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1.
Am Heart J ; 215: 114-128, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the preferred primary diagnostic modality when examining patients with low to intermediate pre-test probability of coronary artery disease (CAD). Only 20-30% of these have potentially obstructive CAD. Because of the relatively poor positive predictive value of coronary CTA, unnecessary invasive coronary angiographies (ICAs) are conducted with the costs and risks associated with the procedure. Hence, an optimized diagnostic CAD algorithm may reduce the numbers of ICAs not followed by revascularization. The Dan-NICAD 2 study has 3 equivalent main aims: (1) To examine the diagnostic precision of a sound-based diagnostic algorithm, The CADScor®System (Acarix A/S, Denmark), in patients with a low to intermediate pre-test risk of CAD referred to a primary examination by coronary CTA. We hypothesize that the CADScor®System provides better stratification prior to coronary CTA than clinical risk stratification scores alone. (2) To compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3T cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (3T CMRI), 82rubidium positron emission tomography (82Rb-PET), and CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) in patients where obstructive CAD cannot be ruled out by coronary CTA using ICA fractional flow reserve (FFR) as reference standard. (3) To compare the diagnostic performance of quantitative flow ratio (QFR) and ICA-FFR in patients with low to intermediate pre-test probability of CAD using 82Rb-PET as reference standard. METHODS: Dan-NICAD 2 is a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study including approximately 2,000 patients with low to intermediate pre-test probability of CAD and without previous history of CAD. Patients are referred to coronary CTA because of symptoms suggestive of CAD, as evaluated by a cardiologist. Patient interviews, sound recordings, and blood samples are obtained in connection with the coronary CTA. If coronary CTA does not rule out obstructive CAD, patients will be examined by 3T CMRI 82Rb-PET, FFRCT, ICA, and FFR. Reference standard is ICA-FFR. Obstructive CAD is defined as an FFR ≤0.80 or as high-grade stenosis (>90% diameter stenosis) by visual assessment. Diagnostic performance will be evaluated as sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, calibration, and discrimination. Enrolment started January 2018 and is expected to be completed by June 2020. Patients are followed for 10 years after inclusion. DISCUSSION: The results of the Dan-NICAD 2 study are expected to contribute to the improvement of diagnostic strategies for patients suspected of CAD in 3 different steps: risk stratification prior to coronary CTA, diagnostic strategy after coronary CTA, and invasive wireless QFR analysis as an alternative to ICA-FFR.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e028401, 2019 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182452

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To establish a cohort that enables identification of genomic factors that influence human health and empower increased blood donor health and safe blood transfusions. Human health is complex and involves several factors, a major one being the genomic aspect. The genomic era has resulted in many consortia encompassing large samples sizes, which has proven successful for identifying genetic factors associated with specific traits. However, it remains a big challenge to establish large cohorts that facilitate studies of the interaction between genetic factors, environmental and life-style factors as these change over the course of life. A major obstacle to such endeavours is that it is difficult to revisit participants to retrieve additional information and obtain longitudinal, consecutive measurements. PARTICIPANTS: Blood donors (n=110 000) have given consent to participate in the Danish Blood Donor Study. The study uses the infrastructure of the Danish blood banks. FINDINGS TO DATE: The cohort comprises extensive phenotype data and whole genome genotyping data. Further, it is possible to retrieve additional phenotype data from national registries as well as from the donors at future visits, including consecutive measurements. FUTURE PLANS: To provide new knowledge on factors influencing our health and thus provide a platform for studying the influence of genomic factors on human health, in particular the interaction between environmental and genetic factors.

4.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1066-1074, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209380

RESUMO

Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance worldwide; around one in ten users become dependent. The risk for cannabis use disorder (CUD) has a strong genetic component, with twin heritability estimates ranging from 51 to 70%. Here we performed a genome-wide association study of CUD in 2,387 cases and 48,985 controls, followed by replication in 5,501 cases and 301,041 controls. We report a genome-wide significant risk locus for CUD (P = 9.31 × 10-12) that replicates in an independent population (Preplication = 3.27 × 10-3, Pmeta-analysis = 9.09 × 10-12). The index variant (rs56372821) is a strong expression quantitative trait locus for cholinergic receptor nicotinic α2 subunit (CHRNA2); analyses of the genetically regulated gene expression identified a significant association of CHRNA2 expression with CUD in brain tissue. At the polygenic level, analyses revealed a significant decrease in the risk of CUD with increased load of variants associated with cognitive performance. The results provide biological insights and inform on the genetic architecture of CUD.


Assuntos
Abuso de Maconha/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/fisiologia , Idade de Início , Alelos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Confusão (Epidemiologia) , Dinamarca , Escolaridade , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/biossíntese , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptores Nicotínicos/biossíntese , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fumar/genética , Transcriptoma
5.
Int J Cardiol ; 286: 152-158, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) suggest that several risk loci increase the risk of CAD and myocardial infarction (MI) equally. In contrast, the ABO locus is stronger associated with MI than with CAD, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. PURPOSE: To investigate the association between the ABO risk variant and platelet activation and aggregation. Moreover, to explore the effects of other CAD-associated risk variants. METHODS: We included 879 stable CAD patients receiving low-dose aspirin. All patients were genotyped for 45 genome-wide significant CAD risk variants, including rs495828 at the ABO locus. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated to assess the combined risk of all genetic variants. Serum soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) and thromboxane B2 were used as measures of platelet activation, and platelet aggregation was assessed by multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) using arachidonic acid and collagen as agonists and VerifyNow. RESULTS: The rs495828 CAD risk allele was associated with higher MEA platelet aggregation; arachidonic acid: 14.9% (6.7-23.7%, p = 0.0002) higher AUC (Area Under aggregation Curve) per risk allele, and collagen: 13.1% (5.8%-20.9%, p = 0.0003). Conversely, sP-selectin levels were 7.5% (3.1%-11.7%, p = 0.001) lower per risk allele. Rs495828 genotypes were not associated with aggregation assessed by VerifyNow (p = 0.30) or S-thromboxane B2 levels (p = 0.98). None of the remaining variants or the GRS were associated with platelet activation or aggregation. CONCLUSIONS: The ABO risk allele was associated with increased platelet aggregation as assessed by MEA. This finding may contribute to explain the increased MI risk in ABO risk variant carriers.

6.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 431-444, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804558

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable and heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental phenotypes diagnosed in more than 1% of children. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ASD susceptibility, but to date no individual variants have been robustly associated with ASD. With a marked sample-size increase from a unique Danish population resource, we report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 18,381 individuals with ASD and 27,969 controls that identified five genome-wide-significant loci. Leveraging GWAS results from three phenotypes with significantly overlapping genetic architectures (schizophrenia, major depression, and educational attainment), we identified seven additional loci shared with other traits at equally strict significance levels. Dissecting the polygenic architecture, we found both quantitative and qualitative polygenic heterogeneity across ASD subtypes. These results highlight biological insights, particularly relating to neuronal function and corticogenesis, and establish that GWAS performed at scale will be much more productive in the near term in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 611, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679749

RESUMO

SorLA and Sortilin are multifunctional receptors involved in endocytosis and intracellular sorting of different and unrelated ligands. SorLA has recently attracted much attention as a novel strong risk gene for Alzheimer's disease, and much effort is currently being put into understanding the underlying molecular mechanism. Trafficking of SorLA and Sortilin are mediated by interacting with AP-1, AP-2, GGA 1-3 and the retromer complex. Although these cytosolic adaptor proteins all bind to both SorLA and Sortilin, a large fraction of intracellular Sortilin and SorLA are located in different subcellular vesicles. This indicates that unknown specialised adaptor proteins targeting SorLA for trafficking are yet to be discovered. We have identified HSPA12A as a new adaptor protein that, among Vps10p-D receptors, selectively binds to SorLA in an ADP/ATP dependent manner. This is the first described substrate of HSPA12A, and we demonstrate that the binding, which affects both endocytic speed and subcellular localisation of SorLA, is mediated by specific acidic residues in the cytosolic domain of SorLA. The identification of the relatively unknown HSPA12A as a SorLA specific interaction partner could lead to novel insight into the molecular mechanism of SorLA, and re-emphasises the role of heat shock proteins in neurodegenerative diseases.

8.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 11: 396, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483049

RESUMO

Fluxes of calcium (Ca2+) across cell membranes enable fast cellular responses. Calmodulin (CaM) senses local changes in Ca2+ concentration and relays the information to numerous interaction partners. The critical role of accurate Ca2+ signaling on cellular function is underscored by the fact that there are three independent CaM genes (CALM1-3) in the human genome. All three genes are functional and encode the exact same CaM protein. Moreover, CaM has a completely conserved amino acid sequence across all vertebrates. Given this degree of conservation, it was long thought that mutations in CaM were incompatible with life. It was therefore a big surprise when the first CaM mutations in humans were identified six years ago. Today, more than a dozen human CaM missense mutations have been described, all found in patients with severe cardiac arrhythmias. Biochemical studies have demonstrated differential effects on Ca2+ binding affinities for these CaM variants. Moreover, CaM regulation of central cardiac ion channels is impaired, including the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel, CaV1.2, and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel, ryanodine receptor isoform 2, RyR2. Currently, no non-cardiac phenotypes have been described for CaM variant carriers. However, sequencing of large human cohorts reveals a cumulative frequency of additional rare CaM mutations that raise the possibility of CaM variants not exclusively causing severe cardiac arrhythmias. Here, we provide an overview of the identified CaM variants and their known consequences for target regulation and cardiac disease phenotype. We discuss experimental data, patient genotypes and phenotypes as well as which questions remain open to understand this complexity.

9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3506, 2018 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158636

RESUMO

The transcription factor Nrf2 is a critical regulator of inflammatory responses. If and how Nrf2 also affects cytosolic nucleic acid sensing is currently unknown. Here we identify Nrf2 as an important negative regulator of STING and suggest a link between metabolic reprogramming and antiviral cytosolic DNA sensing in human cells. Here, Nrf2 activation decreases STING expression and responsiveness to STING agonists while increasing susceptibility to infection with DNA viruses. Mechanistically, Nrf2 regulates STING expression by decreasing STING mRNA stability. Repression of STING by Nrf2 occurs in metabolically reprogrammed cells following TLR4/7 engagement, and is inducible by a cell-permeable derivative of the TCA-cycle-derived metabolite itaconate (4-octyl-itaconate, 4-OI). Additionally, engagement of this pathway by 4-OI or the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane is sufficient to repress STING expression and type I IFN production in cells from patients with STING-dependent interferonopathies. We propose Nrf2 inducers as a future treatment option in STING-dependent inflammatory diseases.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137516

RESUMO

Background: Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for premature development of coronary atherosclerosis and mortality. A high level of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a recently recognized cardiovascular risk factor and has become the target of effective inhibitory treatment. In 167 kidney transplantation candidates, we aimed to: (i) compare levels of PCSK9 with those of healthy controls, (ii) examine the association between levels of PCSK9 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and the degree of coronary artery disease (CAD) and (iii) evaluate if levels of PCSK9 predict major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and mortality. Methods: Kidney transplant candidates (n = 167) underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) before transplantation. MACE and mortality data were extracted from the Western Denmark Heart Registry, a review of patient records and patient interviews. A group of 79 healthy subjects were used as controls. Results: Mean PCSK9 levels did not differ between healthy controls and kidney transplant candidates. In patients not receiving lipid-lowering therapy, PCSK9 correlated positively with LDL-c (rho = 0.24, P < 0.05). Mean PCSK9 was similar in patients with and without obstructive CAD at both CCTA and ICA. In a multiple regression analysis, PCSK9 was associated with neither LDL-c (ß=-6.45, P = 0.44) nor coronary artery calcium score (ß=2.17, P = 0.84). During a follow-up of 3.7 years, PCSK9 levels were not associated with either MACE or mortality. Conclusions: The ability of PCSK9 levels to predict cardiovascular disease and prognosis does not seem to apply to a cohort of kidney transplant candidates.

12.
Reproduction ; 155(2): 167-172, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162648

RESUMO

Age has a detrimental effect on reproduction and as an increasing number of women postpone motherhood, it is imperative to assess biological age in terms of fertility prognosis and optimizing fertility treatment individually. Horvath's epigenetic clock is a mathematical algorithm that calculates the biological age of human cells, tissues or organs based on DNA methylation levels. The clock, however, was previously shown to be highly inaccurate for the human endometrium, most likely because of the hormonal responsive nature of this tissue. The aim of this study was to determine if epigenetically based biological age of the human endometrium correlated with chronological age, when strictly timed to the same time point in the menstrual cycle. Endometrial biopsies from nine women were obtained in two consecutive cycles, both strictly timed to the LH surge (LH + 7) and additionally, peripheral whole blood samples were analyzed. Using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 K array and Horvath's epigenetic clock, we found a significant correlation between the biological age of the endometrium and the chronological age of the participants, although the endometrial biological age was accelerated by comparison with blood and chronological age. Moreover, similar biological ages were found in pairs of consecutive biopsies, indicating that an endometrial biopsy does not alter the biological age in the following cycle. In conclusion, as long as endometrial samples are timed to the same time point in the menstrual cycle, Horvath's epigenetic clock could be a powerful new biomarker of reproductive aging in the human endometrium.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Mol Neurobiol ; 55(1): 668-681, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27995571

RESUMO

We here characterize the usability of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) brain tissue as a resource for genetic and DNA methylation analyses with potential relevance for brain-manifested diseases. We analyzed FFPE samples from The Brain Collection, Aarhus University Hospital Risskov, Denmark (AUBC), constituting 9479 formalin-fixated brains making it one of the largest collections worldwide. DNA extracted from brain FFPE tissue blocks was interrogated for quality and usability in genetic and DNA methylation analyses by different molecular techniques. Overall, we found that DNA quality was inversely correlated with storage time and DNA quality was insufficient for Illumina methylation arrays; data from methylated DNA immunoprecipitation, clonal bisulfite sequencing, and pyrosequencing of BDNF and ST6GALNAC1 suggested that the original methylation pattern is indeed preserved. Proof-of-principle experiments predicting sex based on the methylation status of the X-inactivated SLC9A7 gene, or genotype differences of the Y and X chromosomes, showed consistency between predicted and actual sex for a subset of FFPE samples. In conclusion, even though DNA from FFPE samples is of low quality and technically challenging, it is likely that a subset of samples can provide reliable data given that the methodology used is designed for small DNA fragments. We propose that simple PCR-based quality control experiments at the genetic and DNA methylation level, carried out at the beginning of any given project, can be used to enrich for the best-performing FFPE samples. The apparent preservation of genetic and DNA methylation patterns in archival FFPE samples may bring along new perspectives for the identification of genetic and epigenetic changes associated with brain-manifested diseases.

14.
Thromb Res ; 158: 86-92, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28865245

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In recent genome-wide association studies, coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI) have been linked to a number of genetic variants, but their role in thrombopoiesis is largely unknown. AIM: We investigated the association between CAD and MI-associated genetic variants and five thrombopoiesis-related indices: platelet count (PC), mean platelet volume (MPV), immature platelet count (IPC), immature platelet fraction (IPF), and serum thrombopoietin (TPO). METHODS: We genotyped 45 genome-wide significant CAD/MI-markers in 879 stable CAD patients. A genetic risk score was calculated to assess the combined risk associated with all the genetic variants. Platelet indices were analysed using the Sysmex XE-2100 haematology analyser. TPO was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Two variants were nominally associated with several indices; for rs10947789 (KCNK5), the adjusted geometric mean was 2% higher for MPV (95% confidence interval: 1-2%, p=0.002), 6% for IPC (0-12%, p=0.033), and 9% for IPF (3-16%, p=0.004) per CAD risk allele. Moreover, an 11% lower TPO (3-19%, p=0.010) was observed. Rs3184504 (SH2B3) was associated with a higher adjusted geometric mean of 3% (1-6%, p=0.003) per CAD risk allele for PC, and an 11% (5-17%, p<0.001) lower TPO. Furthermore, the adjusted IPC was 5% (0-9%, p=0.037) lower per CAD risk allele for PC, whereas IPF levels did not vary across genotypes. CONCLUSION: As a novel finding, our study suggests a role for KCNK5 in the regulation of platelet size and maturity. Furthermore, our findings confirm an association between the SH2B3-locus and platelet count.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Volume Plaquetário Médio/métodos , Contagem de Plaquetas/métodos , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/genética , Proteínas/genética , Trombopoese/fisiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo
15.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 11380, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28900119

RESUMO

Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified 19 independent common risk loci for endometriosis. Most of the GWA variants are non-coding and the genes responsible for the association signals have not been identified. Herein, we aimed to assess the potential role of protein-modifying variants in endometriosis using exome-array genotyping in 7164 cases and 21005 controls, and a replication set of 1840 cases and 129016 controls of European ancestry. Results in the discovery sample identified significant evidence for association with coding variants in single-variant (rs1801232-CUBN) and gene-level (CIITA and PARP4) meta-analyses, but these did not survive replication. In the combined analysis, there was genome-wide significant evidence for rs13394619 (P = 2.3 × 10-9) in GREB1 at 2p25.1 - a locus previously identified in a GWA meta-analysis of European and Japanese samples. Despite sufficient power, our results did not identify any protein-modifying variants (MAF > 0.01) with moderate or large effect sizes in endometriosis, although these variants may exist in non-European populations or in high-risk families. The results suggest continued discovery efforts should focus on genotyping large numbers of surgically-confirmed endometriosis cases and controls, and/or sequencing high-risk families to identify novel rare variants to provide greater insights into the molecular pathogenesis of the disease.

16.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0180365, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28686695

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Genetic constitution and inflammation both contribute to development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Several CAD-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have recently been identified, but their functions are largely unknown. We investigated the associations between CAD-associated SNPs and five CAD-related inflammatory biomarkers. METHODS: We genotyped 45 CAD-associated SNPs in 701 stable CAD patients in whom levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsRCP), interleukin-6, calprotectin, fibrinogen and complement component 3 levels had previously been measured. A genetic risk score was calculated to assess the combined risk associated with all the genetic variants. A multiple linear regression model was used to assess associations between the genetic risk score, single SNPs, and the five inflammatory biomarkers. RESULTS: The minor allele (G) (CAD risk allele) of rs2075650 (TOMM40/APOE) was associated with lower levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (effect per risk allele: -0.37 mg/l [95%CI -0.56 to -0.18 mg/l]). The inflammatory markers tested showed no association with the remaining 44 SNPs or with the genetic risk score. CONCLUSIONS: In stable CAD patients, the risk allele of a common CAD-associated marker at the TOMM40/APOE locus was associated with lower hsCRP levels. No other genetic variants or the combined effect of all variants were associated with the five inflammatory biomarkers.


Assuntos
Alelos , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Loci Gênicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apolipoproteínas E/sangue , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Complemento C3/genética , Complemento C3/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/genética , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/genética , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/sangue , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/sangue , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
17.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15539, 2017 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537267

RESUMO

Endometriosis is a heritable hormone-dependent gynecological disorder, associated with severe pelvic pain and reduced fertility; however, its molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we perform a meta-analysis of 11 genome-wide association case-control data sets, totalling 17,045 endometriosis cases and 191,596 controls. In addition to replicating previously reported loci, we identify five novel loci significantly associated with endometriosis risk (P<5 × 10-8), implicating genes involved in sex steroid hormone pathways (FN1, CCDC170, ESR1, SYNE1 and FSHB). Conditional analysis identified five secondary association signals, including two at the ESR1 locus, resulting in 19 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated with endometriosis, which together explain up to 5.19% of variance in endometriosis. These results highlight novel variants in or near specific genes with important roles in sex steroid hormone signalling and function, and offer unique opportunities for more targeted functional research efforts.


Assuntos
Endometriose/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Endometriose/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
Int J Cardiol ; 241: 411-416, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28442232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic risk scores (GRSs) may predict cardiovascular risk in community-based populations. However, studies investigating the association with recurrent cardiovascular events in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) are conflicting. METHODS: We genotyped 879 patients with high-risk stable CAD and created a GRS based on 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported to be associated with CAD in genome-wide association studies. Patients were categorised into high or low GRS according to the median GRS and followed for recurrent cardiovascular events using national Danish registries. The primary endpoint was a composite of myocardial infarction, coronary revascularisation, and cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Median (interquartile range) follow-up time was 2.8 (2.4-3.8)years. The cumulative incidence proportions of the primary endpoint at 1 and 3years were 6.4% and 11.5% in high-GRS patients vs. 2.5% and 7.3% in low-GRS patients. The corresponding relative risks were 2.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-5.07), and 1.57 (95% CI 1.02-2.44). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of the primary endpoint was 1.50 (95% CI 1.00-2.25). The most pronounced effect of a high GRS was observed on coronary revascularisations (adjusted HR 2.10 [95% CI 1.08-4.07]). Risks of cardiovascular death (adjusted HR 1.07 [95% CI 0.46-2.48]) and all-cause death (adjusted HR 1.15 [95% CI 0.65-2.03]) were unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: A GRS predicts recurrent cardiovascular events in high-risk stable CAD patients. The observed effect was mainly driven by coronary revascularisations.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
19.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 141: 44-52, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28341151

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a debilitating brain disorder characterized by disturbances of emotion, perception and cognition. Cognitive impairments predict functional outcome in schizophrenia and are detectable even in the prodromal stage of the disorder. However, our understanding of the underlying neurobiology is limited and procognitive treatments remain elusive. We recently demonstrated that mice heterozygous for an inactivated allele of the schizophrenia-associated Brd1 gene (Brd1+/- mice) display behaviors reminiscent of schizophrenia, including impaired social cognition and long-term memory. Here, we further characterize performance of these mice by following the preclinical guidelines recommended by the 'Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS)' and 'Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS)' initiatives to maximize translational value. Brd1+/- mice exhibit relational encoding deficits, compromised working and long term memory, as well as impaired executive cognitive functioning with cognitive behaviors relying on medial prefrontal cortex being particularly affected. Akin to patients with schizophrenia, the cognitive deficits displayed by Brd1+/- mice are not global, but selective. Our results underline the value of Brd1+/- mice as a promising tool for studying the neurobiology of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Alelos , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Heterozigoto , Masculino , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia
20.
Atherosclerosis ; 257: 172-178, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28142076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Common genetic risk variants may contribute to the heritability of early-onset coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to investigate the association of a genetic risk score (GRS) with age upon CAD-onset and to test the association between the GRS, familial clustering, and CAD severity in early-onset CAD. METHODS: 134 early-onset CAD patients (<40 years), 446 late-onset CAD patients (male >55 years/female >65 years), and 89 healthy controls were genotyped for 45 CAD-associated SNPs and a GRS was created. In early-onset CAD patients, family pedigrees with information on 1585 1st and 2nd degree relatives were used to calculate a stratified log-rank family score (SLFS) as a measure of familial clustering. RESULTS: Early-onset patients had a higher mean GRS than late-onset CAD patients (p = 0.02) and healthy controls (p < 0.0001). In the adjusted model, a GRS increase of one SD was associated with 1.2 years (95% CI 0.1-2.2) earlier onset. The GRS was not associated with the SLFS in the regression model (p = 0.41) and did not differ between SLFS tertiles (p = 0.98). The SLFS predicted the number of affected coronary vessels (OR [95% CI] per SD increase in SLFS: 2.0 [1.4-3.0]), whereas the association between the GRS and CAD severity was not statistically significant (OR [95% CI] per SD increase in GRS: 1.3 [0.9-1.9]). CONCLUSIONS: The GRS was increased in early-onset CAD patients, but not associated with the SLFS, suggesting that these common genetic variants are of minor importance in familial clustering of early-onset CAD. Furthermore, family pedigree analysis may predict CAD severity more precisely than common variants.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise por Conglomerados , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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