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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5980, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239672

RESUMO

Miscarriage is a common, complex trait affecting ~15% of clinically confirmed pregnancies. Here we present the results of large-scale genetic association analyses with 69,054 cases from five different ancestries for sporadic miscarriage, 750 cases of European ancestry for multiple (≥3) consecutive miscarriage, and up to 359,469 female controls. We identify one genome-wide significant association (rs146350366, minor allele frequency (MAF) 1.2%, P = 3.2 × 10-8, odds ratio (OR) = 1.4) for sporadic miscarriage in our European ancestry meta-analysis and three genome-wide significant associations for multiple consecutive miscarriage (rs7859844, MAF = 6.4%, P = 1.3 × 10-8, OR = 1.7; rs143445068, MAF = 0.8%, P = 5.2 × 10-9, OR = 3.4; rs183453668, MAF = 0.5%, P = 2.8 × 10-8, OR = 3.8). We further investigate the genetic architecture of miscarriage with biobank-scale Mendelian randomization, heritability, and genetic correlation analyses. Our results show that miscarriage etiopathogenesis is partly driven by genetic variation potentially related to placental biology, and illustrate the utility of large-scale biobank data for understanding this pregnancy complication.

2.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 12(1): e12108, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005726

RESUMO

Introduction: Hearing loss has been identified as the potentially largest modifiable risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), estimated to account for a similar increase in AD risk as the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene. Methods: We investigated the genetic relationship between hearing loss and AD, and sought evidence for a causal relationship. Results: We found a significant genetic overlap between hearing impairment and AD and a polygenic risk score for AD was able to significantly predict hearing loss in an independent cohort. Additionally, regions of the genome involved in inflammation were identified to be shared between hearing difficulty and AD. However, causality tests found no significant evidence of a causal relationship between these traits in either direction. Discussion: Overall, these results show that the relationship between hearing difficulty and AD may, in part, be due to shared genes and immune response pathways between the traits. However, currently available data do not support a causal relationship.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058326

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We have previously reported high 1-year prevalence of migraine in patients with atrial arrhythmias associated with DI-type 1 BrP. The present study was designed to determine the lifetime prevalence of migraine in patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS) or drug-induced type 1 Brugada pattern (DI-type 1 BrP) and control group, to investigate the demographic and clinical characteristics, and to identify clinical variables to predict underlying BrS/DI-type 1 BrP among migraineurs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence of migraine and migraine characteristics were compared between probands with BrS/DI-type 1 BrP (n = 257) and control group (n = 370). Lifetime prevalence of migraine was 60.7% in patients with BrS/DI-type 1 BrP and 30.3% in control group (p = 3.6 × 10-14 ). On stepwise regression analysis, familial migraine (odds ratio [OR] of 4.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-9.8; p = 1.3 × 10-4 ), vestibular migraine (OR of 5.4; 95% CI: 1.4-21.0); p = .013), migraine with visual aura (OR of 1.8; 95% CI: 1.0-3.4); p = .04) and younger age-at-onset of migraine (OR of 0.95; 95% CI: 0.93-0.98); p = .004) were predictors of underlying BrS/DI-type 1 BrP among migraineurs. Use of anti-migraine drugs classified as "to be avoided" or "preferably avoided" in patients with BrS and several other anti-migraine drugs with potential cardiac INa /ICa channel blocking properties was present in 25.6% and 26.9% of migraineurs with BrS/DI-type 1 BrP, respectively. CONCLUSION: Migraine comorbidity is common in patients with BrS/DI-type 1 BrP. We identify several clinical variables that point to an underlying type-1 BrP among migraineurs, necessitating cautious use of certain anti-migraine drugs.

4.
Hum Genet ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959083

RESUMO

Evidence from observational studies indicates that endometriosis and depression often co-occur. However, conflicting evidence exists, and the etiology as well as biological mechanisms underlying their comorbidity remain unknown. Utilizing genome-wide association study (GWAS) data, we comprehensively assessed the relationship between endometriosis and depression. Single nucleotide polymorphism effect concordance analysis (SECA) found a significant genetic overlap between endometriosis and depression (PFsig-permuted = 9.99 × 10-4). Linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) analysis estimated a positive and highly significant genetic correlation between the two traits (rG = 0.27, P = 8.85 × 10-27). A meta-analysis of endometriosis and depression GWAS (sample size = 709,111), identified 20 independent genome-wide significant loci (P < 5 × 10-8), of which eight are novel. Mendelian randomization analysis (MR) suggests a causal effect of depression on endometriosis. Combining gene-based association results across endometriosis and depression GWAS, we identified 22 genes with a genome-wide significant Fisher's combined P value (FCPgene < 2.75 × 10-6). Genes with a nominal gene-based association (Pgene < 0.05) were significantly enriched across endometriosis and depression (Pbinomial-test = 2.90 × 10-4). Also, genes overlapping the two traits at Pgene < 0.1 (Pbinomial-test = 1.31 × 10-5) were significantly enriched for the biological pathways 'cell-cell adhesion', 'inositol phosphate metabolism', 'Hippo-Merlin signaling dysregulation' and 'gastric mucosa abnormality'. These results reveal a shared genetic etiology for endometriosis and depression. Indeed, additional analyses found evidence of a causal association between each of endometriosis and depression and at least one abnormal condition of gastric mucosa. Our study confirms the comorbidity of endometriosis and depression, implicates links with gastric mucosa abnormalities in their causal pathways and reveals potential therapeutic targets for further investigation.

5.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615124

RESUMO

Organ-transplant recipients have an elevated risk of keratinocyte cancers: basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma. We assessed whether polygenic risk scores (PRSs) generated in nontransplantees from the UK Biobank and 23andMe (13,981 squamous cell carcinoma, 33,736 BCC, and >560,000 controls) can predict keratinocyte cancer risk in an independent organ-transplant recipient cohort. After adjusting for traditional risk factors, compared with the bottom 20%, organ-transplant recipients in the top 20% PRS had an increased risk of BCC (OR = 3.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.44-7.31, P = 4.4 × 10-3) and squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 2.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.98-4.53, P = 0.055). For BCC, the top 20% PRS individuals had an absolute risk of 23%, whereas the risk in the bottom 20% was similar to that in the general nontransplantee population. Adding PRS to a model containing traditional skin cancer risk factors yielded a 3% increase in the area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic curve for BCC (0.73 vs. 0.70); adding the PRS did not significantly increase the area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic curve for squamous cell carcinoma. Organ-transplant recipients in the highest genetic risk quintile could benefit from more intense keratinocyte cancer screening and preventive strategies compared with their counterparts. The BCC PRS improves prediction over and above the traditional skin cancer risk factors by 3%.

6.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 23(2): 105-106, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423498

RESUMO

This note reflects on my collaborations with Nick Martin and the GenEpi group over the past 20 years. Over the past two decades, our work together has focused on gene mapping and understanding the genetic architecture of a wide range of traits with particular foci on migraine and common baldness. Our migraine research has included latent class and twin analyses cumulating in genome-wide association analyses which had identified 44 (34 new) risk variants for migraine. Leveraging these results through polygenic risk score analyses identified subgroups of patients likely to respond to triptans (an acute migraine drug), providing the first step toward precision medicine in migraine [Kogelman et al. (2019) Neurology Genetics, 5, e364].

7.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(3)2020 02 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121467

RESUMO

Observational epidemiological studies indicate that endometriosis and migraine co-occur within individuals more than expected by chance. However, the aetiology and biological mechanisms underlying their comorbidity remain unknown. Here we examined the relationship between endometriosis and migraine using genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effect concordance analysis found a significant concordance of SNP risk effects across endometriosis and migraine GWAS. Linkage disequilibrium score regression analysis found a positive and highly significant genetic correlation (rG = 0.38, P = 2.30 × 10-25) between endometriosis and migraine. A meta-analysis of endometriosis and migraine GWAS data did not reveal novel genome-wide significant SNPs, and Mendelian randomisation analysis found no evidence for a causal relationship between the two traits. However, gene-based analyses identified two novel loci for migraine. Also, we found significant enrichment of genes nominally associated (Pgene < 0.05) with both traits (Pbinomial-test = 9.83 × 10-6). Combining gene-based p-values across endometriosis and migraine, three genes, two (TRIM32 and SLC35G6) of which are at novel loci, were genome-wide significant. Genes having Pgene < 0.1 for both endometriosis and migraine (Pbinomial-test = 1.85 ×10-°3) were significantly enriched for biological pathways, including interleukin-1 receptor binding, focal adhesion-PI3K-Akt-mTOR-signaling, MAPK and TNF-α signalling. Our findings further confirm the comorbidity of endometriosis and migraine and indicate a non-causal relationship between the two traits, with shared genetically-controlled biological mechanisms underlying the co-occurrence of the two disorders.

8.
Cephalalgia ; 40(6): 625-634, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been indicated in migraine pathogenesis, but genetic studies to date have focused on candidate variants, with sparse findings. We aimed to perform the first mitochondrial genome-wide association study of migraine, examining both single variants and mitochondrial haplogroups. METHODS: In total, 71,860 participants from the population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study were genotyped. We excluded samples not passing quality control for nuclear genotypes, in addition to samples with low call rate and closely maternally related. We analysed 775 mitochondrial DNA variants in 4021 migraine cases and 14,288 headache-free controls, using logistic regression. In addition, we analysed 3831 cases and 13,584 controls who could be reliably assigned to a mitochondrial haplogroup. Lastly, we attempted to replicate previously reported mitochondrial DNA candidate variants. RESULTS: Neither of the mitochondrial variants or haplogroups were associated with migraine. In addition, none of the previously reported mtDNA candidate variants replicated in our data. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support a major role of mitochondrial genetic variation in migraine pathophysiology, but a larger sample is needed to detect rare variants and future studies should also examine heteroplasmic variation, epigenetic changes and copy-number variation.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(3): 389-404, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109421

RESUMO

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a heritable biomarker of genomic aging. In this study, we perform a genome-wide meta-analysis of LTL by pooling densely genotyped and imputed association results across large-scale European-descent studies including up to 78,592 individuals. We identify 49 genomic regions at a false dicovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 threshold and prioritize genes at 31, with five highlighting nucleotide metabolism as an important regulator of LTL. We report six genome-wide significant loci in or near SENP7, MOB1B, CARMIL1, PRRC2A, TERF2, and RFWD3, and our results support recently identified PARP1, POT1, ATM, and MPHOSPH6 loci. Phenome-wide analyses in >350,000 UK Biobank participants suggest that genetically shorter telomere length increases the risk of hypothyroidism and decreases the risk of thyroid cancer, lymphoma, and a range of proliferative conditions. Our results replicate previously reported associations with increased risk of coronary artery disease and lower risk for multiple cancer types. Our findings substantially expand current knowledge on genes that regulate LTL and their impact on human health and disease.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Leucócitos/ultraestrutura , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Telômero , Humanos
10.
Brief Bioinform ; 21(6): 1920-1936, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774481

RESUMO

Oncogenesis and cancer can arise as a consequence of a wide range of genomic aberrations including mutations, copy number alterations, expression changes and epigenetic modifications encompassing multiple omics layers. Integrating genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and epigenomic datasets via multi-omics analysis provides the opportunity to derive a deeper and holistic understanding of the development and progression of cancer. There are two primary approaches to integrating multi-omics data: multi-staged (focused on identifying genes driving cancer) and meta-dimensional (focused on establishing clinically relevant tumour or sample classifications). A number of ready-to-use bioinformatics tools are available to perform both multi-staged and meta-dimensional integration of multi-omics data. In this study, we compared nine different integration tools using real and simulated cancer datasets. The performance of the multi-staged integration tools were assessed at the gene, function and pathway levels, while meta-dimensional integration tools were assessed based on the sample classification performance. Additionally, we discuss the influence of factors such as data representation, sample size, signal and noise on multi-omics data integration. Our results provide current and much needed guidance regarding selection and use of the most appropriate and best performing multi-omics integration tools.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11623, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406173

RESUMO

Telomere shortening has been associated with multiple age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dementia. However, the biological mechanisms responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. In order to gain insight into the metabolic processes driving the association of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with age-related diseases, we investigated the association between LTL and serum metabolite levels in 7,853 individuals from seven independent cohorts. LTL was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the levels of 131 serum metabolites were measured with mass spectrometry in biological samples from the same blood draw. With partial correlation analysis, we identified six metabolites that were significantly associated with LTL after adjustment for multiple testing: lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C17:0 (lysoPC a C17:0, p-value = 7.1 × 10-6), methionine (p-value = 9.2 × 10-5), tyrosine (p-value = 2.1 × 10-4), phosphatidylcholine diacyl C32:1 (PC aa C32:1, p-value = 2.4 × 10-4), hydroxypropionylcarnitine (C3-OH, p-value = 2.6 × 10-4), and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C38:4 (PC ae C38:4, p-value = 9.0 × 10-4). Pathway analysis showed that the three phosphatidylcholines and methionine are involved in homocysteine metabolism and we found supporting evidence for an association of lipid metabolism with LTL. In conclusion, we found longer LTL associated with higher levels of lysoPC a C17:0 and PC ae C38:4, and with lower levels of methionine, tyrosine, PC aa C32:1, and C3-OH. These metabolites have been implicated in inflammation, oxidative stress, homocysteine metabolism, and in cardiovascular disease and diabetes, two major drivers of morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Homocisteína/metabolismo , Leucócitos/ultraestrutura , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Metabolômica/métodos , Telômero , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encurtamento do Telômero
12.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 76(10): 1026-1034, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268507

RESUMO

Importance: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in European populations have identified more than 100 schizophrenia-associated loci. A schizophrenia GWAS in a unique Indian population offers novel findings. Objective: To discover and functionally evaluate genetic loci for schizophrenia in a GWAS of a unique Indian population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This GWAS included a sample of affected individuals, family members, and unrelated cases and controls. Three thousand ninety-two individuals were recruited and diagnostically ascertained via medical records, hospitals, clinics, and clinical networks in Chennai and surrounding regions. Affected participants fulfilled DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. Unrelated control participants had no personal or family history of psychotic disorder. Recruitment, genotyping, and analysis occurred in consecutive phases beginning January 1, 2001. Recruitment was completed on February 28, 2018, and genotyping and analysis are ongoing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Associations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and gene expression with schizophrenia. Results: The study population included 1321 participants with schizophrenia, 885 family controls, and 886 unrelated controls. Among participants with schizophrenia, mean (SD) age was 39.1 (11.4) years, and 52.7% were male. This sample demonstrated uniform ethnicity, a degree of inbreeding, and negligible rates of substance abuse. A novel genome-wide significant association was observed between schizophrenia and a chromosome 8q24.3 locus (rs10866912, allele A; odds ratio [OR], 1.27 [95% CI, 1.17-1.38]; P = 4.35 × 10-8) that attracted support in the schizophrenia Psychiatric Genomics Consortium 2 data (rs10866912, allele A; OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.02-1.06]; P = 7.56 × 10-4). This locus has undergone natural selection, with the risk allele A declining in frequency from India (approximately 72%) to Europe (approximately 43%). rs10866912 directly modifies the abundance of the nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase gene (NAPRT1) transcript in brain cortex (normalized effect size, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.6-1.0; P = 5.8 × 10-13). NAPRT1 encodes a key enzyme for niacin metabolism. In Indian lymphoblastoid cell lines, (risk) allele A of rs10866912 was associated with NAPRT1 downregulation (AA: 0.74, n = 21; CC: 1.56, n = 17; P = .004). Preliminary zebrafish data further suggest that partial loss of function of NAPRT1 leads to abnormal brain development. Conclusions and Relevance: Bioinformatic analyses and cellular and zebrafish gene expression studies implicate NAPRT1 as a novel susceptibility gene. Given this gene's role in niacin metabolism and the evidence for niacin deficiency provoking schizophrenialike symptoms in neuropsychiatric diseases such as pellagra and Hartnup disease, these results suggest that the rs10866912 genotype and niacin status may have implications for schizophrenia susceptibility and treatment.

13.
J Headache Pain ; 20(1): 5, 2019 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634909

RESUMO

Recent technical advances in genetics made large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in migraine feasible and have identified over 40 common DNA sequence variants that affect risk for migraine types. Most of the variants, which are all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), show robust association with migraine as evidenced by the fact that the vast majority replicate in subsequent independent studies. However, despite thorough bioinformatic efforts aimed at linking the migraine risk SNPs with genes and their molecular pathways, there remains quite some discussion as to how successful this endeavour has been, and their current practical use for the diagnosis and treatment of migraine patients. Although existing genetic information seems to favour involvement of vascular mechanisms, but also neuronal and other mechanisms such as metal ion homeostasis and neuronal migration, the complexity of the underlying genetic pathophysiology presents challenges to advancing genetic knowledge to clinical use. A major issue is to what extent one can rely on bioinformatics to pinpoint the actual disease genes, and from this the linked pathways. In this Commentary, we will provide an overview of findings from GWAS in migraine, current hypotheses of the disease pathways that emerged from these findings, and some of the major drawbacks of the approaches used to identify the genes and pathways. We argue that more functional research is urgently needed to turn the hypotheses that emerge from GWAS in migraine to clinically useful information.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
14.
Cephalalgia ; 39(2): 229-236, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29911421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migraine is a complex genetic disorder that is brought about by multiple genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to assess whether migraine frequency is associated with genetic susceptibility. METHODS: We investigated in 2829 migraine patients (14% males) whether 'migraine frequency' (measured as the number of migraine days per month) was related to 'genetic load' (measured as the number of parents affected with migraine) using a validated web-based questionnaire. In addition, we investigated associations with age-at-onset, migraine subtype, use of acute headache medication, and comorbid depression. RESULTS: We found an association between the number of migraine days per month and family history of migraine for males ( p = 0.03), but not for females ( p = 0.97). This association was confirmed in a linear regression analysis. Also, a lower age-at-onset ( p < 0.001), having migraine with aura ( p = 0.03), and a high number of medication days ( p = 0.006) were associated with a stronger family history of migraine, whereas lifetime depression ( p = 0.13) was not. DISCUSSION: Migraine frequency, as measured by the number of migraine days per month, seems associated with a genetic predisposition only in males. A stronger family history of migraine was also associated with a lower age-at-onset, a higher number of medication days, and migraine with aura. Our findings suggest that specific clinical features of migraine seem more determined by genetic factors.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(8): 1202-1216, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995844

RESUMO

Migraine and major depressive disorder (MDD) are common brain disorders that frequently co-occur. Despite epidemiological evidence that migraine and MDD share a genetic basis, their overlap at the molecular genetic level has not been thoroughly investigated. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and gene-based analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) genotype data, we found significant genetic overlap across the two disorders. LD Score regression revealed a significant SNP-based heritability for both migraine (h2 = 12%) and MDD (h2 = 19%), and a significant cross-disorder genetic correlation (rG = 0.25; P = 0.04). Meta-analysis of results for 8,045,569 SNPs from a migraine GWAS (comprising 30,465 migraine cases and 143,147 control samples) and the top 10,000 SNPs from a MDD GWAS (comprising 75,607 MDD cases and 231,747 healthy controls), implicated three SNPs (rs146377178, rs672931, and rs11858956) with novel genome-wide significant association (PSNP ≤ 5 × 10-8) to migraine and MDD. Moreover, gene-based association analyses revealed significant enrichment of genes nominally associated (Pgene-based ≤ 0.05) with both migraine and MDD (Pbinomial-test = 0.001). Combining results across migraine and MDD, two genes, ANKDD1B and KCNK5, produced Fisher's combined gene-based P values that surpassed the genome-wide significance threshold (PFisher's-combined ≤ 3.6 × 10-6). Pathway analysis of genes with PFisher's-combined ≤ 1 × 10-3 suggested several pathways, foremost neural-related pathways of signalling and ion channel regulation, to be involved in migraine and MDD aetiology. In conclusion, our study provides strong molecular genetic support for shared genetically determined biological mechanisms underlying migraine and MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética , Repetição de Anquirina/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/genética
16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 64(1): 49-54, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29865051

RESUMO

Cohort studies investigating aging and dementia require APOE genotyping. We compared directly measured APOE genotypes to 'hard-call' genotypes derived from imputing genome-wide genotyping data from a range of platforms using several imputation panels. Older GWAS arrays imputed to 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP) phases and the Haplotype Reference Consortium (HRC) reference panels were able to achieve concordance rates of over 98% with stringent quality control (hard-call-threshold 0.8). However, this resulted in high levels of missingness (>12% with 1KGP and 5% with HRC). With recent GWAS arrays, concordance of 99% could be obtained with relatively lenient QC, resulting in no missingness.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino
17.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 69, 2018 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29357833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migraine is a common heritable neurovascular disorder typically characterised by episodic attacks of severe pulsating headache and nausea, often accompanied by visual, auditory or other sensory symptoms. Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with migraine, there remains uncertainty about the casual genes involved in disease pathogenesis and how their function is regulated. RESULTS: We performed an epigenome-wide association study, quantifying genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation in 67 migraine cases and 67 controls with a matching age and sex distribution. Association analyses between migraine and methylation probe expression, after adjustment for cell type proportions, indicated an excess of small P values, but there was no significant single-probe association after correction for multiple testing (P < 1.09 × 10- 7). However, utilising a 1 kb sliding window approach to combine adjacent migraine-methylation association P values, we identified 62 independent differentially methylated regions (DMRs) underlying migraine (false discovery rate < 0.05). Migraine association signals were subtle but consistent in effect direction across the length of each DMR. Subsequent analyses showed that the migraine-associated DMRs were enriched in regulatory elements of the genome and were in close proximity to genes involved in solute transportation and haemostasis. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the first genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in migraine. We have identified DNA methylation in the whole blood of subjects associated with migraine, highlighting novel loci that provide insight into the biological pathways and mechanisms underlying migraine pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma Humano , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cephalalgia ; 38(2): 292-303, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28058943

RESUMO

Background Typical migraine is a frequent, debilitating and painful headache disorder with an estimated heritability of about 50%. Although genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified over 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with migraine, further research is required to determine their biological role in migraine susceptibility. Therefore, we performed a study of genome-wide gene expression in a large sample of 83 migraine cases and 83 non-migraine controls to determine whether altered expression levels of genes and pathways could provide insights into the biological mechanisms underlying migraine. Methods We assessed whole blood gene expression data for 17994 expression probes measured using IlluminaHT-12 v4.0 BeadChips. Differential expression was assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Gene expression probes with a nominal p value < 0.05 were classified as differentially expressed. We identified modules of co-regulated genes and tested them for enrichment of differentially expressed genes and functional pathways using a false discovery rate <0.05. Results Association analyses between migraine and probe expression levels, adjusted for age and gender, revealed an excess of small p values, but there was no significant single-probe association after correction for multiple testing. Network analysis of pooled expression data identified 10 modules of co-expressed genes. One module harboured a significant number of differentially expressed genes and was strongly enriched with immune-inflammatory pathways, including multiple pathways expressed in microglial cells. Conclusions These data suggest immune-inflammatory pathways play an important role in the pathogenesis, manifestation, and/or progression of migraine in some patients. Furthermore, gene-expression associations are measurable in whole blood, suggesting the analysis of blood gene expression can inform our understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying migraine, identify biomarkers, and facilitate the discovery of novel pathways and thus determine new targets for drug therapy.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Inflamação/genética , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transcriptoma
20.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 13(12): 725-741, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146952

RESUMO

Migraine is one of the world's most prevalent and disabling disorders and imposes an enormous socioeconomic burden. The exact causes of migraine are unknown, and no recognizable diagnostic pathological changes have been identified. Specific identifiable markers of migraine would aid diagnosis and could provide insight into the pathogenesis of the condition, with the potential to direct development of new therapeutics. In the past few years, advances in neuroimaging and genetic studies have provided the most substantial progress towards the identification of markers. A growing number of brain imaging studies have provided important insights into the brain mechanisms that underlie migraine symptoms during and between migraine attacks. Similarly, large-scale genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with the common forms of migraine - migraine with aura and migraine without aura. In total, 44 independent single-nucleotide polymorphism loci have been robustly associated with the risk of migraine and provide new evidence for the involvement of vascular mechanisms. Both imaging and genetics, therefore, have excellent potential as markers of migraine. In this Review, we provide a summary of results regarding current and potential neuroimaging and genetic markers of migraine, consider what conclusions can be drawn from these markers about migraine mechanisms and discuss the potential of combining imaging and genetics.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética , Neuroimagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/metabolismo , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia
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