Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 36
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231667, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scale-up and expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for people living with HIV (PLHIV) have been a global priority for more than 15 years. METHODS: We describe PLHIV at enrollment in care and ART initiation in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique and Tanzania from 2005-2014 and report on enrollment location, CD4 count and loss to follow-up (LTF), death, and combined attrition (LTF and death) pre- and post-ART initiation over time. Pre-ART outcomes were estimated using competing risk and post-ART using Kaplan-Meier estimators; LTF defined as no visit within six months pre-ART and 12 months after ART start. RESULTS: From 2005-2014, 884,328 PLHIV enrolled in care at 350 health facilities, median age was 32.0 years (interquartile range [IQR] 26.0-42.0), and majority were female (66.5%). The proportion of PLHIV enrolled at primary and rural facilities increased from 12.9% and 15.3% in 2005-2006 to 43.5% and 41.7% in 2013-2014 (p<0.0001). Median CD4+ cell count at enrollment increased from 171 cell/mm3 in 2005-2006 (IQR 71-339) to 289 cell/mm3 in 2013-2014 (IQR 133-485) (p<0.0001). A total of 460,758 (57.4%) PLHIV initiated treatment. Cumulative risk of LTF for PLHIV prior to ART initiation 12 months after enrollment was 33.5% (95%CI 33.36-33.58) and 21.98% (95%CI 21.9-22.1) after ART initiation. Pregnant women and the youngest PLHIV group had the highest attrition after ART initiation, at 24 months 40.8% (95%CI 40.1-41.6) of pregnant women and 47.4% (95%CI 46.4-48.4) of PLHIV 15-19 years were not retained. Attrition at 12 months after enrollment among PLHIV regardless of ART status was 38.5% (95%CI 38.4-38.6). CONCLUSION: Over 10 years of HIV scale-up in four sub-Saharan African countries, close to a million PLHIV were enrolled in care increasingly at rural and primary facilities with increasing CD4 count. Loss to follow-up from HIV care remains alarmingly high, particularly among pregnant women and younger PLHIV.

2.
AIDS Res Ther ; 16(1): 38, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806036

RESUMO

Prior HIV testing and awareness of HIV-positive status were assessed among HIV-positive adults at 20 clinics in Eswatini. Of 2196 HIV-positive adults, 1183 (53.8%) reported no prior HIV testing, and 1948 (88.7%) were unaware of their HIV-positive status. Males [adjusted odds ratio, AOR, (95% confidence interval): 0.7 (0.5-0.9)], youth 18-25 years [AOR 0.6 (0.4-0.95)], adults ≥ 50 years [AOR 0.5 (0.3-0.9)], those needing family support [AOR 0.6 (0.5-0.8)], and those living ≥ 45 min from clinic [AOR 0.5 (0.4-0.8)] were less likely to know their HIV-positive status. More HIV testing is needed to achieve 95-95-95 targets, with targeted strategies for those less likely to test for HIV.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Essuatíni/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222959, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Universal antiretroviral treatment (ART) for pregnant women with HIV, Option B+, has been adopted widely for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT). Some evidence shows high loss to follow-up (LTF) under this model. However, gaps in data systems limit this evidence. We collected additional information for women and infants LTF from Option B+ in Eswatini to assess more accurate outcomes. METHODS: LTF at 6-months postpartum was assessed using facility data. Additional data was gathered from: 1) the national ART database and paper records; 2) patient tracing; and 3) interviews and abstraction from patient-held records. Engagement in care was defined as any clinic visit within 91 days before or after 6-months postpartum or completion of a documented transfer; or, for those traced but not completing study interviews, visits at 6-months postpartum or later (for infants), or visits within 3-months of tracing (for women). Multivariable loglinear models were used to identify correlates of engagement. RESULTS: One-hundred-ninety-four (44.7%) of 434 LTF women had outcomes ascertained, including 122 (62.9%) women engaged in care. Among 510 LTF infants, 265 (52.0%) had ascertained outcomes, including 143 (54.0%) engaged in care, 47 (17.7%) pregnancy losses, and 18 (6.8%) deaths. Seventy-two of 189 live infants (38.1%) with ascertained outcomes had a 6-week early infant diagnostic (EID) test. Among women with ascertained outcomes, gestational age of 20+ weeks (vs. fewer than 20 weeks, aRR 0.80; 95% CI 0.68-0.94) and age 25-29 years (vs. 15-24 years, aRR 0.81; 95% CI 0.67-0.97), were associated with lower engagement; initiating ART after first ANC visit was associated with higher engagement (vs. at first ANC visit, aRR 1.12; 95% CI 1.04-1.21). Among infants with ascertained outcomes, mother not initiating ART was associated with lower engagement (vs. ART at first ANC visit, aRR 0.71; 95% CI 0.54-0.91). CONCLUSION: Substantial numbers of women and infants classified as LTF under Option B+ were engaged in care, though a suboptimal level of 6-week EID testing was observed. These findings highlight a need to improve coverage of routine EID testing, and improve data systems to better capture PMTCT patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Mães , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/patologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 210, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) across sub-Saharan Africa has rapidly shifted towards Option B+, an approach in which all HIV+ pregnant and breastfeeding women initiate lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) independent of CD4+ count. Healthcare workers (HCW) are critical to the success of Option B+, yet little is known regarding HCW acceptability of Option B+, particularly over time. METHODS: Ten health facilities in the Manzini and Lubombo regions of eSwatini transitioned from Option A to Option B+ between 2013 and 2014 as part of the Safe Generations study examining PMTCT retention. Fifty HCWs (5 per facility) completed questionnaires assessing feasibility and acceptability: (1) prior to transitioning to Option B+, (2) two months post transition, and (3) approximately 2 years post Option B+ transition. This analysis describes HCW perceptions and experiences two years after transitioning to Option B+. RESULTS: Two years after transition, 80% of HCWs surveyed reported that Option B+ was easy for HCWs, noting that it was particularly easy to explain and coordinate. Immediate ART initiation also reduced delays by eliminating need for laboratory tests prior to ART initiation. Additionally, HCWs reported ease of patient follow-up (58%), documentation (56%), and counseling (58%) under Option B+. Findings also indicate that a majority of HCWs reported that their workloads increased under Option B+. Sixty-eight percent of HCWs at two years post-transition reported more work under Option B+, specifically noting increased involvement in adherence counseling, prescribing/monitoring medications, and appointment scheduling/tracking. Some HCWs attributed their higher workloads to increased client loads, now that all HIV-positive women were initiated on ART. New barriers to patient uptake, and issues related to retention, adherence, and follow-up were also noted as challenges face by HCW when implementing Option B+. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, HCWs found Option B+ to be acceptable and feasible while providing critical insights into the practical issues of universal ART. Further strengthening of the healthcare system may be necessary to alleviate worker burden and to ensure effective monitoring of client retention and adherence. HCW perceptions and experiences with Option B+ should be considered more broadly as countries implement Option B+ and consider universal treatment for all HIV+ individuals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://clinicaltrials.gov NCT01891799 , registered on July 3, 2013.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Mães , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico
5.
AIDS ; 33(1): 45-54, 2019 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Universal eligibility for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pregnant and breastfeeding women ('Option B+') has been widely adopted, but concerns remain. We tested the hypothesis that the change from CD4+-guided ART eligibility ('Option A'), to Option B+, would improve maternal ART uptake and retention. DESIGN: A stepped-wedge evaluation at 12 health facilities in eSwatini. METHODS: Primary outcome was maternal retention: proportion of women attending clinic within 56 days of delivery (antenatal retention) and clinic attendance within 84 days of 6-months postpartum (postnatal retention). Generalized estimating equations examined impact of Option B+ vs. Option A. RESULTS: Between 19 August 2013 and 29 August 2014, 2347 HIV-positive women, 55% (n = 1296) Option A, 45%, (n = 1051) Option B+ were included. ART initiation was observed in 36% (n = 469) of Option A women vs. 94% (n = 983) under Option B+ (P < 0.001). Overall 39% (n = 912) were retained from first ANC visit through 6-months postpartum. Retention was higher under Option B+ (53%, n = 559) vs. Option A (24%, n = 353) with variation by site and study month. Adjusting for age, gestational age, previous HIV diagnosis, and CD4+, Option B+ women were significantly more likely to be retained antenatally (aRR 1.32; 95% CI 1.18-1.49; P < 0.001) and postnatally (aRR 2.11; 95% CI 1.79-2.49) compared with Option A. Restricted to women initiating ART, retention was lower under Option B+ (57%, n = 558) vs. Option A (66%, n = 309; aRR, 0.82; 95% CI 0.70-0.95; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Compared with CD4+-guided ART eligibility, universal ART resulted in substantial increases in pregnant women initiating ART and retained in care through 6 months postpartum.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0204245, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30222768

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Link4Health, a cluster-RCT, demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination strategy targeting barriers at various HIV continuum steps on linkage to and retention in care; showing effectiveness in achieving linkage to HIV care within 1 month plus retention in care at 12 months after HIV testing for people living with HIV (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.19-1.96, p = 0.002). In addition to standard of care, Link4Health included: 1) Point-of-care CD4+ count testing; 2) Accelerated ART initiation; 3) Mobile phone appointment reminders; 4) Care and prevention package including commodities and informational materials; and 5) Non-cash financial incentive. Our objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a scale-up of the Link4Health strategy in Swaziland. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We incorporated the effects and costs of the Link4Health strategy into a computer simulation of the HIV epidemic in Swaziland, comparing a scenario where the strategy was scaled up to a scenario with no implementation. The simulation combined a deterministic compartmental model of HIV transmission with a stochastic microsimulation of HIV progression calibrated to Swaziland epidemiological data. It incorporated downstream health costs potentially saved and infections potentially prevented by improved linkage and treatment adherence. We assessed the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of Link4Health compared to standard care from a health sector perspective reported in US$2015, a time horizon of 20 years, and a discount rate of 3% in accordance with WHO guidelines.[1] Our results suggest that scale-up of the Link4Health strategy would reduce new HIV infections over 20 years by 11,059 infections, a 7% reduction from the projected 169,019 cases and prevent 5,313 deaths, an 11% reduction from the projected 49,582 deaths. Link4Health resulted in an incremental cost per infection prevented of $13,310 and an incremental cost per QALY gained of $3,560/QALY from the health sector perspective. CONCLUSIONS: Using a threshold of <3 x per capita GDP, the Link4Health strategy is likely to be a cost-effective strategy for responding to the HIV epidemic in Swaziland.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Custo-Benefício , Essuatíni/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/economia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Padrão de Cuidado/economia
7.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 21(9): e25178, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225908

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adolescence and pregnancy are potential risk factors for loss to follow-up (LTFU) while on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared adolescent and adult LTFU after ART initiation to quantify the impact of age, pregnancy, and site-level factors on LTFU. METHODS: We used routine clinical data for patients initiating ART as young adolescents (YA; 10 to 14 years), older adolescents (OA; 15 to 19 years) and adults (≥20 years) from 2000 to 2014 at 52 health facilities affiliated with the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) East Africa collaboration. We estimated cumulative incidence (95% confidence interval, CI) of LTFU (no clinic visit for ≥6 months after ART initiation) and identified patient and site-level correlates of LTFU, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models for all patients as well as individual age groups. RESULTS: A total of 138,387 patients initiated ART, including 2496 YA, 2955 OA and 132,936 adults. Of these, 55%, 78% and 66%, respectively, were female and 0.7% of YA, 22.3% of OA and 8.3% of adults were pregnant at ART initiation. Cumulative incidence of LTFU at five years was 26.6% (24.6 to 28.6) among YA, 44.1% (41.8 to 46.3) among OA and 29.3% (29.1 to 29.6) among adults. Overall, compared to adults, the adjusted hazard ratio, aHR, (95% CI) of LTFU for OA was 1.54 (1.41 to 1.68) and 0.77 (0.69 to 0.86) for YA. Compared to males, pregnant females had higher hazard of LTFU, aHR 1.20 (1.14 to 1.27), and nonpregnant women had lower hazard aHR 0.90 (0.88 to 0.93). LTFU hazard among the OA was primarily driven by both pregnant and nonpregnant females, aHR 2.42 (1.98 to 2.95) and 1.51 (1.27 to 1.80), respectively, compared to men. The LTFU hazard ratio varied by IeDEA program. Site-level factors associated with overall lower LTFU hazard included receiving care in tertiary versus primary-care clinics aHR 0.61 (0.56 to 0.67), integrated adult and adolescent services and food ration provision aHR 0.93 (0.89 to 0.97) versus nonintegrated clinics with food ration provision, having patient support groups aHR 0.77 (0.66 to 0.90) and group adherence counselling aHR 0.61 (0.57 to 0.67). CONCLUSIONS: Older adolescents experienced higher risk of LTFU compared to YA and adults. Interventions to prevent LTFU among older adolescents are critically needed, particularly for female and/or pregnant adolescents.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez na Adolescência , Adolescente , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Grupos de Autoajuda , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
8.
AIDS ; 32 Suppl 1: S43-S46, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the feasibility of cardiovascular disease risk factor (CVDRF) screening at an HIV clinic in Swaziland. METHODS: A sample of HIV-positive patients at least 40 years on antiretroviral treatment was screened for hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and tobacco smoking. RESULTS: A total of 1826 patients were screened; 684 (39%) had at least one CVDRF. Screening volume varied markedly, and was limited by staffing, space, and supplies. DISCUSSION: CVDRF screening was feasible and prevalence of risk factors in people living with HIV at least 40 years was high.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Essuatíni , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 21(3): e25099, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577617

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Screening of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors is recommended but not routinely provided for HIV-infected patients, especially in low-resource settings. Potential concerns include limited staff time and low patient acceptability, but little empirical data exists. As part of a pilot study of screening in a large urban HIV clinic in Swaziland, we conducted a time-motion study to assess the impact of screening on patient flow and HIV service delivery and exit interviews to assess patient acceptability. METHODS: A convenience sample of patients ≥40 years of age attending routine HIV clinic visits was screened for hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and tobacco smoking. We observed HIV visits with and without screening and measured time spent on HIV and CVD risk factor screening activities. We compared screened and unscreened patients on total visit time and time spent receiving HIV services using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. A separate convenience sample of screened patients participated in exit interviews to assess their satisfaction with screening. RESULTS: We observed 172 patient visits (122 with CVD risk factor screening and 50 without). Screening increased total visit time from a median (range) of 4 minutes (2 to 11) to 15 minutes (9 to 30) (p < 0.01). Time spent on HIV care was not affected: 4 (2 to 10) versus 4 (2 to 11) (p = 0.57). We recruited 126 patients for exit interviews, all of whom indicated that they would recommend screening to others. CONCLUSION: Provision of CVD risk factor screening more than tripled the length of routine HIV clinic visits but did not reduce the time spent on HIV services. Programme managers need to take longer visit duration into account in order to effectively integrate CVD risk factor screening and counselling into HIV programmes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Essuatíni , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
10.
PLoS Med ; 14(11): e1002420, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29112963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gaps in the HIV care continuum contribute to poor health outcomes and increase HIV transmission. A combination of interventions targeting multiple steps in the continuum is needed to achieve the full beneficial impact of HIV treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Link4Health, a cluster-randomized controlled trial, evaluated the effectiveness of a combination intervention strategy (CIS) versus the standard of care (SOC) on the primary outcome of linkage to care within 1 month plus retention in care at 12 months after HIV-positive testing. Ten clusters of HIV clinics in Swaziland were randomized 1:1 to CIS versus SOC. The CIS included point-of-care CD4+ testing at the time of an HIV-positive test, accelerated antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation for treatment-eligible participants, mobile phone appointment reminders, health educational packages, and noncash financial incentives. Secondary outcomes included each component of the primary outcome, mean time to linkage, assessment for ART eligibility, ART initiation and time to ART initiation, viral suppression defined as HIV-1 RNA < 1,000 copies/mL at 12 months after HIV testing among patients on ART ≥6 months, and loss to follow-up and death at 12 months after HIV testing. A total of 2,197 adults aged ≥18 years, newly tested HIV positive, were enrolled from 19 August 2013 to 21 November 2014 (1,096 CIS arm; 1,101 SOC arm) and followed for 12 months. The median participant age was 31 years (IQR 26-39), and 59% were women. In an intention-to-treat analysis, 64% (705/1,096) of participants at the CIS sites achieved the primary outcome versus 43% (477/1,101) at the SOC sites (adjusted relative risk [RR] 1.52, 95% CI 1.19-1.96, p = 0.002). Participants in the CIS arm versus the SOC arm had the following secondary outcomes: linkage to care regardless of retention at 12 months (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.97-1.21, p = 0.13), mean time to linkage (2.5 days versus 7.5 days, p = 0.189), retention in care at 12 months regardless of time to linkage (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.18-1.86, p = 0.002), assessment for ART eligibility (RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.34, p = 0.004), ART initiation (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.96-1.40, p = 0.12), mean time to ART initiation from time of HIV testing (7 days versus 14 days, p < 0.001), viral suppression among those on ART for ≥6 months (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.88-1.07, p = 0.55), loss to follow-up at 12 months after HIV testing (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.40-0.79, p = 0.002), and death (N = 78) within 12 months of HIV testing (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.46-1.35, p = 0.41). Limitations of this study include a small number of clusters and the inability to evaluate the incremental effectiveness of individual components of the combination strategy. CONCLUSIONS: A combination strategy inclusive of 5 evidence-based interventions aimed at multiple steps in the HIV care continuum was associated with significant increase in linkage to care plus 12-month retention. This strategy offers promise of enhanced outcomes for HIV-positive patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01904994.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Protocolos Clínicos , Análise por Conglomerados , Essuatíni/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Cooperação do Paciente , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
11.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 4(3): ofx156, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28959700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a prerequisite to maximizing individual and societal benefits of antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: Adults ≥18 years of age testing HIV positive at 10 health facilities in Mozambique and Swaziland received point-of-care CD4+ cell count testing immediately after diagnosis. We examined median CD4+ cell count at diagnosis, the proportion diagnosed with advanced HIV disease (CD4+ cell count ≤350 cells/µL) and severe immunosuppression (CD4+ cell count ≤100 cells/µL), and determinants of the latter 2 measures. RESULTS: Among 2333 participants, the median CD4+ cell count at diagnosis was 313 cells/µL (interquartile range, 164-484), more than half (56.5%) had CD4+ ≤350 cells/µL, and 13.9% had CD4+ ≤100 cells/µL. The adjusted relative risk (aRR) of both advanced HIV disease and severe immunosuppression at diagnosis was higher in men versus women (advanced disease aRR = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16-1.48; severe immunosuppression aRR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.17-2.02) and among those who sought HIV testing because they felt ill (advanced disease aRR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.08-1.55; severe immunosuppression aRR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.35-2.26). Age 18-24 versus 25-39 was associated with a lower risk of both outcomes (advanced disease aRR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.59-0.84; severe immunosuppression aRR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41-0.95). CONCLUSIONS: More than 10 years into the global scale up of comprehensive HIV services, the majority of adults diagnosed with HIV at health facilities in 2 high-prevalence countries presented with advanced disease and 1 in 7 had severe immunosuppression. Innovative strategies for early identification of HIV-positive individuals are urgently needed.

12.
Glob Heart ; 11(4): 403-408, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27938826

RESUMO

Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the leading causes of death and disability worldwide but have received suboptimal attention and funding from the global health community. Although the first United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) for NCD in 2011 aimed to stimulate donor funding and political action, only 1.3% of official development assistance for health was allocated to NCD in 2015, even less than in 2011. In stark contrast, the UNGASS on human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in 2001 sparked billions of dollars in funding for HIV and enabled millions of HIV-infected individuals to access antiretroviral treatment. Using an existing analytic framework, we compare the global responses to the HIV and NCD epidemics and distill lessons from the HIV response that might be utilized to enhance the global NCD response. These include: 1) further educating and empowering communities and patients to increase demand for NCD services and to hold national governments accountable for establishing and achieving NCD targets; and 2) evidence to support the feasibility and effectiveness of large-scale NCD screening and treatment programs in low-resource settings. We conclude with a case study from Swaziland, a country that is making progress in confronting both HIV and NCD.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Nações Unidas/economia , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/economia , Humanos , Morbidade/tendências , Doenças não Transmissíveis/economia
13.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 72(3): 324-32, 2016 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26910499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scale-up of triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa has transformed the context of childbearing for HIV-positive women and may impact pregnancy incidence in HIV programs. METHODS: Using observational data from 47,313 HIV-positive women enrolled at 26 HIV clinics in Kenya and Uganda between 2001 and 2009, we calculated the crude cumulative incidence of pregnancy for the pre-ART and on-ART periods. The causal effect of ART use on incident pregnancy was assessed using inverse probability weighted marginal structural models, and the relationship was further explored in multivariable Cox models. RESULTS: Crude cumulative pregnancy incidence at 1 year after enrollment/ART initiation was 4.0% and 3.9% during the pre-ART and on-ART periods, respectively. In marginal structural models, ART use was not significantly associated with incident pregnancy [hazard ratio = 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99 to 1.12]. Similarly, in Cox models, there was no significant relationship between ART use and incident pregnancy (cause-specific hazard ratio: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.05), but effect modification was observed. Specifically, women who were pregnant at enrollment and on ART had an increased risk of incident pregnancy compared to those not pregnant at enrollment and not on ART (cause-specific hazard ratio: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.23). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort, ART initiation was not associated with incident pregnancy in the general population of women enrolling in HIV care but rather only among those pregnant at enrollment. This finding further highlights the importance of scaling up access to lifelong treatment for pregnant women.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestantes , Adolescente , Adulto , África Oriental/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 35(8): 886-93, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26849157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2007, Swaziland initiated a hub-and-spoke model for decentralizing antiretroviral therapy (ART) access for HIV-infected children (<15 years old). Decentralization was facilitated through (1) down referral of stable children on ART from overburdened central facilities (hubs) to primary healthcare clinics (spokes) and (2) pediatric ART initiation at spokes (spoke initiation). METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative retrospective cohort study among children starting ART during 2004-2010 to assess effect of down referral and spoke initiation on rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU), death and attrition (death or LTFU). Twelve of 28 pediatric ART hubs were randomly selected using probability-proportional-to-size sampling. Seven selected facilities had initiated hub-and-spoke decentralization by study start; at these facilities, 901 of 1893 hub-initiated and maintained (hub-maintained) children and 495 of 1105 down-referred or spoke-initiated children were randomly selected for record abstraction. At the 5 hub-only facilities, 612 of 1987 children were randomly selected. Multivariable proportional hazards regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (AHR) for effect of down referral (a time-varying covariate) and spoke initiation on outcomes. RESULTS: Among 2008 children at ART initiation, median age was 5.0 years, median CD4% 12.0%, median CD4 count 358 cells/µL and median weight-for-age Z score -1.91. Controlling for known confounders, down referral was strongly protective against LTFU (AHR: 0.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.79) and attrition (AHR: 0.46; 95% confidence interval: 0.26-0.83) but not mortality. Compared with hub-only children or hub-maintained children, spoke-initiated children had similar outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Decentralization of pediatric ART through down referral and spoke initiation within a hub-and-spoke system should be continued and might improve program outcomes.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Essuatíni/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
PLoS One ; 11(2): e0150086, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26910847

RESUMO

To improve early enrollment in HIV care, the Swaziland Ministry of Health implemented new linkage procedures for persons HIV diagnosed during the Soka Uncobe male circumcision campaign (SOKA, 2011-2012) and the Swaziland HIV Incidence Measurement Survey (SHIMS, 2011). Abstraction of clinical records and telephone interviews of a retrospective cohort of HIV-diagnosed SOKA and SHIMS clients were conducted in 2013-2014 to evaluate compliance with new linkage procedures and enrollment in HIV care at 92 facilities throughout Swaziland. Of 1,105 clients evaluated, within 3, 12, and 24 months of diagnosis, an estimated 14.0%, 24.3%, and 37.0% enrolled in HIV care, respectively, after adjusting for lost to follow-up and non-response. Kaplan-Meier functions indicated lower enrollment probability among clients 14-24 (P = 0.0001) and 25-29 (P = 0.001) years of age compared with clients >35 years of age. At 69 facilities to which clients were referred for HIV care, compliance with new linkage procedures was low: referral forms were located for less than half (46.8%) of the clients, and few (9.6%) were recorded in the appointment register or called either before (0.3%) or after (4.9%) their appointment. Of over one thousand clients newly HIV diagnosed in Swaziland in 2011 and 2012, few received linkage services in accordance with national procedures and most had not enrolled in HIV care two years after their diagnosis. Our findings are a call to action to improve linkage services and early enrollment in HIV care in Swaziland.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/terapia , HIV-1 , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Adulto , Essuatíni/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 18: 20303, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26690303

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines have been updated several times in recent years. We assessed implementation of ART guidelines among under-five children to inform the transition to universal paediatric ART in Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of infants (0 to 11 months) and children (12 to 59 months) enrolled between 2010 and 2012 using routinely collected data. Infants and children were initiated on ART according to the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations/2009 Tanzania guidelines (universal ART for infants). Cumulative ART initiation incidence and correlates of ART initiation were examined using competing risk methods accounting for attrition (death or loss to follow-up). Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression models were used to examine attrition on ART and its correlates. RESULTS: A total of 1679 children were enrolled at 69 clinics: 469 (28%) infants and 1210 (74%) children. Infant cumulative ART initiation incidence was 59.6, 71.3 and 78.0% at one, three and six months of follow-up. Infants were more likely to start ART if enrolled in 2012 [adjusted sub-hazard ratio (AsHR)=2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7 to 2.8] or 2011 (AsHR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.4 to 2.3) compared to 2010; they were more likely to start ART from prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (AsHR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.3 to 2.1) and inpatient wards (AsHR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.2 to 2.0) versus being enrolled from voluntary counselling and testing centres. Attrition at 12 months on ART was 33.9% and was more likely among infants with WHO Stage 4 [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=3.1. 95% CI: 1.8 to 5.2] and severe malnutrition (AHR=1.4, 95% CI: 1.0 to 1.9).Among 599 children eligible for ART at enrollment, cumulative ART initiation incidence was 51.8, 68.6 and 76.1% at one, three, and six months. Children were more likely to start ART if enrolled in 2012 (AsHR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.4 to 2.3) or 2011 (AsHR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.2 to 1.8) compared to 2010; they were more likely to start ART at primary health facilities (AsHR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.0) and less likely at urban facilities (AsHR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.5 to 0.9) and facilities without CD4 testing on site (AsHR=0.7, 95% CI: 0.5 to 0.9). Attrition at 12 months on ART was 23.1% and was more likely with severe malnutrition (AHR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.1 to 3.0), WHO Stage 4 (AHR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.0 to 8.5) and outpatient enrolees (AHR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.7). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the gradual adoption of guidelines over calendar time. Interventions to expedite ART initiation and support retention on ART are needed.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 64(46): 1281-6, 2015 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26605861

RESUMO

Equitable access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for men and women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a principle endorsed by most countries and funding bodies, including the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Relief (PEPFAR) (1). To evaluate gender equity in ART access among adults (defined for this report as persons aged ≥15 years), 765,087 adult ART patient medical records from 12 countries in five geographic regions* were analyzed to estimate the ratio of women to men among new ART enrollees for each calendar year during 2002-2013. This annual ratio was compared with estimates from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)(†) of the ratio of HIV-infected adult women to men in the general population. In all 10 African countries and Haiti, the most recent estimates of the ratio of adult women to men among new ART enrollees significantly exceeded the UNAIDS estimates for the female-to-male ratio among HIV-infected adults by 23%-83%. In six African countries and Haiti, the ratio of women to men among new adult ART enrollees increased more sharply over time than the estimated UNAIDS female-to-male ratio among adults with HIV in the general population. Increased ART coverage among men is needed to decrease their morbidity and mortality and to reduce HIV incidence among their sexual partners. Reaching more men with HIV testing and linkage-to-care services and adoption of test-and-treat ART eligibility guidelines (i.e., regular testing of adults, and offering treatment to all infected persons with ART, regardless of CD4 cell test results) could reduce gender inequity in ART coverage.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , África , Feminino , Haiti , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Vietnã
18.
Implement Sci ; 10: 101, 2015 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26189154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gaps in the HIV care continuum contribute to suboptimal individual health outcomes and increased risk of HIV transmission at the population level. Implementation science studies are needed to evaluate clinic-based interventions aimed at improving retention of patients across the continuum. METHODS/DESIGN: Link4Health uses an unblended cluster site-randomized design to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination intervention strategy (CIS) as compared to standard of care on linkage to and retention in care among HIV-diagnosed adults in Swaziland. The CIS intervention targets a multiplicity of structural, behavioral, and biomedical barriers through five interventions: (1) point-of-care CD4 testing at time of HIV testing, (2) accelerated antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation for eligible patients, (3) mobile phone appointment reminders, (4) care and prevention packages, and (5) non-cash financial incentives for linkage and retention. The unit of randomization is a network of HIV clinics inclusive of a secondary facility coupled with an affiliated primary facility. Ten study units were randomized based on implementing partner, geographic location, and historic volume of HIV patients. Target enrollment was 2200 individuals, each to be followed for 12 months. Eligibility criteria includes HIV-positive test, age >18 years, willing to receive HIV care at a clinic in the study unit and consent to study procedures. Exclusion criteria included previous HIV care in the past 6 months, planning to leave the community, and current pregnancy. The primary study outcome is linkage within 1 month and retention at 12 months after testing HIV positive. Secondary outcomes include viral load suppression at 12 months, time to ART eligibility and initiation, participant acceptability, and cost-effectiveness. The trial status is that study enrollment is complete and follow-up procedures are ongoing. DISCUSSION: Link4Health evaluates a novel and pragmatic combination intervention strategy to improve linkage to and retention in care among adults with HIV in Swaziland. If the strategy is found to be effective, this study has the potential to inform HIV service delivery in resource-limited settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01904994.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Essuatíni , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
19.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 69(1): e1-12, 2015 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25942465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2007, Swaziland initiated a hub-and-spoke model for decentralizing antiretroviral therapy (ART) access. Decentralization was facilitated through (1) down-referral of stable ART patients from overburdened central facilities (hubs) to primary health care clinics (spokes) and (2) ART initiation at spokes (spoke initiation). METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative retrospective cohort study among adult ART enrollees during 2004-2010 to assess the effect of down-referral and spoke-initiation on rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU), death, and attrition (death or LTFU). Sixteen of 31 hubs were randomly selected using probability-proportional-to-size sampling. Seven selected facilities had initiated the hub-and-spoke model by study start. At these facilities, 1149 of 24,782 hub-initiated and maintained and 878 of 7722 down-referred or spoke-initiated patient records were randomly selected and analyzed. At the 9 hub-only facilities, 483 of 6638 records were randomly selected and analyzed. Multivariable proportional hazards regression was used to assess effect of down-referral (a time-varying covariate) and spoke-initiation on outcomes. RESULTS: At ART initiation, median age was 35, 65% were female, and median CD4 count was 147 cells per microliter. Controlling for known confounders, down-referral was strongly protective against LTFU [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.29 to 0.50] and attrition (AHR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.76) but not mortality. Compared with hub-initiated and maintained patients, spoke-initiated patients had lower LTFU (AHR 0.59; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.77) and attrition rates (AHR 0.60; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.77), but not mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Down-referral and spoke-initiation within a hub-and-spoke ART decentralization model were protective against LTFU and overall attrition and could facilitate future ART program expansion.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Essuatíni , Feminino , Humanos , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 63(47): 1097-103, 2014 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25426651

RESUMO

Although scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) since 2005 has contributed to declines of about 30% in the global annual number of human immunodeficiency (HIV)-related deaths and declines in global HIV incidence, estimated annual HIV-related deaths among adolescents have increased by about 50% and estimated adolescent HIV incidence has been relatively stable. In 2012, an estimated 2,500 (40%) of all 6,300 daily new HIV infections occurred among persons aged 15-24 years. Difficulty enrolling adolescents and young adults in ART and high rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU) after ART initiation might be contributing to mortality and HIV incidence in this age group, but data are limited. To evaluate age-related ART retention challenges, data from retrospective cohort studies conducted in seven African countries among 16,421 patients, aged ≥15 years at enrollment, who initiated ART during 2004-2012 were analyzed. ART enrollment and outcome data were compared among three groups defined by age at enrollment: adolescents and young adults (aged 15-24 years), middle-aged adults (aged 25-49 years), and older adults (aged ≥50 years). Enrollees aged 15-24 years were predominantly female (81%-92%), commonly pregnant (3%-32% of females), unmarried (54%-73%), and, in four countries with employment data, unemployed (53%-86%). In comparison, older adults were more likely to be male (p<0.001), employed (p<0.001), and married, (p<0.05 in five countries). Compared with older adults, adolescents and young adults had higher LTFU rates in all seven countries, reaching statistical significance in three countries in crude and multivariable analyses. Evidence-based interventions to reduce LTFU for adolescent and young adult ART enrollees could help reduce mortality and HIV incidence in this age group.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , África , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA