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1.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595613

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection all over the world. Its prevalence ranges from 0.2 to 2.2%. Transmission from children to their pregnant mothers is a well-known risk factor, particularly if they attend a childcare centre. This study aims to compare the prevalence of CMV congenital infection (CMV_CI) in Portugal (Lisbon) between two studies, performed respectively in 2019 and 2020. In the 2019 study, performed in two hospitals, we found a 0.67% CMV_CI prevalence, using a pool strategy previously tested with saliva samples. In the 2020 study, using the same pool approach in four hospitals (the previous and two additional), and based on 1277 samples, the prevalence was 0.078%.Conclusion: The close temporal coincidence with COVID-19 lockdown suggests that these measures may have had a significant impact on this reduction, although other explanations cannot be ruled-out. What is Known: • Cytomegalovirus is the leading cause of congenital infection. • Behavioural measures decrease cytomegalovirus seroconversion in pregnant women. What is New: • From 2019 to 2020 there was a significant reduction in the prevalence of congenital CMV infection.

2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1022, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, the current management of knee osteoarthritis appears heterogeneous, high-cost and often not based on current best evidence. The absence of epidemiological data regarding the utilisation of healthcare services may conceal the need for improvements in the management of osteoarthritis. The aim of this study is to explore the profiles of healthcare services utilisation by people with knee osteoarthritis, and to analyse their determinants, according to Andersen's behavioural model. METHODS: We analysed a sample of 978 participants diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis from the population-based study EpiReumaPt, in Portugal. Data was collected with a structured interview, and the diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis was validated by a rheumatologist team. With the Two-step Cluster procedure, we primarily identified different profiles of healthcare utilisation according to the services most used by patients with knee osteoarthritis. Secondly, we analysed the determinants of each profile, using multinomial logistic regression, according to the predisposing characteristics, enabling factors and need variables. RESULTS: In our sample, a high proportion of participants are overweight or obese (82,6%, n = 748) and physically inactive (20,6%, n = 201) and a small proportion had physiotherapy management (14,4%, n = 141). We identified three profiles of healthcare utilisation: "HighUsers"; "GPUsers"; "LowUsers". "HighUsers" represents more than 35% of the sample, and are also the participants with higher utilisation of medical appointments. "GPUsers" represent the participants with higher utilisation of general practitioner appointments. Within these profiles, age and geographic location - indicated as predisposing characteristics; employment status and healthcare insurance - as enabling factors; number of comorbidities, physical function, health-related quality of life, anxiety and physical exercise - as need variables, showed associations (p < 0,05) with the higher utilisation of healthcare services profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare utilisation by people with knee osteoarthritis is not driven only by clinical needs. The predisposing characteristics and enabling factors associated with healthcare utilisation reveal inequities in the access to healthcare and variability in the management of people with knee osteoarthritis. Research and implementation of whole-system strategies to improve equity in the access and quality of care are paramount in order to diminish the impact of osteoarthritis at individual-, societal- and economic-level.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho , Qualidade de Vida , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Portugal/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 934, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delay in Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis affects foreign-born and nationals in different ways, especially in low-incidence countries. This study characterises total delay and its components amongst foreign-born individuals in Portugal. Additionally, we identify risk factors for each type of delay and compare their effects between foreign-born and nationals. METHODS: We analysed data from the Portuguese TB surveillance system and included individuals with pulmonary TB (PTB), notified between 2008 and 2017. We described patient, healthcare, and total delays. Cox regression was used to identify factors associated with each type of delay. All analyses were stratified according to the origin country: nationals (those born in Portugal) and foreign-born. RESULTS: Compared with nationals, foreign-born persons presented statistically significant and longer median total and patient delays (Total: 67 vs. 63; Patient: 44 vs. 36 days), and lower healthcare services delays (7 vs. 9 days). Risk factors for delayed diagnosis differed between foreign-born and nationals. Being unemployed, having drug addiction, and having comorbidities were identified as risk factors for delayed diagnosis in national individuals but not in foreigners. Alcohol addiction was the only factor identified for healthcare delay for both populations: foreign-born (Hazard Ratio 1.34 [95% confidence interval 1.17;1.53]); nationals (Hazard Ratio 1.20 [95% confidence interval 1.13;1.27]). CONCLUSIONS: Foreign-born individuals with PTB take longer to seek health care. While no specific risk factors were identified, more in-depth studies are required to identify barriers and support public health intervention to address PTB diagnosis delay in foreign-born individuals.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
4.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361696

RESUMO

The nutritional composition and productivity of halophytes is strongly related to the biotic/abiotic stress to which these extremophile salt tolerant plants are subjected during their cultivation cycle. In this study, two commercial halophyte species (Inula crithmoides and Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum) were cultivated at six levels of salinity using a soilless cultivation system. In this way, it was possible to understand the response mechanisms of these halophytes to salt stress. The relative productivity decreased from the salinities of 110 and 200 mmol L-1 upwards for I. crithmoides and M. nodiflorum, respectively. Nonetheless, the nutritional profile for human consumption remained balanced. In general, I. crithmoides vitamin (B1 and B6) contents were significantly higher than those of M. nodiflorum. For both species, ß-carotene and lutein were induced by salinity, possibly as a response to oxidative stress. Phenolic compounds were more abundant in plants cultivated at lower salinities, while the antioxidant activity increased as a response to salt stress. Sensory characteristics were evaluated by a panel of culinary chefs showing a preference for plants grown at the salt concentration of 350 mmol L-1. In summary, salinity stress was effective in boosting important nutritional components in these species, and the soilless system promotes the sustainable and safe production of halophyte plants for human consumption.


Assuntos
Inula/química , Inula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mesembryanthemum/química , Mesembryanthemum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Valor Nutritivo , Salinidade , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/química , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dieta Vegetariana , Humanos , Luteína/análise , Minerais/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Piridoxina/análise , Estresse Salino , Taninos/análise , Tiamina/análise , beta Caroteno/análise
5.
Euro Surveill ; 26(33)2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414882

RESUMO

BackgroundDeterminants of hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death are still unclear for COVID-19. Few studies have adjusted for confounding for different clinical outcomes including all reported cases within a country.AimWe used routine surveillance data from Portugal to identify risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes, and to support risk stratification, public health interventions, and planning of healthcare resources.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective cohort study including 20,293 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 reported between 1 March and 28 April 2020 through the national epidemiological surveillance system. We calculated absolute risk, relative risk (RR) and adjusted relative risk (aRR) to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with hospitalisation, ICU admission and death using Poisson regressions.ResultsIncreasing age (≥ 60 years) was the major determinant for all outcomes. Age ≥ 90 years was the strongest determinant of hospital admission (aRR: 6.1), and 70-79 years for ICU (aRR: 10.4). Comorbidities of cardiovascular, immunodeficiency, kidney and lung disease (aRR: 4.3, 2.8, 2.4, 2.0, respectively) had stronger associations with ICU admission, while for death they were kidney, cardiovascular and chronic neurological disease (aRR: 2.9, 2.6, 2.0).ConclusionsOlder age was the strongest risk factor for all severe outcomes. These findings from the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic support risk-stratified public health measures that should prioritise protecting older people. Epidemiological scenarios and clinical guidelines should consider this, even though under-ascertainment should also be considered.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Portugal/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Stroke Res Treat ; 2021: 5627868, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373778

RESUMO

Objectives: This study is aimed at identifying the best clinical model to predict poststroke independence at 6 and 18 months, considering sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and then identifying differences between countries. Methods: Data was retrieved from the International Stroke Trial 3 study. Nine clinical variables (age, gender, severity, rt-PA, living alone, atrial fibrillation, history of transient ischemic attack/stroke, and abilities to lift arms and walk) were measured immediately after the stroke and considered to predict independence at 6 and 18 months poststroke. Independence was measured using the Oxford Handicap Scale. The adequacy, predictive capacity, and discriminative capacity of the models were checked. Countries were added to the final models. Results: At 6 months poststroke, 35.8% (n = 1088) of participants were independent, and at 18 months, this proportion decreased to 29.9% (n = 747). Both 6 and 18 months poststroke predictive models obtained fair discriminatory capacities. Gender, living alone, and rt-PA only reached predictive significance at 18 months. Poststroke patients from Poland and Sweden showed greater chances to achieve independence at 6 months compared to the UK. Poland also achieved greater chances at 18 months. Italy had worse chances than the UK at both follow-ups. Discussion. Six and eight variables predicted poststroke independence at 6 and 18 months, respectively. Some variables only reached significance at 18 months, suggesting a late influence in stroke patients' rehabilitation. Differences found between countries in achieving independence may be related to healthcare system organization or cultural characteristics, a hypothesis that must be addressed in future studies. These results can allow the development of tailored interventions to improve the outcomes.

7.
Acta Med Port ; 34(4): 266-271, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214418

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Placenta accreta spectrum disorders are among the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality and their prevalence is likely to increase in the future. The risk of placenta accreta spectrum disorders is highest in cases of placenta previa overlying a previous cesarean section scar. Few studies have evaluated placenta accreta spectrum disorders in Portugal. The aim of this study was to review the cases of placenta accreta spectrum overlying a cesarean section scar managed in a Portuguese tertiary center over the last decade. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional study, with data collected from hospital databases. Only cases with histopathological confirmation of placenta accreta spectrum were included. RESULTS: During the study period, 15 cases of placenta accreta spectrum overlying a cesarean section scar were diagnosed (prevalence 0.6/1000). All cases were diagnosed antenatally. A transverse cesarean section was present in all cases; 13 were managed by a scheduled multidisciplinary approach, while two required emergent management. Total or subtotal hysterectomy was performed in 12 cases. There were no cases of maternal or neonatal death. Histopathological evaluation confirmed nine cases of placenta accreta, three cases of placenta increta and three cases of placenta percreta. DISCUSSION: Early antenatal diagnosis is important for a programmed multidisciplinary management of these cases, which may reduce potential morbidity and mortality and ensure better obstetric outcomes. CONCLUSION: This case series of placenta accreta spectrum overlying a cesarean section scar reports the reality of a tertiary-care perinatal center in Portugal, in which no maternal or neonatal mortality due to placenta accreta spectrum was registered over the last decade; this may be attributed to prenatal diagnosis and a coordinated multidisciplinary team approach.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Cicatriz , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia , Recém-Nascido , Placenta Acreta/epidemiologia , Placenta Acreta/cirurgia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e045358, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158296

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent condition with associated high disability and healthcare costs. Evidence of major gaps in the implementation of evidence-based interventions in people with knee OA led several healthcare systems to implement models of care (MoCs) in order to improve knowledge translation and guaranty their economic sustainability. Nevertheless, there are few studies that analyse the existing body of evidence of MoCs for patients with knee OA in primary healthcare settings. Therefore, we aim to identify MoCs developed for patients with knee OA implemented in primary healthcare and, analyse their core components and outcomes. This scoping review will create knowledge about the components and outcomes of these MoCs which, in the future, will facilitate their transferability to practice. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will include studies that developed and implemented an MoC for people with knee OA in primary healthcare. We will use the PCC mnemonic, being 'Population'-people with Knee OA, 'Concept'-the MoCs and 'Context'-the primary healthcare setting. We will conduct the search on PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection, as well as grey literature databases and relevant institutions and organisations websites, for articles published after 2000. Two independent reviewers will screen titles and abstracts followed by a full-text review to assess papers regarding their eligibility. We will evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies with the Mixed Methods Appraisal tool and apply a data abstraction form to describe and interpret the evidence. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: As a secondary analysis, this scoping review does not require ethical approval. Findings will be published in peer-review journal, presented in scientific conferences and as a summary through primary healthcare units.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Revisão por Pares , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
9.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 53: 103071, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment affecting classic and social domains has been consistently reported in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). However, little is known about the cognitive outcomes, particularly on social cognition, in adults with pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS). OBJECTIVES: To compare the performance in classic and social cognitive domains between adults with POMS and adult-onset MS (AOMS). METHODS: A group of 30 patients with POMS (age onset <18 years) was compared with age-matched (AOAMS, n=30) and disease duration-matched (AODMS, n= 30) patients who developed MS after the age of 18 years. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) and Theory of Mind (ToM) tests. RESULTS: Cognitive impairment was more prevalent in POMS patients (40% vs. 16.7%, p=0.045), independently of age or disease duration, affecting more severely information-processing speed and visual memory domains. No statistically significant differences were found in ToM performance between patients with POMS and AOMS. When analyzing ToM performance according to age of disease onset (≤15 years; 15-20 years; ≥20 years), patients with disease onset ≤15 years old had significantly lower scores on ToM tests when compared to the other groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with POMS were more prone to develop impairment on classic cognitive domains than on ToM ability, when compared with AOMS patients. The interference of POMS with critical neurodevelopmental periods, specific for each cognitive domain, may explain different outcomes at adulthood on social and classic cognition.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Esclerose Múltipla , Teoria da Mente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1054, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has been measured in different metrics, mostly by counting deaths and its impact on health services. Few studies have attempted to calculate years of life lost (YLL) to COVID-19 and compare it with YLL due to other causes in different countries. METHODS: We calculated YLL to COVID-19 from week10 to week52 in 2020 for eight European countries by methods defined by the WHO. We calculated excess YLL by subtracting the average YLL from 2017 to 2019 to the YLL in 2020. Our analysis compared YLL to COVID-19 and the excess YLL of non-COVID-19 causes across countries in Europe. RESULTS: Portugal registered 394,573 cases and 6619 deaths due to COVID-19, accounting for 25,395 YLL in just 10 months. COVID-19 was responsible for 6.7% of all deaths but accounted for only 4.2% of all YLL. We estimate that Portugal experienced an excess of 35,510 YLL (+ 6.2%), of which 72% would have been due to COVID-19 and 28% due to non-COVID-19 causes. Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands experienced excess YLL to non-COVID-19 causes. We also estimated that Portugal experienced an excess of 10,115 YLL due to cancer (3805), cardiovascular diseases (786) and diseases of the respiratory system (525). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has had a major impact on mortality rates in Portugal, as well as in other European countries. The relative impact of COVID-19 on the number of deaths has been greater than on the number of YLL, because COVID-19 deaths occur mostly in advanced ages.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Países Baixos , Portugal/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha
11.
Heliyon ; 7(4): e06788, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981876

RESUMO

Background: We characterise the loss to follow-up (locally termed abandoned) of tuberculosis treatment with individual and ecological health determinants and to identify the predictive capacity of these risk factors. Methods: A cohort study with individual and ecological characterisation of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis in Sergipe/Brazil from 2015 to 2018 with either loss to follow-up or completion of treatment as a therapeutic outcome was performed. The examined variables were based on the social determinants of health with descriptive analysis, binary logistic regression, a generalised hierarchical model and graphical presentation using a nomogram. Results: The loss to follow-up accounted for 18.21% of the 2,449 studied cases. The characteristics revealed that the highest abandonment percentages were people who: were male (20.0%), had black skin colour (20.3%), were aged 20-39 years (21.8%), had 4-7 years of schooling (23.6%), re-entered treatment after abandonment (36.5%), used alcohol (31.0%), used drugs (39.3%), were smokers (26.5%) and were homeless (55.4%). The ecological characteristics showed that individuals living in municipalities with a high human development index (HDI; odds ratio [OR]: 1.91) and high-income inequality (OR: 1.81) had a greater chance of not finishing the treatment. Most of these variables were identified as predictors in the generalised hierarchical model; the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) curve had 0.771 precision and 84.0% accuracy. Conclusion: The group of identified characteristics influenced the loss to follow-up of tuberculosis treatment. This data provides evidence for the early identification of individuals who are at greater risk of abandoning tuberculosis treatment.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921952

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the impact of two Back School Postural Education Programs on improving ergonomic knowledge of postures adopted at school and home, as well as on reducing low back pain (LPB) in adolescents. The sample was constituted by 153 students, aged 10-16 years, with 96 (62.7%) girls, divided into 2 intervention groups (GA, GB). Two tests (theoretical and practical) and LBP questionnaire were applied 1 week before and 1 year after the end of the program. In GA, three sessions were performed for each class separately, on theoretical and practical issues, lasting 45 min and at intervals of 1 week, and in GB, only one theoretical session (90 min) was given to all students. Statistically differences on GA were obtained between the values 1 week before and after 1 year of evaluation in both theoretical and practical tests (p ≤ 0.001). In GB, only the values of the practical test present a statistical difference (p ≤ 0.001). GA obtained higher values on both tests after 1 year of follow-up compared with GB (p ≤ 0.001). The number of students with LBP decreased on GA (p ≤ 0.001). The program with longer duration, higher weekly frequency, and more practical and individualized character promotes better effects.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Adolescente , Criança , Ergonomia , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/prevenção & controle , Postura , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 704: 108877, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864752

RESUMO

The molecular mechanisms underlying the degeneration and neuronal death associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) are not clearly understood. Several pathways and models have been explored in an overwhelming number of studies. Overall, from these studies, mitochondrial dysfunction and nitroxidative stress have emerged as major contributors to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in PD. In addition, an excessive or inappropriate production of nitric oxide (•NO) and an abnormal metabolism of dopamine have been independently implicated in both processes. However, the participation of •NO in reactions with dopamine relevant to neurotoxicity strongly suggests that dopamine or its metabolites may be potential targets for •NO, affecting the physiological chemistry of both, •NO and dopamine. In this short review, we provide a critical and integrative appraisal of the nitric oxide-dopamine pathway we have previously suggested and that might be operative in PD. This pathway emphasizes a connection between abnormal dopamine and •NO metabolism, which may potentially converge in an integrated mechanism with toxic cellular outcomes. In particular, it encompasses the synergistic interaction of •NO with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), a major dopamine metabolite, leading to dopaminergic cell death via mechanisms that involve mitochondrial dysfunction, gluthathione depletion and nitroxidative stress.


Assuntos
Ácido 3,4-Di-Hidroxifenilacético/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Animais , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/patologia
14.
Trop Med Health ; 49(1): 31, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) does not mean that the disease will be treated successfully, since death may occur even among those who are known to the health services. Here, we aimed to analyze patient survival time from the diagnosis of TB to death, precocious deaths, and associated factors in southern Brazil. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study with patients who were diagnosed with TB and who died due to the disease between 2008 and 2015 in southern Brazil. The starting point for measuring survival time was the patient's diagnosis date. Techniques for survival analysis were employed, including the Kaplan-Meier test and Cox's regression. A mixed-effect model was applied for identifying the associated factors to precocious deaths. Hazard ratio (HR) and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. We defined p value <0.05 as statistically significant for all statistics applied. RESULTS: One hundred forty-six patients were included in the survival analysis, observing a median survival time of 23.5 days. We observed that alcoholism (HR=1.55, 95% CI=1.04-2.30) and being male (HR=6.49, 95% CI=1.03-2.68) were associated with death. The chance of precocious death within 60 days was 10.48 times greater than the chance of early death within 30 days. CONCLUSION: Most of the deaths occurred within 2 months after the diagnosis, during the intensive phase of the treatment. The use of alcohol and gender were associated with death, revealing inequality between men and women. This study advanced knowledge regarding the vulnerability associated with mortality. These findings must be addressed to fill a gap in the care cascades for active TB and ensure equity in health.

15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810131

RESUMO

It is critical to develop tailored strategies to increase acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine and decrease hesitancy. Hence, this study aims to assess and identify factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Portugal. We used data from a community-based survey, "COVID-19 Barometer: Social Opinion", which includes data regarding intention to take COVID-19 vaccines, health status, and risk perception in Portugal from September 2020 to January 2021. We used multinomial regression to identify factors associated with intention to delay or refuse to take COVID-19 vaccines. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Portugal was high: 56% would wait and 9% refuse. Several factors were associated with both refusal and delay: being younger, loss of income during the pandemic, no intention of taking the flu vaccine, low confidence in the COVID-19 vaccine and the health service response during the pandemic, worse perception of government measures, perception of the information provided as inconsistent and contradictory, and answering the questionnaire before the release of information regarding the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines. It is crucial to build confidence in the COVID-19 vaccine as its perceived safety and efficacy were strongly associated with intention to take the vaccine. Governments and health authorities should improve communication and increase trust.

16.
Neurologist ; 26(2): 32-35, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), which is involved in the inflammatory atherosclerotic process, has emerged as an independent risk factor for atheromatous vascular events. Its impact on coronary disease has already been demonstrated, however, its influence in cerebrovascular etiology is still unknown. We aimed to observe and describe the potential association between Lp-PLA2 levels and the etiologic subtype of ischemic stroke. METHODS: Unicentric, observational, and prospective cohort study of consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, admitted in a comprehensive stroke center. Patients with incomplete investigation or coexisting causes were excluded. Lp-PLA2 was dosed in peripheral blood between day 3 and 14 postevent with "Lp-PLA2-SNIBE" kit. Statistical significance was set for P<0.05. RESULTS: A total of 96 patients were enrolled, with mean age of 75.31±11.88 years, 41 males (42.7%); 12.5% with lacunar stroke, 16.7% atherothrombotic, 46.9% cardioembolic, and 24% embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). The level of Lp-PLA2 was different between etiologies (F=2.982, P=0.035), being lower in ESUS (143.3±42.8 ng/mL). There were no significant associations with previous vascular risk factors, history of ischemic stroke and modified-Rankin scale (mRS) score 3 months postevent. In ESUS patients, Lp-PLA2 was not associated with cervical ultrasound findings or frequent supraventricular extrasystoles. CONCLUSIONS: Lp-PLA2 levels are different between etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke, being lower in ESUS patients. The results of this study reinforce the existence of distinct pathophysiological mechanisms in patients with ESUS. Multicenter clinical trials with larger sample sizes are needed to clarify the role Lp-PLA2 on the etiology of stroke.

17.
Eur J Public Health ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous literature shows systematic differences in health according to socioeconomic status (SES). However, there is no clear evidence that the SARS-CoV-2 infection might be different across SES in Portugal. This work identifies the COVID-19 worst-affected municipalities at four different time points in Portugal measured by prevalence of cases, and seeks to determine if these worst-affected areas are associated with SES. METHODS: The worst-affected areas were defined using the spatial scan statistic for the cumulative number of cases per municipality. The likelihood of being in a worst-affected area was then modelled using logistic regressions, as a function of area-based SES and health services supply. The analyses were repeated at four different time points of the COVID-19 pandemic: 1st of April, 1st of May, 1st of June, and 1st of July, corresponding to two moments before and during the confinement period and two moments thereafter. RESULTS: Twenty municipalities were identified as worst-affected areas in all four time points, most in the coastal area in the Northern part of the country. The areas of lower unemployment were less likely to be a worst-affected area on the 1st of April [AOR = 0.36 (0.14; 0.91)], on the 1st of May [AOR = 0.03 (0.00; 0.41)], and on the 1st of July [AOR = 0.40 (0.16; 1.05)]. CONCLUSION: This study shows a relationship between being in a worst-affected area and unemployment. Governments and public health authorities should formulate measures and be prepared to protect the most vulnerable groups.

18.
Food Res Int ; 140: 109863, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648181

RESUMO

Deoxynivalenol (DON), an enteropathogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, is usually associated with adverse health outcomes such as gastrointestinal diseases and immunotoxicity. To estimate DON exposure of the Portuguese population at national level, a modelling approach, based on data from 94 Portuguese volunteers, was developed considering the inputs of the food consumption data generated within the National Food and Physical Activity Survey and the human biomonitoring data used to assess the exposure to DON. Ten models of association between DON urinary biomarkers and food items (pasta, cookies, biscuits, sweets, bread, rusks, nuts, oilseeds, beer, meat, milk) were established. Applying the most adequate model to the consumption data (n = 5811) of the general population, the exposure estimates of the Probable Daily Intake revealed that a fraction (0.1%) of the Portuguese population might exceed the Tolerable Daily Intake defined for DON. The analysis stratified by age revealed children (3.2%) and adolescents (6.0%) are more likely to exceed the Tolerable Daily Intake for DON. Although the unavoidable uncertainties, these results are important contributions to understand the exposure to this mycotoxin in Portugal, to assess the associated risk and the potential public health consequences.


Assuntos
Micotoxinas , Adolescente , Monitoramento Biológico , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Micotoxinas/análise , Portugal , Medição de Risco , Tricotecenos
19.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e22794, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, a viral respiratory disease first reported in December 2019, quickly became a threat to global public health. Further understanding of the epidemiology of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the risk perception of the community may better inform targeted interventions to reduce the impact and spread of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to examine the association between chronic diseases and serious outcomes following COVID-19 infection, and to explore its influence on people's self-perception of risk for worse COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: This study draws data from two databases: (1) the nationwide database of all confirmed COVID-19 cases in Portugal, extracted on April 28, 2020 (n=20,293); and (2) the community-based COVID-19 Barometer survey, which contains data on health status, perceptions, and behaviors during the first wave of COVID-19 (n=171,087). We assessed the association between relevant chronic diseases (ie, respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal diseases; diabetes; and cancer) and death and intensive care unit (ICU) admission following COVID-19 infection. We identified determinants of self-perception of risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal diseases were associated with mortality and ICU admission among patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 infection (odds ratio [OR] 1.48, 95% CI 1.11-1.98; OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.80-6.40; and OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.66-3.06, respectively). Diabetes and cancer were associated with serious outcomes only when considering the full sample of COVID-19-infected cases in the country (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.64; and OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.89, respectively). Older age and male sex were both associated with mortality and ICU admission. The perception of risk for severe COVID-19 disease in the study population was 23.9% (n=40,890). This was markedly higher for older adults (n=5235, 46.4%), those with at least one chronic disease (n=17,647, 51.6%), or those in both of these categories (n=3212, 67.7%). All included diseases were associated with self-perceptions of high risk in this population. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the association between some prevalent chronic diseases and increased risk of worse COVID-19 outcomes. It also brings forth a greater understanding of the community's risk perceptions of serious COVID-19 disease. Hence, this study may aid health authorities to better adapt measures to the real needs of the population and to identify vulnerable individuals requiring further education and awareness of preventive measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Neurol Sci ; 42(3): 1039-1043, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fingolimod is an oral daily treatment for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). A decrease in lymphocytes count is a common side effect, whereby clinicians occasionally propose a reduced dose rather than its discontinuation. However, current data on the effectiveness of these regimens are scarce and contradictory. Our objective was to investigate if the fingolimod effectiveness is maintained with reduction in dosing frequency. METHODS: Retrospective and observational study of RRMS patients taking fingolimod-nondaily (FTY-ND) for at least 6 months. Propensity score-based matching was performed to select patients taking daily dose (FTY-ED) with comparable baseline characteristics: age, sex, disease duration, annualized relapse rate (ARR), and expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Afterwards, clinical and laboratorial assessment was evaluated in both groups. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were included in each group (FTY-ED vs. FTY-ND). Decrease in lymphocytes count was the main reason for switching to FTY-ND (88.9%). Previous treatment with natalizumab was inversely associated with risk of reducing dose (OR 0.253, 95%CI = 0.08-0.807, p = 0.016). There were no significant differences in clinical disease activity between patients FTY-ED vs. FTY-ND: mean ARR 0.4 vs. 0.3 (p = 0.247), median EDSS 2.0 vs. 2.0 (p = 0.687), and proportion of patients with EDSS increase 8.3% vs. 13.9% (p = 0.453). FTY-ND was overall well tolerated and was associated with an increase in the mean lymphocytes count (362 ± 103 cells/mm3 to 541 ± 183 cells/mm3, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the effectiveness of FTY is maintained despite the reduction of the dose, minimizing the most common adverse events. These findings warrant further confirmation, ideally with randomized clinical trials.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente , Esclerose Múltipla , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Natalizumab , Portugal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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