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1.
Nature ; 596(7873): 543-547, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433944

RESUMO

Much remains unknown about the population history of early modern humans in southeast Asia, where the archaeological record is sparse and the tropical climate is inimical to the preservation of ancient human DNA1. So far, only two low-coverage pre-Neolithic human genomes have been sequenced from this region. Both are from mainland Hòabìnhian hunter-gatherer sites: Pha Faen in Laos, dated to 7939-7751 calibrated years before present (yr cal BP; present taken as AD 1950), and Gua Cha in Malaysia (4.4-4.2 kyr cal BP)1. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first ancient human genome from Wallacea, the oceanic island zone between the Sunda Shelf (comprising mainland southeast Asia and the continental islands of western Indonesia) and Pleistocene Sahul (Australia-New Guinea). We extracted DNA from the petrous bone of a young female hunter-gatherer buried 7.3-7.2 kyr cal BP at the limestone cave of Leang Panninge2 in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Genetic analyses show that this pre-Neolithic forager, who is associated with the 'Toalean' technocomplex3,4, shares most genetic drift and morphological similarities with present-day Papuan and Indigenous Australian groups, yet represents a previously unknown divergent human lineage that branched off around the time of the split between these populations approximately 37,000 years ago5. We also describe Denisovan and deep Asian-related ancestries in the Leang Panninge genome, and infer their large-scale displacement from the region today.

2.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206375

RESUMO

This research aimed to enhance the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from silver nitrate (AgNO3) using aloe vera extract. It was performed by means of incorporating AgNPs on an activated carbon nanoparticle (ACNPs) under ultrasonic agitation (40 kHz, 2 × 50 watt) for 30 min in an aqueous colloidal medium. The successful AgNPs synthesis was clarified with both Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometers. The successful AgNPs-ACNPs incorporation and its particle size analysis was performed using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The brown color suspension generation and UV-Vis's spectra maximum wavelength at around 480 nm confirmed the existence of AgNPs. The particle sizes of the produced AgNPs were about 5 to 10 nm in the majority number, which collectively surrounded the aloe vera extract secondary metabolites formed core-shell like nanostructure of 8.20 ± 2.05 nm in average size, while ACNPs themselves were about 20.10 ± 1.52 nm in average size formed particles cluster, and 48.00 ± 8.37 nm in average size as stacking of other particles. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized AgNPs and AgNPs-immobilized ACNPs was 57.58% and 63.64%, respectively (for E. coli); 61.25%, and 93.49%, respectively (for S. aureus). In addition, when the AgNPs-immobilized ACNPs material was coated on the cotton and polyester fabrics, the antibacterial activity of the materials changed, becoming 19.23% (cotton; E. coli), 31.73% (polyester; E. coli), 13.36% (cotton; S. aureus), 21.15% (polyester; S. aureus).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Carvão Vegetal , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Química Verde , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Têxteis , Aloe/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carvão Vegetal/química , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1318: 839-857, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973215

RESUMO

Sudden emergence and a rapid outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 accompanied by a devastating impact on the economy and public health has driven extensive scientific mobilization to study and elucidate the various associated concerns about SARS-CoV-2. Bioinformatics plays a crucial role in addressing and providing solutions to questions about SARS-CoV-2. It helps shorten the duration for the vaccine development process and the discovery of potential clinical interventions through the simulation and information retrieval, and the development of well-ordered information hubs and resources, which are essential to derive data and meaningful findings from the current massive information about SARS-CoV-2. Advanced algorithms in this field also provide approaches that are essential to elucidate the relationship, origin, and evolutionary process of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report essential bioinformatics entities, such as database and platform development, molecular evolution and phylogenetic analyses, and vaccine designs, that are useful to solve the SARS-CoV-2 conundrum.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Filogenia
4.
Preprint em Inglês | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-426655

RESUMO

IntroductionIndonesia kick-started the big project of COVID-19 vaccination program in January 2021 by employed vaccine to the president of Indonesia. The outbreak and rapid transmission of COVID-19 have endangered the global health and economy. This study aimed to investigate the full-length genome mutation analysis of 166 Indonesian SARS-CoV-2 isolates as 12 January 2021. MethodsAll data of isolates was extracted from the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) EpiCoV database. CoVsurver was employed to investigate the full-length genome mutation analysis of all isolates. Furthermore, this study also focused on the unlocking of mutation in Indonesian SARS-CoV-2 isolates S protein. WIV04 isolate that was originated from Wuhan, China was used as a virus reference according to CoVsurver default. All data was visualized using GraphPad Prism software, PyMOL, and BioRender. ResultsThis study result showed that a full-length genome mutation analysis of 166 Indonesian SARS-CoV-2 isolates was successfully discovered. Every single mutation in S protein was described and then visualised by employing BioRender. Furthermore, it also found that D614G mutation appeared in 103 Indonesian SARS-CoV-2 isolates. ConclusionTo sum up, this study helps to observe the spread of the COVID-19 transmission. However, it would like to propose that the epidemiological surveillance and genomics studies might be improved on COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia.

5.
Heliyon ; 6(3): e03546, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190760

RESUMO

The microstructures of the activated carbon black microparticles (ACBMPs) generated through both treatments of 20 min ultrasonic and 400 °C thermal energy equivalent have been analyzed properly using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods. The research was aiming to generate binding or active sites points on the outer surface of the ACBMPs body of which commonly plays an important role in both adsorption and catalytic processes. It was observed that around 150 nm up to 400 nm in average diameter super macro voids with many various turns of nano-scale wells, and around 1.84 angstrom (Å) up to 15.98 Å intraparticle pores were generated. In addition, the parallel planes spacing of the carbonaceous framework sheets, namely d hkl in Miller indexes terminology, of about 4.44 Å up to 2.98 Å constructed the inner particles of the ACBMPs body. A new nomenclature method for the binding or active site shapes identification and classifying them into four categories based on the quadrants terminology, i.e. quadrant one (Q1), two (Q2), three (Q3) and four (Q4) is proposed. Each the quadrants contains four categories of turns types, i.e. sharp, semi sharp, obtuse and non-significant turns depending on the angle of the associated turn in radian angle, θ. Finally, it can be concluded that the combination of ultrasonic and thermal energy treatments in fabricating ACBMPs could generate binding or active site points with unique shapes as a transit terminal for any guest molecules, in this context is methyl red (MR) molecules to enter into the suitable intra-particles pores of the ACBMPs body.

6.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 66(3): 259-262, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the lack of attention, suicide is a major public and mental health problem in Indonesia. Research on how Indonesian newspapers portray suicide case has been lacking. AIM: To assess the quality of Indonesian online newspaper reporting suicide news and its compliance with the World Health Organization (WHO) mass media reporting guidelines. METHODS: The content of suicide news reported in online newspapers was searched and scrutinized against the WHO suicide reporting guidelines. RESULTS: Within the duration of 6 months, there were 548 suicide news reported. This consisted of 16.8% attempted suicide and 83.2% completed suicide. Approximately 90.3% reported age, 97.3% reported gender and 64.3% reported the marital status of the victims. Furthermore, 68% reported the methods of suicide in headline or title, 40.5% shown the picture of the victims and 56.6% shown illustration only, and 67.2% reported life event related to suicide act. CONCLUSION: The vast majority of online newspapers in Indonesia exaggerate suicide news. They rarely inform the readers that there is hope and help available. The majority also do not conform to the WHO media guidelines.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Jornais como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia , Internet , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 3(1): e000549, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646200

RESUMO

Background: Gut microbiota plays an important role in the growth of children. The gut of children with optimum growth is enriched in certain species, especially Bifidobacteria and Clostridia. Bifidobacteria and commensal Clostridia both contribute to formation of acidic stool, and an elevated faecal pH indicates reduction of these species in the gut. The purpose of the study was to investigate the association of faecal pH with childhood stunting. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 children with length-for-age Z score (LAZ) <-1 aged between 12 and 18 months were enrolled from the ongoing Bangladesh Environmental Enteric Dysfunction study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. LAZ was measured by anthropometry and data on factors affecting linear growth were recorded. Faecal pH measurement was done using pH metre on freshly collected non-diarrhoeal faecal samples following standard procedure. Multiple quantile regression was done to quantify the relation between faecal pH and LAZ scores. Results: The mean LAZ and faecal pH of the children were -2.12±0.80 and 5.84±1.11, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis showed a statistically significant negative correlation between stool pH and the LAZ scores (p<0.01). After inclusion of other factors affecting linear growth into the regression model, a statistically significant inverse association was observed between faecal pH and LAZ score (p<0.01). Conclusion: Elevated faecal pH was found to have a significant association with stunted growth. As an indicator of gut microbiota status, faecal pH might have emerged as a possible indirect determinant of childhood stunting. Trial registration number: NCT02812615.

8.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394828

RESUMO

Growth in young children is controlled through the release of several hormonal signals, which are affected by diet, infection, and other exposures. Stunting is clearly a growth disorder, yet limited evidence exists documenting the association of different growth biomarkers with child stunting. This study explored the association between different growth biomarkers and stunting in Bangladeshi children. A quasi-experimental study was conducted among 50 stunted (length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) < -2 SD) and 50 control (LAZ ≥ -2 SD) children, aged 12-18 months, residing in a Bangladeshi slum. The enrolled stunted children received an intervention package, which included food supplementation for three months, psychosocial stimulation for six months, and routine clinical care on community nutrition center at the study field site. The controls received routine clinical care only. All children were clinically screened over the study period. Length, weight, fasting blood and fecal biomarkers were measured. All biomarkers levels were similar in both groups except for oxyntomodulin at enrolment. Leptin (adjusted odds ratio, AOR: 4.0, p < 0.01), leptin-adiponectin ratio (AOR 5.07 × 108, p < 0.01), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (AOR 1.02, p < 0.05), and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) (AOR 0.92, p < 0.05) levels were independently associated with stunting at enrolment. Serum leptin, leptin-adiponectin ratio, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) levels increased significantly (p < 0.001), while IFN-γ levels significantly decreased among stunted children after six months of intervention. Leptin, leptin-adiponectin ratio, IGF-1, and IFN-γ are independently associated with stunting in Bangladeshi children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02839148.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/sangue , Substâncias de Crescimento/sangue , Adipocinas/sangue , Bangladesh , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Citocinas/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fezes/química , Feminino , Flumazenil/análogos & derivados , Flumazenil/análise , Flumazenil/sangue , Transtornos do Crescimento/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Psicologia
9.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; 349(11): 848-852, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27699826

RESUMO

The oxidative demethylation procedure for a new epoxy lignan isolated from Piper nigrum was applied to the synthesis of 3'-methoxy-3",4"-(methylenedioxy)-2,5-epoxylignan-4'-ol-6'-one. This compound inhibited the mRNA expression of the protein patched homolog (Ptch) in human pancreatic cancer cells (PANC1) and therefore might be valuable as a probe for tumor-related disease. The pharmacokinetic profile of 3'-methoxy-3",4"-(methylenedioxy)-2,5-epoxylignan-4'-ol-6'-one was rapidly determined using ultra-fast liquid chromatography. The compound was rapidly absorbed in blood.


Assuntos
Lignanas/farmacocinética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lignanas/sangue , Lignanas/síntese química , Lignanas/farmacologia , Receptor Patched-1/genética , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética
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