actions aimed at the reproductive period and chronic morbidities were the focus of primary care. FHS implementation strengthens health promotion.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Saúde da Família , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas
17.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 27(1): e201720112, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the association between counseling by health care professionals and healthy behaviors among the elderly. METHODS: population-based, cross-sectional study with elderly individuals (≥60 years) interviewed in 2014; Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) of associations between counseling by health professionals on the reduction of salt, sugar and fat and on the practice of physical activity during the year previous to the interview and healthy behaviors. RESULTS: 1,281 elderly individuals were interviewed; after adjustments, the elderly who mentioned receiving counseling by health professionals reported reduction in the intake of salt (PR 1.64; 95%CI 1.41;1.91), sugar and sweets (PR 1.21; 95%CI 1.08;1.36) and greater practice of physical activity (PR 1.21; 95%CI 1.06;1.39), when compared to the elderly who had not received any counseling. CONCLUSION: the counseling carried out by health professionals seems to favor the practice of healthy habits among elderly individuals.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Exercício , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson , Prevalência
18.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 42: e88, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093116

RESUMO

Objective: To measure the prevalence of various care services offered to the elderly with diabetes mellitus in Brazil, and to assess the social inequalities in these services. Methods: This cross-sectional, population-based study was carried out in 2013. The care services offered were evaluated in terms of the following eight indicators: recommendations to lower carbohydrates, to measure blood glucose, and to examine the feet; requests made for blood tests, for glycated hemoglobin tests, and for glycemic curve tests; and whether service users had had their eyes or feet examined in the previous year. We used the slope index of inequality and the concentration index to assess the inequalities among wealth quintiles. Results: A total of 1 685 elderly persons with diabetes were evaluated. Overall, 41.7% of them had had their eyes examined in the preceding year, 35.4% had had their feet examined in the preceding year, and 10.9% had been offered all eight of the care services. The largest absolute differences (in percentage points) between the first (poorest) and fifth (richest) wealth quintiles in terms of the care services that were offered to the users were for: a recommendation to measure blood glucose (25.8), a glycated hemoglobin test request (27.4), a glycemic curve test request (31.9), having the eyes examined in the preceding year (29.3), and having the feet examined in the preceding year (27.0). Conclusion: There were notable inequalities in the prevalences of the care services. In the future, measurement of blood glucose and examination of the feet should be emphasized, especially for elderly persons in a lower socioeconomic level.

19.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(11): e00040718, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-974596

RESUMO

Lower socioeconomic level is positively related to multimorbidity and it is possible that the clustering of health conditions carries the same association. The aim of this study was to identify prevalence of multimorbidity and clusters of health conditions among elderly, as well the underlying socioeconomic inequalities. This was a cross-sectional population-based study carried out with 60-year-old individuals. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of 2+, 3+, 4+ or 5+ health conditions in the same individual. Schooling levels and the National Economic Index were used to investigate inequalities in the prevalence of multimorbidities among elderly. Slope and concentration indexes of inequality were used to evaluate absolute and relative differences. A factorial analysis was performed to identify disease clusters. In every ten older adults, about nine, eight, seven and six presented, respectvely, 2+, 3+, 4+ and 5+ health conditions. Three clusters of health conditions were found, involving musculoskeletal/mental/functional disorders, cardiometabolic, and respiratory factors. Higher inequalities were found the higher amount of health conditions (5+), when considering economic level, and for 3+, 4+ and 5+, when considering educational level. These findings show high multimorbidity prevalence among elderly, highlighting the persistence of health inequalities in Southern Brazil. Strategies by the health services need to focus on elderly at lower socioeconomic levels.


O nível socioeconômico baixo está relacionado diretamente à multimorbidade, e é possível que a aglomeração de morbidades apresente a mesma associação. O estudo teve como objetivo identificar a prevalência da multimorbidade e de clusters de morbidades entre idosos, além das desigualdades socioeconômicas subjacentes. Este foi um estudo transversal de base populacional em indivíduos com 60 anos ou mais. Multimorbidade foi definida como a presença de 2+, 3+, 4+ ou 5+ condições de saúde no mesmo indíviduo. O nível de escolaridade e o Índice Econômico Nacional foram usados para medir desigualdades na prevalência de multimorbidade entre idosos. Foram utilizados os índices de desigualdades slope e concentration para avaliar as diferenças absolutas e relativas. A análise fatorial foi realizada para identificar clusters de doenças. Em cada dez idosos, nove, oito, sete e seis apresentavam 2+, 3+, 4+ e 5+ condições de saúde, respectivamente. Foram identificados três clusters de morbidades, correspondendo aos transtornos musculoesqueléticos/mentais/funcionais e doenças cardiometabólicas e respiratórias. Maiores desigualdades foram encontradas para o maior número de condições de saúde (5+), considerando nível economômico, e para 3+, 4+ e 5+, considerando nível de escolaridade. Os achados revelam a alta prevalência de multimorbidade entre idosos, destacando a persistência de desigualdades de saúde no Sul do Brasil. As estratégias dos serviços de saúde devem priorizar os idosos de nível socioeconômico mais baixo.


Un nivel socioeconómico más bajo está positivamente relacionado con la multimorbilidad y es posible que la acumulación de estos problemas de salud provenga de esta misma asociación. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la prevalencia de multimorbilidad y los grupos de afecciones de salud entre ancianos, así como sus inequidades socioeconómicas subyacentes. Se trata de un estudio transversal, basado en población, que se llevó a cabo con personas de 60 años. Multimorbilidad se definió como la presencia de 2+, 3+, 4+ ó 5+ condiciones de salud en el mismo individuo. Los niveles de escolaridad y el Índice Económico Nacional fueron utilizados para investigar inequidades en la prevalencia de multimorbilidad entre ancianos. Los índices de inequidad slope y concentration se usaron para evaluar las diferencias absolutas y relativas. Se realizó un análisis factorial para identificar los grupos de enfermedades. En cada diez ancianos, nueve, ocho, siete y seis tenían 2+, 3+, 4+ y 5+ condiciones de salud, respectivamente. Se encontraron tres grupos de afecciones de salud, que conllevaban enfermedades musculoesquelético/mental/funcionales, cardiometabólicas, además de factores respiratorios. Se encontraron mayores desigualdades para el mayor número de condiciones de salud (5+), cuando se consideraba el nivel económico, y para 3+, 4+ y 5+, cuando se tenía en consideración el nivel educativo. Estos hallazgos mostraron una alta prevalencia de multimorbilidad entre adultos de avanzada edad, resaltando la persistencia de inequidades de salud en el sur de Brasil. Las estrategias por parte de los servicios de salud necesitan centrarse en ancianos con niveles socioeconómicos más bajos.

20.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 52(supl.2): 10s, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-979047

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the occurrence and factors associated with multimorbidity among Brazilians aged 50 years and over. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study in a nation-based cohort of the non-institutionalized population in Brazil. Data were collected between 2015 and 2016. Multimorbidity was assessed from a list of 19 morbidities, which were categorized into ≥ 2 and ≥ 3 diseases. The analysis included the calculation of frequencies and the most frequent 10 pairs and triplets of combinations of diseases. The crude and adjusted analyses evaluated the demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and contextual variables (area of residence, geopolitical region, and coverage of the Family Health Strategy) using Poisson regression. RESULTS From the total of 9,412 individuals, 67.8% (95%CI 65.6-69.9) and 47.1% (95%CI 44.8-49.4) showed ≥ 2 and ≥ 3 diseases, respectively. In the adjusted analysis, women, older persons, and those who did not consume alcohol had increased multimorbidity. There were no associations with race, area of residence, geopolitical region, and coverage of the Family Health Strategy. The 10 pairs (frequencies observed between 11.6% and 23.2%) and the 10 triplets (frequencies observed between 4.9% and 9.5%) of the most frequent diseases mostly included back problems (15 times) and systemic arterial hypertension (11 times). All combinations were statistically higher than expected by chance. CONCLUSIONS The occurrence of multimorbidity was high even among younger individuals (50 to 59 years). Approximately two in three (≥ 2 diseases) and one in two (≥ 3 diseases) individuals aged 50 years and over presented multimorbidity, which represents 26 and 18 million persons in Brazil, respectively. We observed high frequencies of combinations of morbidities.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a ocorrência e os fatores associados à multimorbidade entre brasileiros com 50 anos ou mais de idade. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal em uma coorte de base nacional da população brasileira não institucionalizada. Os dados foram coletados entre 2015 e 2016. A multimorbidade foi avaliada a partir de uma lista de 19 morbidades, sendo categorizada em ≥ 2 e ≥ 3 doenças. A análise incluiu cálculo de frequências e 10 pares e trios mais frequentes de combinações de doenças, além das análises bruta e ajustada dos fatores associados por meio de regressão de Poisson, incluindo variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, comportamentais e contextuais (zona de residência, região geopolítica e cobertura da Estratégia Saúde da Família). RESULTADOS Do total de 9.412 indivíduos, 67,8% (IC95% 65,6-69,9) e 47,1% (IC95% 44,8-49,4) tinham ≥ 2 e ≥ 3 doenças, respectivamente. Na análise ajustada, mulheres, pessoas mais velhas e aqueles que não consumiam bebidas alcoólicas tiveram mais multimorbidade. Não foram observadas associações com cor da pele, zona de residência, região geopolítica e cobertura da Estratégia Saúde da Família. Os 10 pares (frequências observadas entre 11,6% e 23,2%) e os 10 trios (frequências observadas entre 4,9% e 9,5%) de doenças mais frequentes incluíram, em sua maioria, problema de coluna (15 vezes) e hipertensão arterial sistêmica (11 vezes). Todas as combinações apresentaram frequência estatisticamente maior do que seria esperado ao acaso. CONCLUSÕES A ocorrência de multimorbidade foi elevada mesmo entre os indivíduos mais jovens (50 a 59 anos). Cerca de dois em cada três (≥ 2 doenças) e um em cada dois (≥ 3 doenças) indivíduos com 50 anos ou mais apresentaram multimorbidade, representando 26 e 18 milhões de pessoas no Brasil, respectivamente. Frequências elevadas de combinações de morbidades foram observadas.

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