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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257969, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364513

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated variation in vegetative and reproductive phenological events of four phylogenetically related plant species subjected to a seasonal environment. To this aim, we sampled 15 individuals of each plant species every fortnight for one year, between January and December of 2017. To assess when a given phenophase occurred more intensely in the population, the Fournier intensity index was used and the synchrony of individuals of the sample in a given phenological event was estimated using the activity index. The Rayleigh (Z) test was used to determine whether the phenological events have seasonal distribution. The relationship of abiotic factors (photoperiod, precipitation, relative humidity and temperature) with the intensity of phenophases was evaluated for each plant species using generalized linear models (GLMs). The phenophases of all plants showed a seasonal distribution pattern, as well as variation in synchrony of phenophases and specific sets of abiotic factors significantly influenced their phenophases. New leaves, for example, were produced throughout the seasons, with intense leaf fall in the dry season. Flowering periods, on the other hand, did not overlap. Indeed, species exhibited sequential flowering and asynchronous flowering among individuals. Our results suggest that the phenological patterns of four sympatric plant species are directly linked to climatic variables, but different abiotic factors affected different phenophases.


Neste estudo, avaliamos a variação nos eventos fenológicos vegetativos e reprodutivos de quatro espécies de plantas filogeneticamente relacionadas submetidas a um ambiente sazonal. Para isso, amostramos 15 indivíduos de cada espécie quinzenalmente, pelo período de um ano, entre janeiro e dezembro de 2017. Para avaliar quando uma determinada fenofase ocorreu de modo mais intenso na população foi utilizado o índice de intensidade de Fournier e a sincronia dos indivíduos da amostra em determinado evento fenológico foi estimada utilizando-se o índice de atividade. O teste de Rayleigh (Z) foi usado para determinar se os eventos fenológicos têm distribuição sazonal. A relação dos fatores abióticos (fotoperíodo, precipitação, temperatura e umidade relativa) com a intensidade das fenofases foi avaliada para cada espécie de planta usando modelos lineares generalizados (GLMs). As fenofases de todas as plantas apresentaram um padrão de distribuição sazonal, bem como variação na sincronia das fenofases e conjuntos específicos de fatores abióticos influenciaram significativamente suas fenofases. Folhas novas, por exemplo, foram produzidas ao longo das estações, com intensa queda de folhas na estação seca. Os períodos de floração, por outro lado, não se sobrepuseram. De fato, as espécies exibiram floração sequencial e floração assíncrona entre os indivíduos. Nossos resultados sugerem que os padrões fenológicos das quatro espécies de plantas simpátricas estão diretamente ligados às variáveis climáticas, mas diferentes fatores abióticos afetaram diferentes fenofases.


Assuntos
Plantas , Estações do Ano , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Meio Ambiente , Simpatria/fisiologia
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469380

RESUMO

Abstract In this study, we evaluated variation in vegetative and reproductive phenological events of four phylogenetically related plant species subjected to a seasonal environment. To this aim, we sampled 15 individuals of each plant species every fortnight for one year, between January and December of 2017. To assess when a given phenophase occurred more intensely in the population, the Fournier intensity index was used and the synchrony of individuals of the sample in a given phenological event was estimated using the activity index. The Rayleigh (Z) test was used to determine whether the phenological events have seasonal distribution. The relationship of abiotic factors (photoperiod, precipitation, relative humidity and temperature) with the intensity of phenophases was evaluated for each plant species using generalized linear models (GLMs). The phenophases of all plants showed a seasonal distribution pattern, as well as variation in synchrony of phenophases and specific sets of abiotic factors significantly influenced their phenophases. New leaves, for example, were produced throughout the seasons, with intense leaf fall in the dry season. Flowering periods, on the other hand, did not overlap. Indeed, species exhibited sequential flowering and asynchronous flowering among individuals. Our results suggest that the phenological patterns of four sympatric plant species are directly linked to climatic variables, but different abiotic factors affected different phenophases.


Resumo Neste estudo, avaliamos a variação nos eventos fenológicos vegetativos e reprodutivos de quatro espécies de plantas filogeneticamente relacionadas submetidas a um ambiente sazonal. Para isso, amostramos 15 indivíduos de cada espécie quinzenalmente, pelo período de um ano, entre janeiro e dezembro de 2017. Para avaliar quando uma determinada fenofase ocorreu de modo mais intenso na população foi utilizado o índice de intensidade de Fournier e a sincronia dos indivíduos da amostra em determinado evento fenológico foi estimada utilizando-se o índice de atividade. O teste de Rayleigh (Z) foi usado para determinar se os eventos fenológicos têm distribuição sazonal. A relação dos fatores abióticos (fotoperíodo, precipitação, temperatura e umidade relativa) com a intensidade das fenofases foi avaliada para cada espécie de planta usando modelos lineares generalizados (GLMs). As fenofases de todas as plantas apresentaram um padrão de distribuição sazonal, bem como variação na sincronia das fenofases e conjuntos específicos de fatores abióticos influenciaram significativamente suas fenofases. Folhas novas, por exemplo, foram produzidas ao longo das estações, com intensa queda de folhas na estação seca. Os períodos de floração, por outro lado, não se sobrepuseram. De fato, as espécies exibiram floração sequencial e floração assíncrona entre os indivíduos. Nossos resultados sugerem que os padrões fenológicos das quatro espécies de plantas simpátricas estão diretamente ligados às variáveis climáticas, mas diferentes fatores abióticos afetaram diferentes fenofases.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e251140, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651457

RESUMO

Staphylococcus spp. represents the main mastitis agents in ruminants and contaminants of milk due to their expressive capacity to make biofilms. The aims in this study was evaluate evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Mauritia flexuosa L. extracts against Staphylococcus spp. adhered to a stainless steel surface. Two isolates from cows with clinical mastitis were evaluated; one was identified as Staphylococcus aureus, and the other Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Additionally the ATCC 25923 strain, S. aureus from human was evaluated. The chemical profile obtained from gas chromatography revealed the presence of carbohydrates, organic acids, and flavonoids. The minimum bactericidal concentrations of the ethanolic extract (EE) and aqueous extract (AE) were 4.4 and 5.82 mg/mL, respectively. After EE treatment at 4.4 mg/mL for 2.5 min, total removal of mature biofilms grown on stainless steel coupons was observed (reduction by 3.85-4.81 log units). This extract from M. flexuosa shows potential as an effective sanitizer and may represent a natural alternative against Staphylococcus spp.


Assuntos
Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Feminino , Humanos , Bovinos , Animais , Staphylococcus haemolyticus , Aço Inoxidável/farmacologia , Staphylococcus , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Biofilmes , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
4.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e257969, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239792

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated variation in vegetative and reproductive phenological events of four phylogenetically related plant species subjected to a seasonal environment. To this aim, we sampled 15 individuals of each plant species every fortnight for one year, between January and December of 2017. To assess when a given phenophase occurred more intensely in the population, the Fournier intensity index was used and the synchrony of individuals of the sample in a given phenological event was estimated using the activity index. The Rayleigh (Z) test was used to determine whether the phenological events have seasonal distribution. The relationship of abiotic factors (photoperiod, precipitation, relative humidity and temperature) with the intensity of phenophases was evaluated for each plant species using generalized linear models (GLMs). The phenophases of all plants showed a seasonal distribution pattern, as well as variation in synchrony of phenophases and specific sets of abiotic factors significantly influenced their phenophases. New leaves, for example, were produced throughout the seasons, with intense leaf fall in the dry season. Flowering periods, on the other hand, did not overlap. Indeed, species exhibited sequential flowering and asynchronous flowering among individuals. Our results suggest that the phenological patterns of four sympatric plant species are directly linked to climatic variables, but different abiotic factors affected different phenophases.


Assuntos
Plantas , Simpatria , Mudança Climática , Flores , Humanos , Folhas de Planta , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
5.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 79(3-4): 447-458, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792752

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus microplus is the ectoparasite responsible for large economic losses in cattle herds. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro action of leaf extracts of Protium spruceanum on resistant strains of this tick. Ethanolic extracts (EE) and ethyl acetate extracts (EAE) of P. spruceanum leaves were used against engorged females and larvae by biocarrapaticidogram and larval package (TPL) tests. Chromatographic analyses were performed using a gas chromatograph and showed the presence of the flavonoid catechin in both extracts and the terpenoid ß-amirine only in EAE. EE and EAE were not effective in altering the mortality of engorged females; however, 92% of females treated with the extracts reduced the postures and > 90% of larval hatching was inhibited at 100 mg/ml of extracts. Acaricidal efficacies were > 80% for 100 mg/ml EE and > 90% for EAE at 50 mg/ml. In TPL tests, EE and EAE promoted larval mortality > 88% at 100 mg/ml. In this study, EAE was more effective against adult females and larvae than EE, representing an alternative agent for the integrated control of R. microplus.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/química , Burseraceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rhipicephalus , Animais , Feminino , Larva , Folhas de Planta/química
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