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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3669, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413261

RESUMO

Human longevity is heritable, but genome-wide association (GWA) studies have had limited success. Here, we perform two meta-analyses of GWA studies of a rigorous longevity phenotype definition including 11,262/3484 cases surviving at or beyond the age corresponding to the 90th/99th survival percentile, respectively, and 25,483 controls whose age at death or at last contact was at or below the age corresponding to the 60th survival percentile. Consistent with previous reports, rs429358 (apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4) is associated with lower odds of surviving to the 90th and 99th percentile age, while rs7412 (ApoE ε2) shows the opposite. Moreover, rs7676745, located near GPR78, associates with lower odds of surviving to the 90th percentile age. Gene-level association analysis reveals a role for tissue-specific expression of multiple genes in longevity. Finally, genetic correlation of the longevity GWA results with that of several disease-related phenotypes points to a shared genetic architecture between health and longevity.

2.
Biogerontology ; 20(5): 627-647, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254144

RESUMO

Hand grip strength is a measure of muscular strength and is used to study age-related loss of physical capacity. In order to explore the biological mechanisms that influence hand grip strength variation, an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of hand grip strength in 672 middle-aged and elderly monozygotic twins (age 55-90 years) was performed, using both individual and twin pair level analyses, the latter controlling the influence of genetic variation. Moreover, as measurements of hand grip strength performed over 8 years were available in the elderly twins (age 73-90 at intake), a longitudinal EWAS was conducted for this subsample. No genome-wide significant CpG sites or pathways were found, however two of the suggestive top CpG sites were mapped to the COL6A1 and CACNA1B genes, known to be related to muscular dysfunction. By investigating genomic regions using the comb-p algorithm, several differentially methylated regions in regulatory domains were identified as significantly associated to hand grip strength, and pathway analyses of these regions revealed significant pathways related to the immune system, autoimmune disorders, including diabetes type 1 and viral myocarditis, as well as negative regulation of cell differentiation. The genes contributing to the immunological pathways were HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DMA, HLA-DPB1, MYH10, ERAP1 and IRF8, while the genes implicated in the negative regulation of cell differentiation were IRF8, CEBPD, ID2 and BRCA1. In conclusion, this exploratory study suggests hand grip strength to associate with differentially methylated regions enriched in immunological and cell differentiation pathways, and hence merits further investigations.

3.
Acta Neuropathol ; 138(2): 237-250, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131421

RESUMO

The genetic variant rs72824905-G (minor allele) in the PLCG2 gene was previously associated with a reduced Alzheimer's disease risk (AD). The role of PLCG2 in immune system signaling suggests it may also protect against other neurodegenerative diseases and possibly associates with longevity. We studied the effect of the rs72824905-G on seven neurodegenerative diseases and longevity, using 53,627 patients, 3,516 long-lived individuals and 149,290 study-matched controls. We replicated the association of rs72824905-G with reduced AD risk and we found an association with reduced risk of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We did not find evidence for an effect on Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) risks, despite adequate sample sizes. Conversely, the rs72824905-G allele was associated with increased likelihood of longevity. By-proxy analyses in the UK Biobank supported the associations with both dementia and longevity. Concluding, rs72824905-G has a protective effect against multiple neurodegenerative diseases indicating shared aspects of disease etiology. Our findings merit studying the PLCγ2 pathway as drug-target.

4.
J Autoimmun ; 2018 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327147

RESUMO

Low mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA CN) has been associated with e.g. cancer, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases. We aimed to study a potential association between mtDNA CN and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The relative quantity of mitochondrial DNA compared to nuclear DNA was measured in peripheral white blood cells from 149 RA affected twin pairs and 1321 non-affected twin pairs. Multiple regression analysis including RA discordant twin pairs was performed in order to separate specific effects of RA and familial RA predisposition using non-RA affected twin pairs as reference group. In addition, we performed a twin pair level analysis including only RA discordant twin pairs evaluating the effect of cell type, auto antibodies and RA genetic risk factors. Both the RA twins and their non-affected co-twins had significantly lower mtDNA CN than non-affected twins (-28.7 and -23.1 mtDNA CN, respectively). Adjusting for cell count attenuated these differences (-23.1 mtDNA CN and -20.1 mtDNA CN respectively). Within RA discordant twin pairs PTPN22(T) positive RA twins had a significantly lower amount than their co-twins (-16.3 mtDNA CN). PTPN22(T) had no effect among twins from non-affected twin pairs. MtDNA CN is significantly lower in persons with established RA and in predisposed non-affected RA co-twins suggesting that mitochondrial variation may be involved in the RA disease pathways. Our results also suggest that the RA associated genetic risk factor, PTPN22(T), further decreases the mtDNA CN, but only in carriers with established RA.

5.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10: 87, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29983834

RESUMO

Background: Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and long-term health consequences. Epigenetic mechanisms may have been at play in preterm birth survivors, and these could be persistent and detrimental to health later in life. Methods: We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in adult twins of premature birth to identify genomic regions under differential epigenetic regulation in 144 twins with a median age of 33 years (age range 30-36). Results: Association analysis detected three genomic regions annotated to the SDHAP3, TAGLN3 and GSTT1 genes on chromosomes 5, 3 and 22 (FWER: 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04) respectively. These genes display strong involvement in neurodevelopmental disorders, cancer susceptibility and premature delivery. The three identified significant regions were successfully replicated in an independent sample of twins of even older age (median age 66, range 56-80) with similar regulatory patterns and nominal p values < 5.05e-04. Biological pathway analysis detected five significantly enriched pathways all explicitly involved in immune responses. Conclusion: We have found novel evidence associating premature delivery with epigenetic modification of important genes/pathways and revealed that preterm birth, as an early life event, could be related to differential methylation regulation patterns observable in adults and even at high ages which could potentially mediate susceptibility to age-related diseases and adult health.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060062

RESUMO

We assembled a collection of 28,297 participants from 7 studies of longevity and healthy aging comprising New England Centenarian, Long Life Family, Longevity Gene Population, Southern Italian Centenarian, Japanese Centenarian, the Danish Longevity and the Health and Retirement Studies to investigate the association between the APOE alleles ɛ2, ɛ3 and ɛ4 and extreme human longevity and age at death. By using 3 different genetic models and two definitions of extreme longevity based on either a threshold model or age at death, we show that ɛ4 is associated with a substantially decreased odds for extreme longevity, and increased risk for death that persists even beyond ages reached by less than 1% of the population. We also show that carrying the ɛ2ɛ3 or ɛ2ɛ3 genotype is associated with significantly increased odds to reach extreme longevity, with decreased risk for death compared to carrying the genotype ɛ2ɛ3 but with only a modest reduction in risk for death beyond an age reached by less than 1% of the population.

7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 10(6): 1206-1222, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883365

RESUMO

Copy number variations (CNVs) have been shown to cause numerous diseases, however, their roles in human lifespan remain elusive. In this study, we investigate the association of CNVs with longevity by comparing the Han Chinese genomes of long-lived individuals from 90 to 117 years of age and the middle-aged from 30 to 65. Our data demonstrate that the numbers of CNVs, especially deletions, increase significantly in a direct correlation with longevity. We identify eleven CNVs that strongly associate with longevity; four of them locate in the chromosome bands, 7p11.2, 20q13.33, 19p12 and 8p23.3 and overlap partially with the CNVs identified in long-lived Danish or U.S. populations, while the other seven have not been reported previously. These CNV regions encode nineteen known genes, and some of which have been shown to affect aging-related phenotypes such as the shortening of telomere length (ZNF208), the risk of cancer (FOXA1, LAMA5, ZNF716), and vascular and immune-related diseases (ARHGEF10, TOR2A, SH2D3C). In addition, we found several pathways enriched in long-lived genomes, including FOXA1 and FOXA transcription factor networks involved in regulating aging or age-dependent diseases such as cancer. Thus, our study has identified longevity-associated CNV regions and their affected genes and pathways. Our results suggest that the human genome structures such as CNVs might play an important role in determining a long life in human.

8.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 912-919, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29942086

RESUMO

Intelligence is highly heritable1 and a major determinant of human health and well-being2. Recent genome-wide meta-analyses have identified 24 genomic loci linked to variation in intelligence3-7, but much about its genetic underpinnings remains to be discovered. Here, we present a large-scale genetic association study of intelligence (n = 269,867), identifying 205 associated genomic loci (190 new) and 1,016 genes (939 new) via positional mapping, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping, chromatin interaction mapping, and gene-based association analysis. We find enrichment of genetic effects in conserved and coding regions and associations with 146 nonsynonymous exonic variants. Associated genes are strongly expressed in the brain, specifically in striatal medium spiny neurons and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Gene set analyses implicate pathways related to nervous system development and synaptic structure. We confirm previous strong genetic correlations with multiple health-related outcomes, and Mendelian randomization analysis results suggest protective effects of intelligence for Alzheimer's disease and ADHD and bidirectional causation with pleiotropic effects for schizophrenia. These results are a major step forward in understanding the neurobiology of cognitive function as well as genetically related neurological and psychiatric disorders.

10.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 2063, 2017 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29234056

RESUMO

FOXO3 is consistently annotated as a human longevity gene. However, functional variants and underlying mechanisms for the association remain unknown. Here, we perform resequencing of the FOXO3 locus and single-nucleotide variant (SNV) genotyping in three European populations. We find two FOXO3 SNVs, rs12206094 and rs4946935, to be most significantly associated with longevity and further characterize them functionally. We experimentally validate the in silico predicted allele-dependent binding of transcription factors (CTCF, SRF) to the SNVs. Specifically, in luciferase reporter assays, the longevity alleles of both variants show considerable enhancer activities that are reversed by IGF-1 treatment. An eQTL database search reveals that the alleles are also associated with higher FOXO3 mRNA expression in various human tissues, which is in line with observations in long-lived model organisms. In summary, we present experimental evidence for a functional link between common intronic variants in FOXO3 and human longevity.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/fisiologia , Longevidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/genética , Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Íntrons/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fator de Resposta Sérica/genética , Fator de Resposta Sérica/metabolismo
11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 9(1): 247-255, 2017 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100865

RESUMO

A large meta-analysis recently found the 5q33.3 locus to be associated with survival to ≥ 90 years and lower all-cause mortality, thus suggesting it as a third human longevity locus alongside APOE and FOXO3A. The 5q33.3 locus has previously been associated with blood pressure regulation and cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged individuals. However, part of the influence on mortality appears to be independent of cardiovascular phenotypes, and the role of the 5q33.3 locus in longevity and survival is therefore still partly unknown. We investigated the association between the longevity-associated variant rs2149954 on chromosome 5q33.3 and age-related phenotypes in two cohorts of 1,588 and 1,271 long-lived individuals (mean ages 93.1 and 95.9 years, respectively) as well as in 700 middle-aged and 677 elderly individuals (mean ages 52.5 and 78.7 years). Altogether, nominally significant associations between the rs2149954 minor allele and a decreased risk of heart attack and heart failure as well as increased physical functioning were found in the long-lived individuals. In the middle-aged and elderly individuals, rs2149954 minor allele carriers had a lower risk of hypertension. Our results thereby confirm a role of the 5q33.3 locus in cardiovascular health and, interestingly, they also suggest a role in physical functioning.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 5 , Loci Gênicos , Longevidade/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(10): 1506-10, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27094753

RESUMO

Structural genetic variants like copy number variants (CNVs) comprise a large part of human genetic variation and may be inherited as well as somatically acquired. Recent studies have reported the presence of somatically acquired structural variants in the human genome and it has been suggested that they may accumulate in elderly individuals. To further explore the presence and the age-related acquisition of somatic structural variants in the human genome, we investigated CNVs acquired over a period of 10 years in 86 elderly Danish twins as well as CNV discordances between co-twins of 18 monozygotic twin pairs. Furthermore, the presence of mosaic structural variants was explored. We identified four mosaic acquired uniparental disomy events on chromosome 4q and 14q in the follow-up samples from four individuals, and our study thereby supports the increasing prevalence of somatic mosaic variants with age.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Evolução Clonal , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4/genética , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mosaicismo
13.
Aging Cell ; 15(3): 585-8, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27004735

RESUMO

Human longevity is characterized by a remarkable lack of confirmed genetic associations. Here, we report on the identification of a novel locus for longevity in the RAD50/IL13 region on chromosome 5q31.1 using a combined European sample of 3208 long-lived individuals (LLI) and 8919 younger controls. First, we performed a large-scale association study on 1458 German LLI (mean age 99.0 years) and 6368 controls (mean age 57.2 years) by targeting known immune-associated loci covered by the Immunochip. The analysis of 142 136 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed an Immunochip-wide significant signal (PI mmunochip  = 7.01 × 10(-9) ) for the SNP rs2075650 in the TOMM40/APOE region, which has been previously described in the context of human longevity. To identify novel susceptibility loci, we selected 15 markers with PI mmunochip  < 5 × 10(-4) for replication in two samples from France (1257 LLI, mean age 102.4 years; 1811 controls, mean age 49.1 years) and Denmark (493 LLI, mean age 96.2 years; 740 controls, mean age 63.1 years). The association at SNP rs2706372 replicated in the French study collection and showed a similar trend in the Danish participants and was also significant in a meta-analysis of the combined French and Danish data after adjusting for multiple testing. In a meta-analysis of all three samples, rs2706372 reached a P-value of PI mmunochip+Repl  = 5.42 × 10(-7) (OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.12-1.28). SNP rs2706372 is located in the extended RAD50/IL13 region. RAD50 seems a plausible longevity candidate due to its involvement in DNA repair and inflammation. Further studies are needed to identify the functional variant(s) that predispose(s) to a long and healthy life.


Assuntos
Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Interleucina-13/genética , Longevidade/genética , Longevidade/imunologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5/genética , Loci Gênicos , Humanos
14.
Exp Gerontol ; 78: 57-61, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26946122

RESUMO

In this study we explored the association between aging-related phenotypes previously reported to predict survival in old age and variation in 77 genes from the DNA repair pathway, 32 genes from the growth hormone 1/ insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin (GH/IGF-1/INS) signalling pathway and 16 additional genes repeatedly considered as candidates for human longevity: APOE, APOA4, APOC3, ACE, CETP, HFE, IL6, IL6R, MTHFR, TGFB1, SIRTs 1, 3, 6; and HSPAs 1A, 1L, 14. Altogether, 1,049 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,088 oldest-old (age 92-93 years) Danes and analysed with phenotype data on physical functioning (hand grip strength), cognitive functioning (mini mental state examination and a cognitive composite score), activity of daily living and self-rated health. Five SNPs showed association to one of the phenotypes; however, none of these SNPs were associated with a change in the relevant phenotype over time (7 years of follow-up) and none of the SNPs could be confirmed in a replication sample of 1,281 oldest-old Danes (age 94-100). Hence, our study does not support association between common variation in the investigated longevity candidate genes and aging-related phenotypes consistently shown to predict survival. It is possible that larger sample sizes are needed to robustly reveal associations with small effect sizes.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Longevidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Dinamarca , Feminino , Genótipo , Força da Mão , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Fenótipo , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Sci Rep ; 6: 21243, 2016 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26912274

RESUMO

Only two genome-wide significant loci associated with longevity have been identified so far, probably because of insufficient sample sizes of centenarians, whose genomes may harbor genetic variants associated with health and longevity. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Han Chinese with a sample size 2.7 times the largest previously published GWAS on centenarians. We identified 11 independent loci associated with longevity replicated in Southern-Northern regions of China, including two novel loci (rs2069837-IL6; rs2440012-ANKRD20A9P) with genome-wide significance and the rest with suggestive significance (P < 3.65 × 10(-5)). Eight independent SNPs overlapped across Han Chinese, European and U.S. populations, and APOE and 5q33.3 were replicated as longevity loci. Integrated analysis indicates four pathways (starch, sucrose and xenobiotic metabolism; immune response and inflammation; MAPK; calcium signaling) highly associated with longevity (P ≤ 0.006) in Han Chinese. The association with longevity of three of these four pathways (MAPK; immunity; calcium signaling) is supported by findings in other human cohorts. Our novel finding on the association of starch, sucrose and xenobiotic metabolism pathway with longevity is consistent with the previous results from Drosophilia. This study suggests protective mechanisms including immunity and nutrient metabolism and their interactions with environmental stress play key roles in human longevity.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Longevidade/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , China , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Componente Principal
16.
Aging Cell ; 15(1): 49-55, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26446717

RESUMO

Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a significant source of genetic variation in the human genome and have been implicated in numerous diseases and complex traits. To date, only a few studies have investigated the role of CNVs in human lifespan. To investigate the impact of CNVs on prospective mortality at the extreme end of life, where the genetic component of lifespan appears most profound, we analyzed genomewide CNV data in 603 Danish nonagenarians and centenarians (mean age 96.9 years, range 90.0-102.5 years). Replication was performed in 500 long-lived individuals from the Leiden Longevity Study (mean age 93.2 years, range 88.9-103.4 years). First, we assessed the association between the CNV burden of each individual (the number of CNVs, the average CNV length, and the total CNV length) and mortality and found a significant increase in mortality per 10 kb increase in the average CNV length, both for all CNVs (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.024, P = 0.002) and for duplications (HR = 1.011, P = 0.005), as well as per 100 kb increase in the total length of deletions (HR = 1.009, P = 0.0005). Next, we assessed the relation between specific deletions and duplications and mortality. Although no genome-wide significant associations were discovered, we identified six deletions and one duplication that showed consistent association with mortality in both or either of the sexes across both study populations. These results indicate that the genome-wide CNV burden, specifically the average CNV length and the total CNV length, associates with higher mortality in long-lived individuals.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Longevidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 71(9): 1151-9, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26405063

RESUMO

Decline in cognitive abilities is a major concern in aging individuals. A potential important factor for functioning of the central nervous system in late-life stages is the KLOTHO (KL) gene. KL is expressed in various organs including the brain and is involved in multiple biological processes, for example, growth factor signaling. In the present study, 19 tagging gene variants in KL were studied in relation to 2 measures of cognitive function, a 5-item cognitive composite score and the Mini Mental State Examination, in 1,480 Danes 92-100 years of age. We found that heterozygotes for the previously reported KL-VS had poorer cognitive function than noncarriers. Two other variants positioned in the 5' end of the gene, rs398655 and rs562020, were associated with better cognitive function independently of KL-VS, and the common haplotype AG was associated with poorer cognition, consistently across two cognitive measures in two cohort strata. The haplotype effect was stronger than that of KL-VS. Two variants, rs2283368 and rs9526984, were the only variants significantly associated with cognitive decline over 7 years. We discuss an age-dependent effect of KL and the possibility that multiple gene variants in KL are important for cognitive function among the oldest old participants.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Cognição , Glucuronidase/genética , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dinamarca , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Avaliação Geriátrica , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Aging Cell ; 14(1): 60-6, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25470651

RESUMO

FOXO3A variation has repeatedly been reported to associate with human longevity, yet only few studies have investigated whether FOXO3A variation also associates with aging-related traits. Here, we investigate the association of 15 FOXO3A tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1088 oldest-old Danes (age 92-93) with 4 phenotypes known to predict their survival: cognitive function, hand grip strength, activity of daily living (ADL), and self-rated health. Based on previous studies in humans and foxo animal models, we also explore self-reported diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and bone (femur/spine/hip/wrist) fracture. Gene-based testing revealed significant associations of FOXO3A variation with ADL (P = 0.044) and bone fracture (P = 0.006). The single-SNP statistics behind the gene-based analysis indicated increased ADL (decreased disability) and reduced bone fracture risk for carriers of the minor alleles of 8 and 10 SNPs, respectively. These positive directions of effects are in agreement with the positive effects on longevity previously reported for these SNPs. However, when correcting for the test of 9 phenotypes by Bonferroni correction, bone fracture showed borderline significance (P = 0.054), while ADL did not (P = 0.396). Although the single-SNP associations did not formally replicate in another study population of oldest-old Danes (n = 1279, age 94-100), the estimates were of similar direction of effect as observed in the Discovery sample. A pooled analysis of both study populations displayed similar or decreased sized P-values for most associations, hereby supporting the initial findings. Nevertheless, confirmation in additional study populations is needed.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dinamarca , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box O3 , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Exp Gerontol ; 57: 41-6, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24809632

RESUMO

Gene variants found to associate with human longevity in one population rarely replicate in other populations. The lack of consistent findings may partly be explained by genetic heterogeneity among long-lived individuals due to cohort differences in survival probability. In most high-income countries the probability of reaching e.g. 100years increases by 50-100% per decade, i.e. there is far less selection in more recent cohorts. Here we investigate the cohort specificity of variants in the APOE and FOXO3A genes by comparing the frequencies of the APOE ε4 allele and the minor alleles of two variants in FOXO3A at age 95+ and 100+ in 2712 individuals from the genetically homogeneous Danish birth cohorts 1895-96, 1905, 1910-11, and 1915. Generally, we find a decrease in the allele frequencies of the investigated APOE and FOXO3A variants in individuals from more recent birth cohorts. Assuming a recessive model, this negative trend is significant in 95+ year old individuals homozygous for the APOE ε4 allele (P=0.026) or for the FOXO3A rs7762395 minor allele (P=0.048). For the APOE ε4 allele, the significance is further strengthened when restricting to women (P=0.006). Supportive, but non-significant, trends are found for two of the three tested variants in individuals older than 100years. Altogether, this indicates that cohort differences in selection pressure on survival to the highest ages are reflected in the prevalence of longevity gene variants. Although the effect seems to be moderate, our findings could have an impact on genetic studies of human longevity.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Longevidade/genética , Seleção Genética , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dinamarca , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box O3 , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 23(16): 4420-32, 2014 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24688116

RESUMO

The genetic contribution to the variation in human lifespan is ∼ 25%. Despite the large number of identified disease-susceptibility loci, it is not known which loci influence population mortality. We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 7729 long-lived individuals of European descent (≥ 85 years) and 16 121 younger controls (<65 years) followed by replication in an additional set of 13 060 long-lived individuals and 61 156 controls. In addition, we performed a subset analysis in cases aged ≥ 90 years. We observed genome-wide significant association with longevity, as reflected by survival to ages beyond 90 years, at a novel locus, rs2149954, on chromosome 5q33.3 (OR = 1.10, P = 1.74 × 10(-8)). We also confirmed association of rs4420638 on chromosome 19q13.32 (OR = 0.72, P = 3.40 × 10(-36)), representing the TOMM40/APOE/APOC1 locus. In a prospective meta-analysis (n = 34 103), the minor allele of rs2149954 (T) on chromosome 5q33.3 associates with increased survival (HR = 0.95, P = 0.003). This allele has previously been reported to associate with low blood pressure in middle age. Interestingly, the minor allele (T) associates with decreased cardiovascular mortality risk, independent of blood pressure. We report on the first GWAS-identified longevity locus on chromosome 5q33.3 influencing survival in the general European population. The minor allele of this locus associates with low blood pressure in middle age, although the contribution of this allele to survival may be less dependent on blood pressure. Hence, the pleiotropic mechanisms by which this intragenic variation contributes to lifespan regulation have to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/fisiologia , Longevidade/genética , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 19 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5 , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos
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