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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(9)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518206

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has challenged health systems and healthcare workers worldwide. Access to personal protective equipment (PPE) is essential to mitigate the risk of excess mortality in healthcare providers. In Malawi, the cost of PPE represents an additional drain on available resources. In the event of repeated waves of disease over several years, the development of sustainable systems of PPE is essential. We describe the development, early implementation and rapid scale up of a reusable gown service at a tertiary-level hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Challenges included healthcare worker perceptions around the potential of reduced efficacy of cotton gowns, the need to plan for surge capacity and the need for ongoing training of laundry staff in safety and hygiene procedures. Benefits of the system included increased coverage, decreased cost and reduced waste disposal. The implementation of a reusable cotton gown service is feasible, acceptable and cost-effective in tertiary centres providing specialist COVID-19 care at the height of the pandemic. This innovation could be expanded beyond low-income settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Humanos , Malaui , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(4): e870-e877, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen test is a tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic test with highest sensitivity in individuals with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Its role in TB diagnostic algorithms for HIV-positive outpatients remains unclear. METHODS: The AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5274 trial demonstrated that empiric TB therapy did not improve 24-week survival compared to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in TB screen-negative HIV-positive adults initiating antiretroviral therapy with CD4 counts <50 cells/µL. Retrospective LAM testing was performed on stored urine obtained at baseline. We determined the proportion of LAM-positive participants and conducted modified intent-to-treat analysis excluding LAM-positive participants to determine the effect on 24-week survival, TB incidence, and time to TB using Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: A5274 enrolled 850 participants; 53% were male and the median CD4 count was 18 (interquartile range, 9-32) cells/µL. Of the 850, 566 (67%) had LAM testing (283 per arm); 28 (5%) were positive (21 [7%] and 7 [2%] in the empiric and IPT arms, respectively). Of those LAM-positive, 1 participant in each arm died and 5 of 21 and 0 of 7 in empiric and IPT arms, respectively, developed TB. After excluding these 28 cases, there were 19 and 21 deaths in the empiric and IPT arms, respectively (P = .88). TB incidence remained higher (4.6% vs 2%, P = .04) and time to TB remained faster in the empiric arm (P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Among outpatients with advanced HIV who screened negative for TB by clinical symptoms, microscopy, and Xpert testing, LAM testing identified an additional 5% of individuals with TB. Positive LAM results did not change mortality or TB incidence.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose , Adulto , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Int J STD AIDS ; : 9564624211030368, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233535

RESUMO

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a public health concern because of their interaction(s) with HIV. In the HPTN 052 study, STIs were evaluated in both HIV-positive index cases and their HIV-negative partners at enrollment and at yearly follow-up visits. Our definition for STI was based on any infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis, or Trichomonas vaginalis. We used log-binomial regression models to identify factors associated with prevalent STIs. Generalized estimating equation models with the Poisson distribution were used to compare STI incidence between HIV-positive index cases and HIV-negative partners. 8.1% of the participants had STIs at enrollment. The prevalence of STIs (8.9 vs. 7.2) was higher in HIV-positive index cases than HIV-negative partners. Being female (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.20-2.16) or unmarried (PR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.17-3.14) was associated with prevalent STIs. Compared to HIV-negative male partners, HIV-positive female index cases had a higher risk of STI acquisition (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.70-2.97). While we are implementing HIV prevention interventions for HIV-negative people, we should also intensify targeted STI prevention interventions, especially among HIV-positive women.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3554, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117221

RESUMO

Although the COVID-19 pandemic has left no country untouched there has been limited research to understand clinical and immunological responses in African populations. Here we characterise patients hospitalised with suspected (PCR-negative/IgG-positive) or confirmed (PCR-positive) COVID-19, and healthy community controls (PCR-negative/IgG-negative). PCR-positive COVID-19 participants were more likely to receive dexamethasone and a beta-lactam antibiotic, and survive to hospital discharge than PCR-negative/IgG-positive and PCR-negative/IgG-negative participants. PCR-negative/IgG-positive participants exhibited a nasal and systemic cytokine signature analogous to PCR-positive COVID-19 participants, predominated by chemokines and neutrophils and distinct from PCR-negative/IgG-negative participants. PCR-negative/IgG-positive participants had increased propensity for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation. PCR-negative/IgG-positive individuals with high COVID-19 clinical suspicion had inflammatory profiles analogous to PCR-confirmed disease and potentially represent a target population for COVID-19 treatment strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen test is a TB diagnostic test with highest sensitivity in individuals with advanced HIV. Its role in TB diagnostic algorithms for HIV positive outpatients remains unclear. METHODS: ACTG A5274 trial demonstrated that empiric TB therapy did not improve 24-week survival compared to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in TB screen negative HIV positive adults initiating ART with CD4 counts <50 cells/µL. Retrospective LAM testing was performed on stored urine obtained at baseline. We determined the proportion of LAM-positive participants and conducted modified intent-to-treat analysis excluding LAM-positive participants to determine the effect on 24-week survival, TB incidence and time to TB using Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: A5274 enrolled 850 participants, 53% were male and median CD4 count was 18 cells/µL (IQR: 9, 32). Of the 850, 566 (67%) had LAM testing (283 per arm); 28 (5%) were positive [21 (7%); 7 (2%) in empiric and IPT arms, respectively]. Of those LAM-positive, 1 participant in each arm died and 5 of 21 and 0 of 7 in empiric and IPT arms, respectively, developed TB. After excluding these 28 cases, there were 19 and 21 deaths in empiric and IPT arms, respectively (p=0.88). TB incidence remained higher (4.6% vs. 2%, p=0.04) and time to TB remained faster in the empiric arm (p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Among outpatients with advanced HIV who screened negative for TB by clinical symptoms, microscopy and Xpert testing, LAM testing identified an additional 5% of individuals with TB. . Positive LAM results did not change mortality or TB incidence.

7.
Trop Doct ; 51(1): 24-28, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251980

RESUMO

In Malawi, pre-hospital care assistance is mainly provided by laypersons who witnessed the event. The aim of our study was to determine the knowledge and skills of such persons who bring victims of road traffic crashes to hospital. The study was conducted at Adult Emergency and Trauma Centre at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. A total of 392 participants were interviewed. Most were merchants (22%) and unskilled labourers (14.5%). Three quarters (75.8%) provided assistance on the scene. The most common assistance provided was transporting victim to the hospital (68.7%), assisting with safe lifting (57.9%) and calling for help (39.7%). Airway protection was provided by only 1% of participants. Therefore, it is recommended to establish some formal pre-hospital assistance to reduce morbidity and mortality from road traffic crashes. Laypersons, especially merchants, students and drivers are potential strong first responders, and training them may help improve pre-hospital care outcome.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Voluntários/educação , Adulto , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 603623, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33363056

RESUMO

Background: Mortality from bacterial meningitis, predominately caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, exceeds 50% in sub-Saharan African countries with high HIV prevalence. Underlying causes of high mortality are poorly understood. We examined the host and pathogen proteome in the CSF of adults with proven pneumococcal meningitis (PM), testing if there was an association between differentially expressed proteins and outcome. Materials/Methods: CSF proteomes were analyzed by quantitative Mass-Spectrometry. Spectra were identified using the Swissprot human and TIGR4 pneumococcal protein libraries. Proteins were quantitated and analyzed against mortality. Unique proteins in PM were identified against published normal CSF proteome. Random-Forest models were used to test for protein signatures discriminating outcome. Proteins of interest were tested for their effects on growth and neutrophil opsonophagocytic killing of S. pneumoniae. Results: CSF proteomes were available for 57 Adults with PM (median age 32 years, 60% male, 70% HIV-1 co-infected, mortality 63%). Three hundred sixty individual human and 23 pneumococcal proteins were identified. Of the human protein hits, 30% were not expressed in normal CSF, and these were strongly associated with inflammation and primarily related to neutrophil activity. No human protein signature predicted outcome. However, expression of the essential S. pneumoniae protein Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu) was significantly increased in CSF of non-survivors [False Discovery Rate (q) <0.001]. Expression of EF-Tu was negatively co-correlated against expression of Neutrophil defensin (r 0.4 p p < 0.002), but not against complement proteins C3 or Factor H. In vitro, addition of EF-Tu protein impaired S. pneumoniae neutrophil killing in CSF. Conclusions: Excessive S. pneumoniae EF-Tu protein in CSF was associated with reduced survival in meningitis in a high HIV prevalence population. We show EF-Tu may inhibit neutrophil mediated killing of S. pneumoniae in CSF. Further mechanistic work is required to better understand how S. pneumoniae avoids essential innate immune responses during PM through production of excess EF-Tu.


Assuntos
Meningite Pneumocócica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Fator Tu de Elongação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/metabolismo
9.
Malawi Med J ; 32(1): 24-30, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733656

RESUMO

Introduction: Globally, the burden of interpersonal violence and its significant impact on mortality, morbidity and disability makes it a major public health problem which necessitates intervention. This article examines characteristics of victims of interpersonal violence and violent events in Malawi. The focus is on a population that has been traditionally neglected in literature. Methods: Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) maintains a trauma registry with data that is prospectively collected. Patients offered trauma care after interpersonal violence from May 2013 to May 2015 were evaluated. Results: There were 1431 patients with violent events recorded at the Adult Emergency Trauma Centre (AETC) with a male predominance of 79.5%. The dominant age group was young adults between 25-29 years old (22%). Most attacks occurred during cold and dry season (46.9%) and most common location was on the road (37.2%). Alcohol use by victims was recorded in 10.5% of cases. Soft tissue injuries were the most common injuries sustained (74.1%). Most patients were treated as outpatients (80.9%). There were two deaths. At multivariate analysis, women had a lower risk of interpersonal violence as compared to men, (OR 0.82 [0.69-0.98]). Victims' use of alcohol was associated with increased risk of assault (OR 1.63 [1.27-2.10]). As compared to other places, odds of being assaulted were higher at home (OR 1.62 [1.27-2.06]) but lower at work (OR 0.68 [0.52-0.89) and on the road (OR 0.82 [0.65-1.03]). Odds of being assaulted were higher in the cold and dry season as compared to hot and dry season, (OR 1.26 [1.08-1.47]). Conclusion: Young males were most involved in interpersonal violence. Location of injury and seasonal variation were significant factors associated with interpersonal violence and most commonly sustained injuries were soft tissue injuries. These findings will help in identifying targeted interventions for interpersonal violence in Malawi and other low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs).


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Interpessoais , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Violência/classificação , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 84(4): 422-429, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early progression of AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS-PD) and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (KS-IRIS) sometimes occur after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Early KS-PD and KS-IRIS were assessed in the A5264/AMC-067 trial in which participants with mild-to-moderate AIDS-KS were randomized to initiate ART with either immediate or as-needed oral etoposide. Early KS-PD was defined as tumor progression within 12 weeks of ART initiation. When investigators had concern that early KS-PD was KS-IRIS, additional evaluations were performed. Suspected KS-IRIS was defined as early KS-PD accompanied by a CD4 count increase of ≥50 cells per cubic millimeter or plasma HIV-1 RNA decrease of ≥0.5 log10 copies/mL. Clinical outcome was a composite end point categorized as failure, stable, and response at 48 and 96 weeks compared with baseline. RESULTS: Fifty of 190 participants had early KS-PD (27%): 28 had KS-IRIS and 22 were not evaluated for KS-IRIS. Early KS-PD and KS-IRIS incidences with immediate etoposide versus ART alone were 16% versus 39%, and 7% versus 21%, respectively. Week 48 clinical outcome was 45% failure, 18% stable, and 37% response for no early KS-PD; 82% failure, 2% stable, and 16% response for early KS-PD; and 88% failure, 0% stable, and 12% response for KS-IRIS. Cumulative incidence of KS tumor response by week 96 was 64% for no early KS-PD, 22% with early KS-PD, and 18% with KS-IRIS. CONCLUSIONS: Early KS-PD, including suspected KS-IRIS, was common after starting ART for AIDS-KS and was associated with worse long-term clinical outcomes. Starting ART concurrently with etoposide reduced the incidence of both early KS-PD and KS-IRIS compared with ART alone.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/induzido quimicamente , Sarcoma de Kaposi/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Progressão da Doença , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/patologia , Masculino , Sarcoma de Kaposi/patologia , América do Sul , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Lancet ; 395(10231): 1195-1207, 2020 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment regimens for AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma, a frequent contributor to morbidity and mortality among people with HIV, have not been systematically evaluated in low-income and middle-income countries, where the disease is most common. In this study, we aimed to investigate optimal treatment strategies for advanced stage disease in areas of high prevalence and limited resources. METHODS: In this open-label, non-inferiority trial, we enrolled people with HIV and advanced stage AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma attending 11 AIDS Clinical Trials Group sites in Brazil, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) with a centralised computer system to receive either intravenous bleomycin and vincristine or oral etoposide (the investigational arms), or intravenous paclitaxel (the control arm), together with antiretroviral therapy (ART; combined efavirenz, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, and emtricitabine). The primary outcome was progression-free survival (PFS) at week 48, using a 15% non-inferiority margin to compare the investigational groups against the active control group. Safety was assessed in all eligible treated study participants. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01435018. FINDINGS: 334 participants were enrolled between Oct 1, 2013, and March 8, 2018, when the study was closed early due to inferiority of the bleomycin and vincristine plus ART arm, as per the recommendations of the Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). The etoposide plus ART arm also closed due to inferiority in March, 2016, following a DSMB recommendation. Week-48 PFS rates were higher in the paclitaxel plus ART arm than in both investigational arms. The absolute differences in PFS were -30% (95% CI -52 to -8) for the comparison of paclitaxel plus ART (week 48 PFS 50%, 32 to 67; n=59) and etoposide plus ART (20%, 6 to 33; n=59), and -20% (-33% to -7%) for the comparison of paclitaxel plus ART (64%, 55 to 73; n=138) and bleomycin and vincristine plus ART (44%, 35 to 53; n=132). Both CIs overlapped the non-inferiority margin. The most common adverse events, in 329 eligible participants who began treatment, were neutropenia (48 [15%]), low serum albumin (33 [10%]), weight loss (29 [9%]), and anaemia (28 [9%]), occurring at similar frequency across treatment arms. INTERPRETATION: Non-inferiority of either investigational intervention was not shown, with paclitaxel plus ART showing superiority to both oral etoposide plus ART and bleomycin and vincristine plus ART, supporting its use in treating advanced AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma in resource-limited settings. FUNDING: US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/efeitos adversos , Bleomicina/efeitos adversos , Sarcoma de Kaposi/tratamento farmacológico , Vincristina/efeitos adversos , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/mortalidade , Adulto , África , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Bleomicina/administração & dosagem , Países em Desenvolvimento , Quimioterapia Combinada , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Etoposídeo/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Sarcoma de Kaposi/mortalidade , Vincristina/administração & dosagem
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(9): e478-e486, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Third-generation cephalosporins (3GC) remain the first-choice empiric antibiotic for severe infection in many sub-Saharan African hospitals. In Malawi, the limited availability of alternatives means that strategies to prevent the spread of 3GC resistance are imperative; however, suitable approaches to antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) in low-income settings are not well studied. METHODS: We introduced an AMS intervention to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre. The intervention consisted of a prescribing application for smartphones and regular point-prevalence surveys with prescriber feedback. We evaluate the effects of the intervention on 3GC usage and on the cost of providing antibiotics. Using a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews and participant observations, we additionally evaluate the acceptability of the stewardship program. RESULTS: The proportion of antibiotic prescriptions for a 3GC reduced from 193/241 (80.1%) to 177/330 (53.6%; percentage decrease, 26.5%; 95% confidence interval, 18.7-34.1) with no change in the case-fatality rate. The cost analysis estimated an annual savings of US$15 000. Qualitative research revealed trust in the guideline and found that its accessibility through smartphones helpful to guide clinical decisions. Operational health-system barriers and hierarchal clinical relationships lead to continued reliance on 3GC. CONCLUSIONS: We report the successful introduction of an antimicrobial stewardship approach in Malawi. By focusing on pragmatic interventions and simple aims, we demonstrate the feasibility, acceptability, and cost savings of a stewardship program where resources are limited. In doing so, we provide a suitable starting point for expansions of AMS interventions in this and other low-income settings.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Malaui
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(10): 2547-2552, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is an important cause of mortality globally, although population incidence estimates from low-income settings, including sub-Saharan Africa, are absent. We aimed to estimate sepsis incidence burden using routinely available data from a large urban hospital in Malawi. METHODS: We linked routine-care databases at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, to provide admission and discharge data for 217 149 adults from 2013-2016. Using a definition of sepsis based on systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and Blantyre census population data, we calculated population incidence estimates of sepsis and severe sepsis and used negative binomial regression to assess for trends over time. Missing data were multiply imputed with chained equations. RESULTS: We estimate that the incidence rate of emergency department-attending sepsis and severe sepsis in adults was 1772 per 100 000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 1754-1789) and 303 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 295-310), respectively, between 2013 and 2016, with a year-on-year decrease in incidence. In-hospital mortality for patients admitted to the hospital with sepsis and severe sepsis was 23.7% (95% CI, 22.7-24.7%) and 28.1% (95% CI, 26.1 - 30.0%), respectively, with no clear change over time. CONCLUSIONS: Sepsis incidence is higher in Blantyre, Malawi, than in high-income settings, from where the majority of sepsis incidence data are derived. Worldwide sepsis burden is likely to be underestimated, and data from low-income countries are needed to inform the public health response.


Assuntos
Sepse , Adulto , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Malaui/epidemiologia , Sepse/epidemiologia
15.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(Suppl 6): e001265, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406599

RESUMO

Emergency care systems (ECS) address a wide range of acute conditions, including emergent conditions from communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases, pregnancy and injury. Together, ECS represent an area of great potential for reducing morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is estimated that up to 54% of annual deaths in LMICs could be addressed by improved prehospital and facility-based emergency care. Research is needed to identify strategies for enhancing ECS to optimise prevention and treatment of conditions presenting in this context, yet significant gaps persist in defining critical research questions for ECS studies in LMICs. The Collaborative on Enhancing Emergency Care Research in LMICs seeks to promote research that improves immediate and long-term outcomes for clients and populations with emergent conditions. The objective of this paper is to describe systems approaches and research strategies for ECS in LMICs, elucidate priority research questions and methodology, and present a selection of studies addressing the operational, implementation, policy and health systems domains of health systems research as an approach to studying ECS. Finally, we briefly discuss limitations and the next steps in developing ECS-oriented interventions and research.

16.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(3): 359-369, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625278

RESUMO

Rationale: In the context of rapid antiretroviral therapy rollout and an increasing burden of noncommunicable diseases, there are few contemporary data describing the etiology and outcome of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in sub-Saharan Africa.Objectives: To describe the current etiology of CAP in Malawi and identify risk factors for mortality.Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of adults hospitalized with CAP to a teaching hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Etiology was defined by blood culture, Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary antigen detection, sputum mycobacterial culture and Xpert MTB/RIF, and nasopharyngeal aspirate multiplex PCR.Measurements and Main Results: In 459 patients (285 [62.1%] males; median age, 34.7 [interquartile range, 29.4-41.9] yr), 30-day mortality was 14.6% (64/439) and associated with male sex (adjusted odds ratio, 2.60 [95% confidence interval, 1.17-5.78]), symptom duration greater than 7 days (2.78 [1.40-5.54]), tachycardia (2.99 [1.48-6.06]), hypoxemia (4.40 [2.03-9.51]), and inability to stand (3.59 [1.72-7.50]). HIV was common (355/453; 78.4%), frequently newly diagnosed (124/355; 34.9%), but not associated with mortality. S. pneumoniae (98/458; 21.4%) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (75/326; 23.0%) were the most frequently identified pathogens. Viral infection occurred in 32.6% (148/454) with influenza (40/454; 8.8%) most common. Bacterial-viral coinfection occurred in 9.1% (28/307). Detection of M. tuberculosis was associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 2.44 [1.19-5.01]).Conclusions: In the antiretroviral therapy era, CAP in Malawi remains predominantly HIV associated, with a large proportion attributable to potentially vaccine-preventable pathogens. Strategies to increase early detection and treatment of tuberculosis and improve supportive care, in particular the correction of hypoxemia, should be evaluated in clinical trials to address CAP-associated mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/mortalidade , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/terapia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Pneumonia/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
World J Emerg Med ; 10(1): 33-41, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Less attention is directed toward gaining a better understanding of the burden and prevention of injuries, in low and middle income countries (LMICs). We report the establishment of a trauma registry at the Adult Emergency and Trauma Centre (AETC) at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) in Blantyre, Malawi and identify high risk geographic areas. METHODS: We devised a paper based two-page trauma registry form. Ten data clerks and all AETC clinicians were trained to complete demographic and clinical details respectively. Descriptive data, regression and hotspot analyses were done using STATA 15 statistical package and ArcGIS (16) software respectively. RESULTS: There were 3,747 patients from May 2013 to May 2015. The most common mechanisms of injury were assault (38.2%), and road traffic injuries (31.6%). The majority had soft tissue injury (53.1%), while 23.8% had no diagnosis indicated. Fractures (OR 19.94 [15.34-25.93]), head injury and internal organ injury (OR 29.5 [16.29-53.4]), and use of ambulance (OR 1.57 [1.06-2.33]) were found to be predictive of increased odds of being admitted to hospital while assault (OR 0.69 [0.52-0.91]) was found to be associated with less odds of being admitted to hospital. Hot spot analysis showed that at 99% confidence interval, Ndirande, Mbayani and Limbe were the top hot spots for injury occurrence. CONCLUSION: We have described the process of establishing an integrated and potentially sustainable trauma registry. Significant data were captured to provide details on the epidemiology of trauma and insight on how care could be improved at AETC and surrounding health facilities. This approach may be relevant in similar poor resource settings.

18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 99(3): 772-779, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039785

RESUMO

Data on the epidemiology of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) in adults from low-income, high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence African settings are scarce. We conducted adult SARI surveillance in Blantyre, Malawi. From January 2011 to December 2013, individuals aged ≥ 15 years with SARI (both inpatients and outpatients) were enrolled at a large teaching hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for influenza and other respiratory viruses by polymerase chain reaction. We estimated hospital-attended influenza-positive SARI incidence rates and assessed factors associated with influenza positivity and clinical severity (Modified Early Warning Score > 4). We enrolled 1,126 SARI cases; 163 (14.5%) were positive for influenza. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence was 50.3%. Annual incidence of hospital-attended influenza-associated SARI was 9.7-16.8 cases per 100,000 population. Human immunodeficiency virus was associated with a 5-fold greater incidence (incidence rate ratio 4.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.83-6.32). On multivariable analysis, female gender, as well as recruitment in hot, rainy season (December to March; adjusted odds ratios (aOR): 2.82, 95% CI: 1.57-5.06) and cool, dry season (April to August; aOR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.35-4.15), was associated with influenza positivity, whereas influenza-positive patients were less likely to be HIV-infected (aOR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.43-0.80) or have viral coinfection (aOR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.36-0.73). Human immunodeficiency virus infection (aOR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.35-2.56) and recruitment in hot, rainy season (aOR: 4.98, 95% CI: 3.17-7.81) were independently associated with clinical severity. In this high HIV prevalence population, influenza was associated with nearly 15% of hospital-attended SARI. Human immunodeficiency virus infection is an important risk factor for clinical severity in all-cause and influenza-associated SARI. Expanded access to HIV testing and antiretroviral treatment, as well as targeted influenza vaccination, may reduce the burden of SARI in Malawi and other high HIV prevalence settings.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Vigilância da População , Pobreza , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
19.
Emerg Med J ; 35(7): 412-419, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Essential medicines lists (EMLs) are efficient means to ensure access to safe and effective medications. The WHO has led this initiative, generating a biannual EML since 1977. Nearly all countries have implemented national EMLs based on the WHO EML. Although EMLs have given careful consideration to many public health priorities, they have yet to comprehensively address the importance of medicines for treating acute illness and injury. METHODS: We undertook a multistep consensus process to establish an EML for emergency care in Africa. After a review of existing literature and international EMLs, we generated a candidate list for emergency care. This list was reviewed by expert clinicians who ranked the medicines for overall inclusion and strength of recommendation. These medications and recommendations were then evaluated by an expert group. Medications that reached consensus in both the online survey and expert review were included in a draft emergency care EML, which underwent a final inperson consensus process. RESULTS: The final emergency care EML included 213 medicines, 25 of which are not in the 2017 WHO EML, but were deemed essential for clinical practice by regional emergency providers. The final EML has associated recommendations of desirable or essential and is subdivided by facility level. Thirty-nine medicines were recommended for basic facilities, an additional 96 for intermediate facilities (eg, district hospitals) and an additional 78 for advanced facilities (eg, tertiary centres). CONCLUSION: The 25 novel medications not currently on the WHO EML should be considered by planners when making rational formularies for developing emergency care systems. It is our hope that these resource-stratified lists will allow for easier implementation and will be a useful tool for practical expansion of emergency care delivery in Africa.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais/classificação , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , África , Consenso , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração
20.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 78(1): 54-61, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29406428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatotoxicity associated with isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) has not been well studied in severely immunosuppressed people with HIV. Our objective was to determine risk factors for hepatotoxicity in severely immunosuppressed individuals taking IPT and ART. SETTING: Multicenter study in resource-limited settings with high burden of tuberculosis. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 1 randomized arm of the REMEMBER trial. The analysis includes participants with pre-ART CD4 cell counts of <50 cells/µL receiving IPT and ART for 24 weeks. Hepatotoxicity was defined as elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) >5 × upper limit of normal or symptomatic hepatitis during IPT and ART. Logistic regression was used to identify baseline risk factors for hepatotoxicity. Time to occurrence of hepatotoxicity was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Among 426 participants (53% male, median age 35 years, median CD4 count 19 cells/µL), 31 developed hepatotoxicity (7.3%). Raised pretreatment AST/ALT (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7 to 7.7) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity at baseline (OR 4.7, 95% CI: 1.7 to 12.9) were significantly associated with an increased risk of developing hepatotoxicity. Participants with both raised AST/ALT and positive HBsAg had a higher risk (OR 19.9, 95% CI: 5.3 to 74.3) and earlier onset of hepatotoxicity than participants who did not have these conditions at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of hepatotoxicity during IPT and ART was high. Severely immunosuppressed individuals with raised pretreatment AST/ALT or HBsAg seropositivity need closer monitoring for hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressão , Isoniazida/efeitos adversos , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Hepatite , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
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