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1.
N Engl J Med ; 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882219

RESUMO

Emerging variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are of clinical concern. In a cohort of 417 persons who had received the second dose of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine at least 2 weeks previously, we identified 2 women with vaccine breakthrough infection. Despite evidence of vaccine efficacy in both women, symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 developed, and they tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase-chain-reaction testing. Viral sequencing revealed variants of likely clinical importance, including E484K in 1 woman and three mutations (T95I, del142-144, and D614G) in both. These observations indicate a potential risk of illness after successful vaccination and subsequent infection with variant virus, and they provide support for continued efforts to prevent and diagnose infection and to characterize variants in vaccinated persons. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

2.
Clin Chem ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low initial SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers dropping to undetectable levels within months after infection have raised concerns over long term immunity. Both the antibody levels and avidity of the antibody-antigen interaction should be examined to understand the quality of the antibody response. METHODS: A testing-on-a-probe "plus" panel (TOP-Plus) was developed, which included a newly developed avidity assay built into the previously described SARS-CoV-2 TOP assays that measured total antibody (TAb), surrogate neutralizing antibody (SNAb), IgM and IgG on a versatile biosensor platform. TAb and SNAb levels were compared with avidity in previously infected individuals at 1.3 and 6.2 months post-infection in paired samples from 80 COVID-19 patients. Sera from SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated individuals were also evaluated for antibody avidity. RESULTS: The newly designed avidity assay in this TOP panel correlated well with a reference Bio-Layer Interferometry avidity assay (r=0.88). The imprecision of the TOP avidity assay was less than 10%. Although TAb and neutralization activity (by SNAb) decreased between 1.3 and 6.2 months post-infection, the antibody avidity increased significantly (P < 0.0001). Antibody avidity in 10 SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated individuals (median 28 days post-vaccination) was comparable to the measured antibody avidity in infected individuals (median 26 days post-infection). CONCLUSION: This highly precise and versatile TOP-Plus panel with the ability to measure SARS-CoV-2 TAb, SNAb, IgG and IgM antibody levels and avidity of individual sera on one sensor can become a valuable asset in monitoring not only SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, but also the status of individuals' COVID-19 vaccination response.

3.
J Exp Med ; 218(5)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831141

RESUMO

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an emerging human pathogen that causes potentially fatal disease with no specific treatment. Mouse monoclonal antibodies are protective against TBEV, but little is known about the human antibody response to infection. Here, we report on the human neutralizing antibody response to TBEV in a cohort of infected and vaccinated individuals. Expanded clones of memory B cells expressed closely related anti-envelope domain III (EDIII) antibodies in both groups of volunteers. However, the most potent neutralizing antibodies, with IC50s below 1 ng/ml, were found only in individuals who recovered from natural infection. These antibodies also neutralized other tick-borne flaviviruses, including Langat, louping ill, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease, and Powassan viruses. Structural analysis revealed a conserved epitope near the lateral ridge of EDIII adjoining the EDI-EDIII hinge region. Prophylactic or early therapeutic antibody administration was effective at low doses in mice that were lethally infected with TBEV.

4.
Nature ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767445

RESUMO

Neutralizing antibodies that target the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein are among the most promising approaches against COVID-191,2. A bispecific IgG1-like molecule (CoV-X2) has been developed on the basis of C121 and C135, two antibodies derived from donors who had recovered from COVID-193. Here we show that CoV-X2 simultaneously binds two independent sites on the RBD and, unlike its parental antibodies, prevents detectable spike binding to the cellular receptor of the virus, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Furthermore, CoV-X2 neutralizes wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and its variants of concern, as well as escape mutants generated by the parental monoclonal antibodies. We also found that in a mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection with lung inflammation, CoV-X2 protects mice from disease and suppresses viral escape. Thus, the simultaneous targeting of non-overlapping RBD epitopes by IgG-like bispecific antibodies is feasible and effective, and combines the advantages of antibody cocktails with those of single-molecule approaches.

5.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533915

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for an ongoing pandemic that has affected millions of individuals around the globe. To gain further understanding of the immune response in recovered individuals, we measured T cell responses in paired samples obtained an average of 1.3 and 6.1 mo after infection from 41 individuals. The data indicate that recovered individuals show persistent polyfunctional SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific memory that could contribute to rapid recall responses. Recovered individuals also show enduring alterations in relative overall numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells, including expression of activation/exhaustion markers, and cell division.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , /imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade do Receptor de Antígeno de Linfócitos T , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nature ; 592(7855): 616-622, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567448

RESUMO

Here we report on the antibody and memory B cell responses of a cohort of 20 volunteers who received the Moderna (mRNA-1273) or Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) vaccine against SARS-CoV-21-4. Eight weeks after the second injection of vaccine, volunteers showed high levels of IgM and IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) and receptor-binding-domain (RBD) binding titre. Moreover, the plasma neutralizing activity and relative numbers of RBD-specific memory B cells of vaccinated volunteers were equivalent to those of individuals who had recovered from natural infection5,6. However, activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants that encode E484K-, N501Y- or K417N/E484K/N501-mutant S was reduced by a small-but significant-margin. The monoclonal antibodies elicited by the vaccines potently neutralize SARS-CoV-2, and target a number of different RBD epitopes in common with monoclonal antibodies isolated from infected donors5-8. However, neutralization by 14 of the 17 most-potent monoclonal antibodies that we tested was reduced or abolished by the K417N, E484K or N501Y mutation. Notably, these mutations were selected when we cultured recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing SARS-CoV-2 S in the presence of the monoclonal antibodies elicited by the vaccines. Together, these results suggest that the monoclonal antibodies in clinical use should be tested against newly arising variants, and that mRNA vaccines may need to be updated periodically to avoid a potential loss of clinical efficacy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , /imunologia , /imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/sangue , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Testes de Neutralização , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética
7.
EBioMedicine ; 65: 103252, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A research priority in finding a cure for HIV is to establish methods to accurately locate and quantify where and how HIV persists in people living with HIV (PLWH) receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Infusing copper-64 (64Cu) radiolabelled broadly neutralising antibodies targeting HIV envelope (Env) with CT scan and positron emission tomography (PET) identified HIV Env in tissues in SIV infected non-human primates . We aimed to determine if a similar approach was effective in people living with HIV (PLWH). METHODS: Unmodified 3BNC117 was compared with 3BNC117 bound to the chelator MeCOSar and 64Cu (64Cu-3BNC117) in vitro to assess binding and neutralization. In a clinical trial 64Cu-3BNC117 was infused into HIV uninfected (Group 1), HIV infected and viremic (viral load, VL >1000 c/mL; Group 2) and HIV infected aviremic (VL <20 c/mL; Group 3) participants using two dosing strategies: high protein (3mg/kg unlabeled 3BNC117 combined with <5mg 64Cu-3BNC117) and trace (<5mg 64Cu-3BNC117 only). All participants were screened for 3BNC117 sensitivity from virus obtained from viral outgrowth. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/PET and pharmacokinetic assessments (ELISA for serum 3BNC117 concentrations and gamma counting for 64Cu) were performed 1, 24- and 48-hours post dosing. The trial (clincialtrials.gov NCT03063788) primary endpoint was comparison of PET standard uptake values (SUVs) in regions of interest (e.g lymph node groups and gastrointestinal tract). FINDINGS: Comparison of unmodified and modified 3BNC117 in vitro demonstrated no difference in HIV binding or neutralisation. 17 individuals were enrolled of which 12 were dosed including Group 1 (n=4, 2 high protein, 2 trace dose), Group 2 (n=6, 2 high protein, 4 trace) and Group 3 (n=2, trace only). HIV+ participants had a mean CD4 of 574 cells/microL and mean age 43 years. There were no drug related adverse effects and no differences in tissue uptake in regions of interest (e.g lymph node gut, pharynx) between the 3 groups. In the high protein dosing group, serum concentrations of 3BNC117 and gamma counts were highly correlated demonstrating that 64Cu-3BNC117 remained intact in vivo. INTERPRETATION: In PLWH on or off ART, the intervention of infusing 64Cu-3BNC117 and MRI/PET imaging over 48 hours, was unable to detect HIV-1 env expression in vivo. Future studies should investigate alternative radiolabels such as zirconium which have a longer half-life in vivo. FUNDING: Funded by the Alfred Foundation, The Australian Centre for HIV and Hepatitis Virology Research with additional support from the Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, US National Institutes of Health (USAI126611). JHM and SRL are supported by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.

8.
Nature ; 591(7850): 458-463, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536617

RESUMO

The germinal centre is a dynamic microenvironment in which B cells that express high-affinity antibody variants produced by somatic hypermutation are selected for clonal expansion by limiting the numbers of T follicular helper cells1,2. Although much is known about the mechanisms that control the selection of B cells in the germinal centre, far less is understood about the clonal behaviour of the T follicular helper cells that help to regulate this process. Here we report on the dynamic behaviour of T follicular helper cell clones during the germinal centre reaction. We find that, similar to germinal centre B cells, T follicular helper cells undergo antigen-dependent selection throughout the germinal centre reaction that results in differential proliferative expansion and contraction. Increasing the amount of antigen presented in the germinal centre leads to increased division of T follicular helper cells. Competition between T follicular helper cell clones is mediated by the affinity of T cell receptors for peptide-major-histocompatibility-complex ligands. T cells that preferentially expand in the germinal centre show increased expression of genes downstream of the T cell receptor, such as those required for metabolic reprogramming, cell division and cytokine production. These dynamic changes lead to marked remodelling of the functional T follicular helper cell repertoire during the germinal centre reaction.

9.
Science ; 371(6530): 735-741, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436524

RESUMO

Protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and SARS-related emergent zoonotic coronaviruses is urgently needed. We made homotypic nanoparticles displaying the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 or co-displaying SARS-CoV-2 RBD along with RBDs from animal betacoronaviruses that represent threats to humans (mosaic nanoparticles with four to eight distinct RBDs). Mice immunized with RBD nanoparticles, but not soluble antigen, elicited cross-reactive binding and neutralization responses. Mosaic RBD nanoparticles elicited antibodies with superior cross-reactive recognition of heterologous RBDs relative to sera from immunizations with homotypic SARS-CoV-2-RBD nanoparticles or COVID-19 convalescent human plasmas. Moreover, after priming, sera from mosaic RBD-immunized mice neutralized heterologous pseudotyped coronaviruses as well as or better than sera from homotypic SARS-CoV-2-RBD nanoparticle immunizations, demonstrating no loss of immunogenicity against particular RBDs resulting from co-display. A single immunization with mosaic RBD nanoparticles provides a potential strategy to simultaneously protect against SARS-CoV-2 and emerging zoonotic coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Nanopartículas , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Soros Imunes/imunologia , Imunização , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Neutralização , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , /virologia
10.
Nature ; 591(7851): 639-644, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461210

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected 78 million individuals and is responsible for over 1.7 million deaths to date. Infection is associated with the development of variable levels of antibodies with neutralizing activity, which can protect against infection in animal models1,2. Antibody levels decrease with time, but, to our knowledge, the nature and quality of the memory B cells that would be required to produce antibodies upon reinfection has not been examined. Here we report on the humoral memory response in a cohort of 87 individuals assessed at 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection with SARS-CoV-2. We find that titres of IgM and IgG antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 decrease significantly over this time period, with IgA being less affected. Concurrently, neutralizing activity in plasma decreases by fivefold in pseudotype virus assays. By contrast, the number of RBD-specific memory B cells remains unchanged at 6.2 months after infection. Memory B cells display clonal turnover after 6.2 months, and the antibodies that they express have greater somatic hypermutation, resistance to RBD mutations and increased potency, indicative of continued evolution of the humoral response. Immunofluorescence and PCR analyses of intestinal biopsies obtained from asymptomatic individuals at 4 months after the onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) revealed the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids and immunoreactivity in the small bowel of 7 out of 14 individuals. We conclude that the memory B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 evolves between 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection in a manner that is consistent with antigen persistence.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , /imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/sangue , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/genética , Antígenos Virais/química , Antígenos Virais/genética , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Biópsia , Estudos de Coortes , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/genética , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Hipermutação Somática de Imunoglobulina , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(576)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441429

RESUMO

Type 1 interferons (IFN-I) are potent innate antiviral effectors that constrain HIV-1 transmission. However, harnessing these cytokines for HIV-1 cure strategies has been hampered by an incomplete understanding of their antiviral activities at later stages of infection. Here, we characterized the IFN-I sensitivity of 500 clonally derived HIV-1 isolates from the plasma and CD4+ T cells of 26 individuals sampled longitudinally after transmission or after antiretroviral therapy (ART) and analytical treatment interruption. We determined the concentration of IFNα2 and IFNß that reduced viral replication in vitro by 50% (IC50) and found consistent changes in the sensitivity of HIV-1 to IFN-I inhibition both across individuals and over time. Resistance of HIV-1 isolates to IFN-I was uniformly high during acute infection, decreased in all individuals in the first year after infection, was reacquired concomitant with CD4+ T cell loss, and remained elevated in individuals with accelerated disease. HIV-1 isolates obtained by viral outgrowth during suppressive ART were relatively IFN-I sensitive, resembling viruses circulating just before ART initiation. However, viruses that rebounded after treatment interruption displayed the highest degree of IFNα2 and IFNß resistance observed at any time during the infection course. These findings indicate a dynamic interplay between host innate responses and the evolving HIV-1 quasispecies, with the relative contribution of IFN-I to HIV-1 control affected by both ART and analytical treatment interruption. Although elevated at transmission, host innate pressures are the highest during viral rebound, limiting the viruses that successfully become reactivated from latency to those that are IFN-I resistant.

12.
J Virol ; 95(6)2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361426

RESUMO

The HIV proviral reservoir is the major barrier to cure. The predominantly replication-defective proviral landscape makes the measurement of virus that is likely to cause rebound upon antiretroviral therapy (ART)-cessation challenging. To address this issue, novel assays to measure intact HIV proviruses have been developed. The intact proviral DNA assay (IPDA) is a high-throughput assay that uses two probes to exclude the majority of defective proviruses and determine the frequency of intact proviruses, albeit without sequence confirmation. Quadruplex PCR with four probes (Q4PCR) is a lower-throughput assay that uses limiting dilution long-distance PCR amplification followed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and near-full-length genome sequencing (nFGS) to estimate the frequency of sequence-confirmed intact proviruses and provide insight into their clonal composition. To explore the advantages and limitations of these assays, we compared IPDA and Q4PCR measurements from 39 ART-suppressed people living with HIV. We found that IPDA and Q4PCR measurements correlated with one another, but frequencies of intact proviral DNA differed by approximately 19-fold. This difference may be in part due to inefficiencies in long-distance PCR amplification of proviruses in Q4PCR, leading to underestimates of intact proviral frequencies. In addition, nFGS analysis within Q4PCR explained that some of this difference is explained by proviruses that are classified as intact by IPDA but carry defects elsewhere in the genome. Taken together, this head-to-head comparison of novel intact proviral DNA assays provides important context for their interpretation in studies to deplete the HIV reservoir and shows that together the assays bracket true reservoir size.IMPORTANCE The intact proviral DNA assay (IPDA) and quadruplex PCR (Q4PCR) represent major advances in accurately quantifying and characterizing the replication-competent HIV reservoir. This study compares the two novel approaches for measuring intact HIV proviral DNA in samples from 39 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-suppressed people living with HIV, thereby informing ongoing efforts to deplete the HIV reservoir in cure-related trials.

13.
J Exp Med ; 218(1)2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966579

RESUMO

We report that combination bNAb immunotherapy initiated on day 3 post-infection (PI) maintained durable CD8+ T cell-mediated suppression of SHIVAD8 viremia and preinoculation levels of CD4+ T cells in 9 of 13 treated monkeys during nearly 6 yr of observation, as assessed by successive CD8+ T cell-depletion experiments. In an extension of that study, two treatment interventions (bNAbs alone or cART plus bNAbs) beginning on week 2 PI were conducted and conferred controller status to 7 of 12 monkeys that was also dependent on control mediated by CD8+ cells. However, the median time to suppression of plasma viremia following intervention on week 2 was markedly delayed (85 wk) compared with combination bNAb immunotherapy initiated on day 3 (39 wk). In both cases, the principal correlate of virus control was the induction of CD8+ T cellular immunity.

14.
J Exp Med ; 218(3)2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211088

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has been responsible for over 42 million infections and 1 million deaths since its emergence in December 2019. There are few therapeutic options and no approved vaccines. Here, we examine the properties of highly potent human monoclonal antibodies (hu-mAbs) in a Syrian hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 and in a mouse-adapted model of SARS-CoV-2 infection (SARS-CoV-2 MA). Antibody combinations were effective for prevention and in therapy when administered early. However, in vitro antibody neutralization potency did not uniformly correlate with in vivo protection, and some hu-mAbs were more protective in combination in vivo. Analysis of antibody Fc regions revealed that binding to activating Fc receptors contributes to optimal protection against SARS-CoV-2 MA. The data indicate that intact effector function can affect hu-mAb protective activity and that in vivo testing is required to establish optimal hu-mAb combinations for COVID-19 prevention.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/farmacologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Mesocricetus , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
15.
Sci Transl Med ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288661

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), primarily infects cells at mucosal surfaces. Serum neutralizing antibody responses are variable and generally low in individuals that suffer mild forms of COVID-19. Although potent IgG antibodies can neutralize the virus, less is known about secretory antibodies such as IgA that might impact the initial viral spread and transmissibility from the mucosa. Here we characterize the IgA response to SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of 149 convalescent individuals following diagnosis with COVID-19. IgA responses in plasma generally correlated with IgG responses. Further, clones of IgM-, IgG-, and IgA-producing B cells were derived from common progenitor cells. Plasma IgA monomers specific to SARS-CoV-2 proteins were demonstrated to be two-fold less potent than IgG equivalents. However, IgA dimers, the primary form of antibody in the nasopharynx, were on average fifteen times more potent than IgA monomers against the same target. Thus, dimeric IgA responses may be particularly valuable for protection against SARS-CoV-2 and for vaccine efficacy.

16.
J Virol ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298542

RESUMO

Novel therapeutic and preventive strategies are needed to contain the HIV-1 epidemic. Broadly neutralizing human antibodies (bNAbs) with exceptional activity against HIV-1 are currently being tested in HIV-1 prevention trials. The selection of anti-HIV-1 bNAbs for clinical development was primarily guided by their in vitro neutralizing activity against HIV-1 Env pseudotyped viruses. Here we report on the neutralizing activity of 9 anti-HIV-1 bNAbs now in clinical development against 126 Clade A, C, D PBMC-derived primary African isolates. The neutralizing potency and breadth of the bNAbs tested was significantly reduced compared to pseudotyped viruses panels. The difference in sensitivity between pseudotyped viruses and primary isolates varied from 3- to nearly 100-fold depending on the bNAb and the HIV-1 clade. Thus, the neutralizing activity of bNAbs against primary African isolates differs from their activity against pseudovirus panels. The data have significant implications for interpreting the results of ongoing HIV-1 prevention trials.IMPORTANCE HIV remains a major public health problem worldwide, and new therapies and preventive strategies are necessary for controlling the epidemic. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) have been developed in the past decade to fill this gap. The neutralizing activity of these antibodies against diverse HIV strains has mostly been measured using Env-pseudotyped viruses, which overestimate bNAb coverage and potency. In this study we measured the neutralizing activity of nine bNAbs against clade A, C, and D HIV isolates derived from cells of African patients living with HIV and produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We found that the coverage and potency of bNAbs were often significantly lower than what was predicted by Env-psuedotyped viruses, and that this decrease was related to the bNAb biding site class. This data is important for the planning and analysis of clinical trials that seek to evaluate bNAbs for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection in Africa.

17.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173867

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 has infected 47 million individuals and is responsible for over 1.2 million deaths to date. Infection is associated with development of variable levels of antibodies with neutralizing activity that can protect against infection in animal models. Antibody levels decrease with time, but the nature and quality of the memory B cells that would be called upon to produce antibodies upon re-infection has not been examined. Here we report on the humoral memory response in a cohort of 87 individuals assessed at 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection. We find that IgM, and IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) antibody titers decrease significantly with IgA being less affected. Concurrently, neutralizing activity in plasma decreases by five-fold in pseudotype virus assays. In contrast, the number of RBD-specific memory B cells is unchanged. Memory B cells display clonal turnover after 6.2 months, and the antibodies they express have greater somatic hypermutation, increased potency and resistance to RBD mutations, indicative of continued evolution of the humoral response. Analysis of intestinal biopsies obtained from asymptomatic individuals 3 months after COVID-19 onset, using immunofluorescence, electron tomography or polymerase chain reaction, revealed persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in the small bowel of 7 out of 14 volunteers. We conclude that the memory B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 evolves between 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection in a manner that is consistent with antigen persistence.

18.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236016

RESUMO

Protection against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-related zoonotic coronaviruses with pandemic potential is urgently needed. To evaluate immunization strategies, we made nanoparticles displaying the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of only SARS-CoV-2 (homotypic nanoparticles) or co-displaying the SARS-CoV-2 RBD along with RBDs from animal betacoronaviruses that represent threats to humans (mosaic nanoparticles; 4-8 distinct RBDs). Mice immunized with RBD-nanoparticles, but not soluble antigen, elicited cross-reactive antibody binding and neutralization responses, confirming increased immunogenicity from multimerization. Mosaic-RBD-nanoparticles elicited antibodies with superior cross-reactive recognition of heterologous RBDs compared to sera from immunizations with homotypic SARS-CoV-2-RBD-nanoparticles or antibodies from COVID-19 convalescent human plasmas. Moreover, sera from mosaic-RBD- immunized mice neutralized heterologous pseudotyped coronaviruses equivalently or better after priming than sera from homotypic SARS-CoV-2-RBD-nanoparticle immunizations, demonstrating no loss of immunogenicity against any particular RBD resulting from co-display. Thus, a single immunization with mosaic-RBD-nanoparticles provides a potential strategy to simultaneously protect against SARS-CoV-2 and emerging zoonotic coronaviruses.

19.
Nature ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045718

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents an urgent health crisis. Human neutralizing antibodies that target the host ACE2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein1-5 show promise therapeutically and are being evaluated clinically6-8. Here, to identify the structural correlates of SARS-CoV-2 neutralization, we solved eight new structures of distinct COVID-19 human neutralizing antibodies5 in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer or RBD. Structural comparisons allowed us to classify the antibodies into categories: (1) neutralizing antibodies encoded by the VH3-53 gene segment with short CDRH3 loops that block ACE2 and bind only to 'up' RBDs; (2) ACE2-blocking neutralizing antibodies that bind both up and 'down' RBDs and can contact adjacent RBDs; (3) neutralizing antibodies that bind outside the ACE2 site and recognize both up and down RBDs; and (4) previously described antibodies that do not block ACE2 and bind only to up RBDs9. Class 2 contained four neutralizing antibodies with epitopes that bridged RBDs, including a VH3-53 antibody that used a long CDRH3 with a hydrophobic tip to bridge between adjacent down RBDs, thereby locking the spike into a closed conformation. Epitope and paratope mapping revealed few interactions with host-derived N-glycans and minor contributions of antibody somatic hypermutations to epitope contacts. Affinity measurements and mapping of naturally occurring and in vitro-selected spike mutants in 3D provided insight into the potential for SARS-CoV-2 to escape from antibodies elicited during infection or delivered therapeutically. These classifications and structural analyses provide rules for assigning current and future human RBD-targeting antibodies into classes, evaluating avidity effects and suggesting combinations for clinical use, and provide insight into immune responses against SARS-CoV-2.

20.
Elife ; 92020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112236

RESUMO

Neutralizing antibodies elicited by prior infection or vaccination are likely to be key for future protection of individuals and populations against SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, passively administered antibodies are among the most promising therapeutic and prophylactic anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents. However, the degree to which SARS-CoV-2 will adapt to evade neutralizing antibodies is unclear. Using a recombinant chimeric VSV/SARS-CoV-2 reporter virus, we show that functional SARS-CoV-2 S protein variants with mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and N-terminal domain that confer resistance to monoclonal antibodies or convalescent plasma can be readily selected. Notably, SARS-CoV-2 S variants that resist commonly elicited neutralizing antibodies are now present at low frequencies in circulating SARS-CoV-2 populations. Finally, the emergence of antibody-resistant SARS-CoV-2 variants that might limit the therapeutic usefulness of monoclonal antibodies can be mitigated by the use of antibody combinations that target distinct neutralizing epitopes.

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