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BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1082, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641871


BACKGROUND: By testing children and adolescents of HIV positive caretakers, index-linked HIV testing, a targeted HIV testing strategy, has the ability to identify high risk children and adolescents earlier and more efficiently, compared to blanket testing. We evaluated the incremental cost of integrating index-linked HIV testing via three modalities into HIV services in Zimbabwe. METHODS: A mixture of bottom-up and top-down costing was employed to estimate the provider cost per test and per HIV diagnosis for 2-18 year olds, through standard of care testing, and the incremental cost of index-linked HIV testing via three modalities: facility-based testing, home-based testing by a healthcare worker, and testing at home by the caregiver using an oral mucosal transudate test. In addition to interviews, direct observation and study process data, facility registries were abstracted to extract outcome data and resource use. Costs were converted to 2019 constant US$. RESULTS: The average cost per standard of care test in urban facilities was US$5.91 and US$7.15 at the rural facility. Incremental cost of an index-linked HIV test was driven by the uptake and number of participants tested. The lowest cost approach in the urban setting was home-based testing (US$6.69) and facility-based testing at the rural clinic (US$5.36). Testing by caregivers was almost always the most expensive option (rural US$62.49, urban US$17.49). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first costing analysis of index-linked HIV testing strategies. Unit costs varied across sites and with uptake. When scaling up, alternative testing solutions that increase efficiency such as index-linked HIV testing of the entire household, as opposed to solely targeting children/adolescents, need to be explored.

Infecções por HIV , Teste de HIV , Adolescente , Criança , Custos e Análise de Custo , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , População Rural , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223076, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581271


SETTING: Four primary health care clinics providing tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus care services in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. OBJECTIVES: To assess isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) initiation and completion, factors associated with IPT uptake and incidence of TB, and TB and antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes among people living with HIV (PLHIV). DESIGN: This was a cohort study using routine data in the records for PLHIV initiated on ART from October 2013 to March 2014 with 31 December 2017 as the end of the follow-up period. RESULTS: A total of 408 PLHIV were eligible for IPT, 214 (52%) were initiated on IPT and 201 (94%) completed IPT. No person in the IPT-initiated group developed Tuberculosis (TB). Six persons with TB were reported among the non-IPT-initiated group leading to an incidence of 9 cases/1,000 person-years of follow-up. About 70% of those who developed and were treated for TB had a successful TB treatment outcome. The survival on ART at four years of follow-up was 88% among the IPT-initiated PLHIV that was significantly higher than the 75% survival in the group not- initiated on IPT. CONCLUSION: The study revealed low IPT initiation among eligible PLHIV who, if started on IPT, completed the six month regimen. TB was reported only among the PLHIV not-initiated on IPT and the four year ART survival was higher in the IPT-initiated group than in the non-initiated group. These findings reinforce the need to strengthen IPT uptake among PLHIV in Bulawayo.

Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia