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Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371920


Nutraceuticals, including vitamin D, vitamin A, zinc, lactoferrin, polyphenols coenzyme Q, magnesium, and selenium, are implicated in the modulation of the complex molecular pathways involved in the immune response against viral pathogens. A common element of the activity of nutraceuticals is their ability to enhance the innate immune response against pathogens by acting on the major cellular subsets and inducing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. In some cases, this action is accompanied by a direct antimicrobial effect, as evidenced in the specific case of lactoferrin. Furthermore, nutraceuticals act through complex molecular mechanisms to minimize the damage caused by the activation of the immune system against pathogens, reducing the oxidative damage, influencing the antigen presentation, enhancing the differentiation and proliferation of regulatory T cells, driving the differentiation of lymphocyte subsets, and modulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this paper, we review the main molecular mechanisms responsible for the immunomodulatory function of nutraceuticals, focusing on the most relevant aspects for the prevention and treatment of viral infections.

Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/virologia , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/metabolismo , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/imunologia , Vírus/patogenicidade
Minerva Pediatr (Torino) ; 73(2): 111-114, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880902


From an evolutionary and nutritional standpoint, exclusive human milk feeding for the first 6 months of life, with continued breastfeeding for 1 to 2 years of life, is recognized as the gold standard nourishment for the infant: it is a species-specific food, with a composition designed by nature to better respond to the biological and psychological needs of the newborn/infant. Human milk contains many hundreds of bioactive molecules that protect newborn against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Compared with formula feeding, breastfeeding has been associated with decreased morbidity and mortality in infants and to lower incidence of gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory, respiratory and allergic disease. Here, we briefly review the nutritional and functional composition of human milk and provide an overview of its varied bioactive factors.

Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(1): 240-251, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179415


Children are not small adults and this fact is particularly true when we consider the respiratory tract. The anatomic peculiarities of the upper airway make infants preferential nasal breathers between 2 and 6 months of life. The pediatric larynx has a more complex shape than previously believed, with the narrowest point located anatomically at the subglottic level and functionally at the cricoid cartilage. Alveolarization of the distal airways starts conventionally at 36-37 weeks of gestation, but occurs mainly after birth, continuing until adolescence. The pediatric chest wall has unique features that are particularly pronounced in infants. Neonates, infants, and toddlers have a higher metabolic rate, and consequently, their oxygen consumption at rest is more than double that of adults. The main anatomical and functional differences between pediatric and adult airways contribute to the understanding of various respiratory symptoms and disease conditions in childhood. Knowing the peculiarities of pediatric airways is helpful in the prevention, management, and treatment of acute and chronic diseases of the respiratory tract. Developmental modifications in the structure of the respiratory tract, in addition to immunological and neurological maturation, should be taken into consideration during childhood.

Sistema Respiratório/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cartilagem Cricoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Laringe/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pulmão/fisiologia , Masculino , Radiografia , Músculos Respiratórios/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios , Sistema Respiratório/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Respiratório/diagnóstico por imagem , Parede Torácica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Traqueia/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Front Pediatr ; 8: 480, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014920


Asthma is the most frequent chronic disease in children, and its pathogenesis involves genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. The rapid rise in the prevalence of asthma registered over the last few decades has stressed the need to identify the environmental and modifiable factors associated with the development of the disease. In particular, there is increasing interest in the role of modifiable nutritional factors specific to both the prenatal and post-natal early life as, during this time, the immune system is particularly vulnerable to exogenous interferences. Several dietary factors, including maternal diet during pregnancy, the duration of breastfeeding, the use of special milk formulas, the timing of the introduction of complementary foods, and prenatal and early life supplementation with vitamins and probiotics/prebiotics, have been addressed as potential targets for the prevention of asthma. In this review, we outline recent findings on the potential role of prenatal and perinatal dietary and nutritional interventions for the primary prevention of pediatric asthma. Moreover, we addressed unmet needs and areas for future research in the prevention of childhood-onset asthma.

Front Immunol ; 11: 700, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391012


Allergic diseases, such as food allergy (FA), atopic dermatitis (AD), and asthma, are heterogeneous inflammatory immune-mediated disorders that currently constitute a public health issue in many developed countries worldwide. The significant increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases reported over the last few years has closely paralleled substantial environmental changes both on a macro and micro scale, which have led to reduced microbial exposure in early life and perturbation of the human microbiome composition. Increasing evidence shows that early life interactions between the human microbiome and the immune cells play a pivotal role in the development of the immune system. Therefore, the process of early colonization by a "healthy" microbiome is emerging as a key determinant of life-long health. In stark contrast, the perturbation of such a process, which results in changes in the host-microbiome biodiversity and metabolic activities, has been associated with greater susceptibility to immune-mediated disorders later in life, including allergic diseases. Here, we outline recent findings on the potential contribution of the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and airways to the development of FA, AD, and asthma. Furthermore, we address how the modulation of the microbiome composition in these different body districts could be a potential strategy for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases.

Asma/imunologia , Asma/microbiologia , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/microbiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Epiderme/imunologia , Epiderme/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunidade , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/microbiologia
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31 Suppl 24: 54-57, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017212


Several scientific societies established that vitamin D (VD), in its metabolized form 25(OH)D, levels higher than 20 ng/mL are sufficient to ensure optimal bone health, while 25(OH)D levels higher than 30 ng/mL are needed to favor VD extraskeletal actions. However, it has been estimated that approximately 30% of children and 60% of adults worldwide are VD deficient and insufficient, respectively. This is the reason why it is important to provide a practical approach to VD supplementation for infants, children, and adolescents. It is the pediatrician's role to evaluate the modifiable lifestyle risk factors for deficiency, particularly a reduced sun exposure, following an evidence-based approach, and to suggest VD supplementation only when there is a rational reason to support its use.

Deficiência de Ácido Ascórbico/imunologia , Asma/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Infecções Respiratórias/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Autoimunidade , Criança , Humanos , Vitamina D/imunologia