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1.
Analyst ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786574

RESUMO

Raman spectroscopy (RS) is used to analyze the physiochemical properties of bone because it is non-destructive and requires minimal sample preparation. With over two decades of research involving measurements of mineral-to-matrix ratio, type-B carbonate substitution, crystallinity, and other compositional characteristics of the bone matrix by RS, there are multiple methods to acquire Raman signals from bone, to process those signals, and to determine peak ratios including sub-peak ratios as well as the full-width at half maximum of the most prominent Raman peak, which is nu1 phosphate (ν1PO4). Selecting which methods to use is not always clear. Herein, we describe the components of RS instruments and how they influence the quality of Raman spectra acquired from bone because signal-to-noise of the acquisition and the accompanying background fluorescence dictate the pre-processing of the Raman spectra. We also describe common methods and challenges in preparing acquired spectra for the determination of matrix properties of bone. This article also serves to provide guidance for the analysis of bone by RS with examples of how methods for pre-processing the Raman signals and for determining properties of bone composition affect RS sensitivity to potential differences between experimental groups. Attention is also given to deconvolution methods that are used to ascertain sub-peak ratios of the amide I band as a way to assess characteristics of collagen type I. We provide suggestions and recommendations on the application of RS to bone with the goal of improving reproducibility across studies and solidify RS as a valuable technique in the field of bone research.

2.
JBMR Plus ; 5(9): e10530, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532615

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), is a genetic disorder of bone fragility caused by mutations in collagen I or proteins involved in collagen processing. Previous studies in mice and human OI bones have shown that excessive activation of TGF-ß signaling plays an important role in dominant and recessive OI disease progression. Inhibition of TGF-ß signaling with a murine pan-specific TGF-ß neutralizing antibody (1D11) was shown to significantly increase trabecular bone volume and long bone strength in mouse models of OI. To investigate the frequency of dosing and dose options of TGF-ß neutralizing antibody therapy, we assessed the effect of 1D11 on disease progression in a dominant OI mouse model (col1a2 gene mutation at G610C). In comparison with OI mice treated with a control antibody, we attempted to define mechanistic effects of 1D11 measured via µCT, biomechanical, dynamic histomorphometry, and serum biomarkers of bone turnover. In addition, osteoblast and osteoclast numbers in histological bone sections were assessed to better understand the mechanism of action of the 1D11 antibody in OI. Here we show that 1D11 treatment resulted in both dose and frequency dependency, increases in trabecular bone volume fraction and ultimate force in lumbar bone, and ultimate force, bending strength, yield force, and yield strength in the femur (p ≤ 0.05). Suppression of serum biomarkers of osteoblast differentiation, osteocalcin, resorption, CTx-1, and bone formation were observed after 1D11 treatment of OI mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed dose and frequency dependent decreases in runt-related transcription factor, and increase in alkaline phosphatase in lumbar bone sections. In addition, a significant decrease in TRACP and the number of osteoclasts to bone surface area was observed with 1D11 treatment. Our results show that inhibition of the TGF-ß pathway corrects the high-turnover aspects of bone disease and improves biomechanical properties of OI mice. These results highlight the potential for a novel treatment for osteogenesis imperfecta. © 2021 Sanofi-Genzyme. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

3.
Bone ; 148: 115946, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838322

RESUMO

Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is essential for cholesteryl ester (CE) and triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis in the lysosome. Clinically, an autosomal recessive LIPA mutation causes LAL deficiency (LALD), previously described as Wolman Disease or Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD). LAL-D is associated with ectopic lipid accumulation in the liver, small intestine, spleen, adrenal glands, and blood. Considering the importance of unesterified cholesterol and fatty acids in bone metabolism, we hypothesized that LAL is essential for bone formation, and ultimately, skeletal health. To investigate the role of LAL in skeletal homeostasis, we used LAL-deficient (-/-) mice, in vitro osteoblast cultures, and novel clinical data from LAL-D patients. Both male and female LAL-/- mice demonstarted lower trabecular and cortical bone parameters , which translated to reduced biomechanical properties. Further histological analyses revealed that LAL-/- mice had fewer osteoblasts, with no change in osteoclast or marrow adipocyte numbers. In studying the cell-autonomous role of LAL, we observed impaired differentiation of LAL-/- calvarial osteoblasts and in bone marrow stromal cells treated with the LAL inhibitor lalistat. Consistent with LAL's role in other tissues, lalistat resulted in profound lipid puncta accumulation and an altered intracellular lipid profile. Finally, we analyzed a large de-identified national insurance database (i.e. 2016/2017 Optum Clinformatics®) which revealed that adults (≥18 years) with CESD (n = 3076) had a higher odds ratio (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.03-1.41) of all-cause fracture at any location compared to adults without CESD (n = 13.7 M) after adjusting for demographic variables and osteoporosis. These data demonstrate that alterations in LAL have significant clinical implications related to fracture risk and that LAL's modulation of lipid metabolism is a critical for osteoblast function.


Assuntos
Doença do Armazenamento de Colesterol Éster , Doença de Wolman , Animais , Ésteres do Colesterol , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos , Esterol Esterase/genética , Doença de Wolman/genética
4.
Bone ; 148: 115949, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862261

RESUMO

The incidence of bone fracture increases with age, due to both declining bone quantity and quality. Toward the goal of an improved understanding of the causes of the age-related decline in the fracture toughness of male cortical bone, nanoindentation experiments were performed on femoral diaphysis specimens from men aged 21-98 years. Because aged bone has less matrix-bound water and dry bone is less viscoelastic, we used a nanoindentation method that is sensitive to changes in viscoelasticity. Given the anisotropy of bone stiffness, longitudinal (n = 26) and transverse (n = 25) specimens relative to the long axis of the femur diaphysis were tested both dry in air and immersed in phosphate buffered saline solution. Indentation stiffness (storage modulus) and hardness increased with age, while viscoelasticity (loss modulus) was independent of donor age. The increases in indentation stiffness and hardness with age were best explained by increased mineralization with age. Indentation stiffness and hardness were negatively correlated with previously acquired fracture toughness parameters, which is consistent with a tradeoff between material strength and toughness. In keeping with the complex structure of bone, a combination of tissue-level storage modulus or hardness, bound water, and osteonal area in regression models best explained the variance in the fracture toughness of male human cortical bone. On the other hand, viscoelasticity was unchanged with age and was not associated with fracture toughness. In conclusion, the age-related increase in stiffness and hardness of male cortical bone may be one of the multiple tissue-level characteristics that contributes to decreased fracture toughness.


Assuntos
Osso Cortical , Fraturas Ósseas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Osso e Ossos , Osso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Dureza , Osteon , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Bone Rep ; 14: 100743, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33490313

RESUMO

Severely injured patients are beleaguered by complications during convalescence, such as dysregulated biomineralization. Paradoxically, severely injured patients experience the loss of bone (osteoporosis), resulting in diminished skeletal integrity and increased risk of fragility fractures; yet they also accrue mineralization in soft tissues, resulting in complications such as heterotopic ossification (HO). The pathophysiology leading to dysregulated biomineralization in severely injured patients is not well defined. It has been postulated that these pathologies are linked, such that mineralization is "transferred" from the bone to soft tissue compartments. The goal of this study was to determine if severe injury-induced osteoporosis and soft tissue calcification are temporally coincident following injury. Using a murine model of combined burn and skeletal muscle injury to model severe injury, it was determined that mice developed significant progressive bone loss, detectable as early as 3 days post injury, and marked soft tissue mineralization by 7 days after injury. The observed temporal concordance between the development of severe injury-induced osteoporosis and soft tissue mineralization indicates the plausibility that these complications share a common pathophysiology, though further experiments are required.

6.
Bone ; 143: 115763, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220504

RESUMO

The fracture resistance of cortical bone and matrix hydration are known to decline with advanced aging. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood, and so we investigated levels of matrix proteins and post-translational modifications (PTM) of collagen I in extracts from the tibia of 6-mo. and 20-mo. old BALB/c mice (female and male analysis done separately). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis revealed that the levels of collagen I deamidation at specific asparagine (Asn) and glutamine (Gln) residues significantly increased with age. Other non-enzymatic PTMs such as carboxymethylation of lysine (CML) were detected as well, but the relative abundance did not vary with age. No significant age-related differences in the abundance of hydroxylysine glycosylation sites were found, but hydroxylation levels at a few of the numerous lysine and proline hydroxylation sites significantly changed by a small amount with age. We performed molecular modeling and dynamics (MD) simulations for three triple helical fragments representing collagen I regions with prominent age-dependent increases in deamidation as identified by LC-MS/MS of male extracts. These 3 fragments included deamidated Asn and Gln residues as follows: 1) an Asn428 site of the α2(I) chain in which deamidation levels increased from 4.4% at 6-mo. to 8.1% at 20-mo., 2) an Asn983 site of the α2(I) chain with a deamidation increase from 18.3% to 36.8% with age and an Asn1052 site of the α1(I) chain with consistent deamidation levels of ~60% across the age groups, and 3) a Gln410 site of the α1(I) chain that went from no detectable deamidation at 6-mo. to 2.7% at 20-mo. and a neighboring Asn421 site of the same chain with an age-related deamidation increase from 3.6% to 16.3%. The deamidation levels at these sites inversely correlated with an estimate of toughness determined from three-point bending tests of the femur mid-diaphysis. MD revealed that the sidechains become more negatively charged at deamidated sites and that deamidation alters hydrogen bonding with water along the collagen backbone while increasing water interactions with the aspartic and glutamic acid sidechains. Our findings suggest a new mechanism of the age-dependent reduction in the fracture resistance of cortical bone whereby deamidation of Asn and Glu residues redistributes bound water within collagen I triple helix.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo I , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Envelhecimento , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
7.
Bone ; 141: 115625, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890778

RESUMO

Higher fracture risk in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is attributed to disease-specific deficits in micro-structural and material properties of bone, although the primary cause is not yet established. The TallyHO (TH) mouse is a polygenic model of early-onset T2D and obesity analogous to adolescent-onset T2D in humans. Due to incomplete penetrance of the phenotype, ~25% of male TH mice never develop hyperglycemia, providing a strain-matched, non-diabetic control. Utilizing this model of T2D, we examined the impact of glucose-lowering therapy with canagliflozin (CANA) on diabetic bone. Male TH mice with or without hyperglycemia (High BG, Low BG) were monitored from ~8 to 20 weeks of age, and compared to age-matched, male, TH mice treated with CANA from ~8 to 20 weeks of age. At 20 weeks, untreated TH mice with high BG [High BG: 687 ± 106 mg/dL] exhibited lower body mass, decrements in cortical bone of the femur (decreased cross-sectional area and thickness; increased porosity) and in trabecular bone of the femur metaphysis and L6 vertebra (decreased bone volume fraction, thickness, and tissue mineral density), as well as decrements in cortical and vertebral bone strength (decreased yield force and ultimate force) when compared to untreated TH mice with low BG [Low BG: 290 ± 98 mg/dL; p < 0.0001]. CANA treatment was metabolically advantageous, normalizing body mass, BG and HbA1c to values comparable to the Low BG group. With drug-induced glycemic improvement, cortical area and thickness were significantly higher in the CANA than in the High BG group, but deficits in strength persisted with lower yield force and yield stress (partially independent of bone geometry) in the CANA group. Additionally, CANA only partially prevented the T2D-related loss in trabecular bone volume fraction. Taken together, these findings suggest that the ability of CANA to lower glucose and normalized glycemic control ameliorates diabetic bone disease but not fully.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Animais , Glicemia , Canagliflozina/farmacologia , Canagliflozina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
8.
Bone ; 137: 115438, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480022

RESUMO

The likelihood of experiencing an osteoporotic fracture of one or more vertebral bodies increases with age, and this increase is not solely due to sex steroid deficiency. For the purpose of assessing the effectiveness of novel therapeutic strategies in the prevention of vertebral fractures among the elderly, we hypothesized that the BALB/c mouse model of aging phenocopies the age-related decrease in human VB strength. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the age-related changes in trabecular architecture of the L6 VB, with respect to those in the distal femur metaphysis, between 6-mo. (young adulthood, n = 20/sex) and 20-mo. of age (old age, n = 18/sex) and then determined how well the architectural characteristics, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and predicted failure force from µCT-derived finite element analysis (µFEA) with linear elastic failure criteria explained the age-related variance in VB strength, which was the ultimate force during quasi-static loading of the VB in compression. While there was a pronounced age-related deterioration in trabecular architecture in the distal femur metaphysis of female and male BALB/c mice, the decrease in trabecular bone volume fraction and trabecular number between 6-mo. and 20-mo. of age occurred in male mice, but not in female mice. As such, the VB strength was lower with age in males only. Nonetheless, BV/TV and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) positively correlated with the ultimate compressive force of the L6 VB for both females and males. Whether using a fixed homogeneous distribution of tissue modulus (Et = 18 GPa) or a heterogeneous distribution of Et based on a positive relationship with TMD, the predicted failure force of the VB was not independent of age, thereby suggesting linear µFEA may not be a suitable replacement for mechanical-based measurements of strength with respect to age-related changes. Overall, the BALB/c mouse model of aging mimics the age-related in decline in human VB strength when comparing 6-mo. and 20-mo. old male mice. The decrease in VB strength in female mice may occur over a different age range.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Vértebras Lombares , Animais , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
9.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 6(1): 564-574, 2020 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405537

RESUMO

Resorbable bone cements are replaced by bone osteoclastic resorption and osteoblastic new bone formation near the periphery. However, the ideal bone cement would be replaced by new bone through processes similar to fracture repair, which occurs through a variable combination of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In this study, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA)-poly(thioketal urethane) (PTKUR) cements were implanted in femoral defects in New Zealand White rabbits to evaluate ossification at 4, 12, and 18 months. Four formulations were tested: an injectable, flowable cement and three moldable putties with varying ratios of calcium phosphate to sucrose granules. New bone formation and resorption of the cement by osteoclasts occurred near the periphery. Stevenel's Blue and Safranin O staining revealed infiltration of chondrocytes into the cements and ossification of the cartilaginous intermediate. These findings suggest that nHA-PTKUR cements support combined intramembranous and endochondral ossification, resulting in enhanced osseointegration of the cement that could potentially improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Osteogênese , Animais , Durapatita , Poliuretanos , Coelhos , Uretana
10.
Bone ; 133: 115254, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991250

RESUMO

Selective sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2Is) are oral hypoglycemic medications utilized increasingly in the medical management of hyperglycemia among persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite favorable effects on cardiovascular events, specific SGLT2Is have been associated with an increased risk for atypical fracture and amputation in subgroups of the T2D population, a population that already has a higher risk for typical fragility fractures than the general population. To better understand the effect of SGLT2 blockade on skeletal integrity, independent of diabetes and its co-morbidities, we utilized the "Jimbee" mouse model of slc5a2 gene mutation to investigate the impact of lifelong SGLT2 loss-of-function on metabolic and skeletal phenotype. Jimbee mice maintained normal glucose homeostasis, but exhibited chronic polyuria, glucosuria and hypercalciuria. The Jimbee mutation negatively impacted appendicular growth of the femur and resulted in lower tissue mineral density of both cortical and trabecular bone of the femur mid-shaft and distal femur metaphysis, respectively. Several components of the Jimbee phenotype were characteristic only of male mice compared with female mice, including reductions: in body weight; in cortical area of the mid-shaft; and in trabecular thickness within the metaphysis. Despite these decrements, the strength of femur diaphysis in bending (cortical bone), which increased with age, and the strength of L6 vertebra in compression (primarily trabecular bone), which decreased with age, were not affected by the mutation. Moreover, the age-related decline in bone toughness was less for Jimbee mice, compared with control mice, such that by 49-50 weeks of age, Jimbee mice had significantly tougher femurs in bending than C57BL/6J mice. These results suggest that chronic blockade of SGLT2 in this model reduces the mineralization of bone but does not reduce its fracture resistance.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Minerais , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/genética
11.
Bone ; 130: 115106, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689526

RESUMO

Recent clinical studies have revealed that a somatic mutation in MAP2K1, causing constitutive activation of MEK1 in osteogenic cells, occurs in melorheostotic bone disease in humans. We have generated a mouse model which expresses an activated form of MEK1 (MEK1DD) specifically in osteoprogenitors postnatally. The skeletal phenotype of these mice recapitulates many features of melorheostosis observed in humans, including extra-cortical bone formation, abundant osteoid formation, decreased mineral density, and increased porosity. Paradoxically, in both humans and mice, MEK1 activation in osteoprogenitors results in bone that is not structurally compromised, but is hardened and stronger, which would not be predicted based on tissue and matrix properties. Thus, a specific activating mutation in MEK1, expressed only by osteoprogenitors postnatally, can have a significant impact on bone strength through complex alterations in whole bone geometry, bone micro-structure, and bone matrix.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos , Melorreostose , Animais , Camundongos , Mutação , Osteogênese , Fenótipo
12.
Bone ; 130: 115126, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678497

RESUMO

One possibility for the disproportionate increase in fracture risk with aging relative to the decrease in bone mass is an accumulation of changes to the bone matrix which deleteriously affect fracture resistance. In order to effectively develop new targets for osteoporosis, a preclinical model of the age-related loss in fracture resistance needs to be established beyond known age-related decreases in bone mineral density and bone volume fraction. To that end, we examined long bones of male and female BALB/c mice at 6-mo. and 20-mo. of age and assessed whether material and matrix properties of cortical bone significantly differed between the age groups. The second moment of area of the diaphysis (minimum and maximum principals for femur and radius, respectively) as measured by ex vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) was higher at 20-mo. than at 6-mo. for both males and females, but ultimate moment as measured by three-point bending tests did not decrease with age. Cortical thickness was lower with age for males, but higher for old females. Partially accounting for differences in structure, material estimates of yield, ultimate stress, and toughness (left femur) were 12.6%, 11.1%, and 40.9% lower, respectively, with age for both sexes. The ability of the cortical bone to resist crack growth (right femur) was also 18.1% less for the old than for the young adult mice. These decreases in material properties were not due to changes in intracortical porosity as pore number decreased with age. Rather, age-related alterations in the matrix were observed for both sexes: enzymatic and non-enzymatic crosslinks by high performance liquid chromatography increased (femur), volume fraction of bound water by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry decreased (femur), cortical tissue mineral density by µCT increased (femur and radius), and an Amide I sub-peak ratio I1670/I1640 by Raman spectroscopy increased (tibia). Overall, there are multiple matrix changes to potentially target that could prevent the age-related decrease in fracture resistance observed in BALB/c mouse.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos , Animais , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Matriz Extracelular , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microtomografia por Raio-X
13.
JBMR Plus ; 3(6): e10135, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346566

RESUMO

Being predictors of the mechanical properties of human cortical bone, bound and pore water measurements by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are being developed for the clinical assessment of fracture risk. While pore water is a surrogate of cortical bone porosity, the determinants of bound water are unknown. Manipulation of organic matrix properties by oxidative deproteinization, thermal denaturation, or nonenzymatic glycation lowers bone toughness. Because bound water contributes to bone toughness, we hypothesized that each of these matrix manipulations affect bound water fraction (Vbw/Vbone). Immersing cadaveric bone samples in sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) for 96 hours did not affect tissue mineral density or cortical porosity, but rather decreased Vbw/Vbone and increased short-T2 pore water signals as determined by 1H nuclear MR relaxometry (1H NMR). Moreover, the post treatment Vbw/Vbone linearly correlated with the remaining weight fraction of the organic matrix. Heating bone samples at 110°C, 120°C, 130°C, and then 140°C (∼24 hours per temperature and rehydration for ∼24 hours before 1H NMR analysis) did not affect Vbw/Vbone. After subsequently heating them at 200°C, Vbw/Vbone increased. Boiling bone samples followed by heating at 110°C, 120°C, and then 130°C in water under pressure (8 hours per temperature) had a similar effect on Vbw/Vbone. Raman spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the increase in Vbw/Vbone coincided with an increase in an Amide I subpeak ratio that is sensitive to changes in the helical structure of collagen I. Glycation of bone by ribose for 4 weeks, but not in glucose for 16 weeks, decreased Vbw/Vbone, although the effect was less pronounced than that of oxidative deproteinization or thermal denaturation. We propose that MR measurements of bound water reflect the amount of bone organic matrix and can be modulated by collagen I helicity and by sugar-derived post translational modifications of the matrix. © 2019 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

14.
J Orthop Trauma ; 33(10): e385-e393, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the effect of intramedullary pin size on the biology of a healing fracture, specifically endochondral angiogenesis. We hypothesized that fracture fixation with a smaller pin would permit greater interfragmentary strain resulting in increased total amount of vascular endothelial growth factor within the callus and greater angiogenesis compared to fixation with a larger pin. METHODS: Transverse mid-shaft femur fractures in 8-week-old mice were fixed with either a 23-gauge (G) or 30-G pin. Differences in interfragmentary strain at the fracture site were estimated between cohorts. A combination of histology, gene expression, serial radiography, and microcomputed tomography with and without vascular contrast agent were used to assess fracture healing and vascularity for each cohort. RESULTS: Larger soft-tissue callus formation increased vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression, and a corresponding increase in vascular volume was observed in the higher strain, 30-G cohort. Radiographic analysis demonstrated earlier hard callus formation with greater initial interfragmentary strain, similar rates of union between pin size cohorts, yet delayed callus remodeling in mice with the larger pin size. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the stability conferred by an intramedullary nail influences endochondral angiogenesis at the fracture.


Assuntos
Pinos Ortopédicos , Cartilagem/irrigação sanguínea , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/instrumentação , Consolidação da Fratura , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Animais , Calo Ósseo/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Desenho de Prótese , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7195, 2019 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076574

RESUMO

Developing clinical tools that assess bone matrix quality could improve the assessment of a person's fracture risk. To determine whether Raman spectroscopy (RS) has such potential, we acquired Raman spectra from human cortical bone using microscope- and fiber optic probe-based Raman systems and tested whether correlations between RS and fracture toughness properties were statistically significant. Calculated directly from intensities at wavenumbers identified by second derivative analysis, Amide I sub-peak ratio I1670/I1640, not I1670/I1690, was negatively correlated with Kinit (N = 58; R2 = 32.4%) and J-integral (R2 = 47.4%) when assessed by Raman micro-spectroscopy. Area ratios (A1670/A1690) determined from sub-band fitting did not correlate with fracture toughness. There were fewer correlations between RS and fracture toughness when spectra were acquired by probe RS. Nonetheless, the I1670/I1640 sub-peak ratio again negatively correlated with Kinit (N = 56; R2 = 25.6%) and J-integral (R2 = 39.0%). In best-fit general linear models, I1670/I1640, age, and volumetric bone mineral density explained 50.2% (microscope) and 49.4% (probe) of the variance in Kinit. I1670/I1640 and v1PO4/Amide I (microscope) or just I1670/I1640 (probe) were negative predictors of J-integral (adjusted-R2 = 54.9% or 37.9%, respectively). While Raman-derived matrix properties appear useful to the assessment of fracture resistance of bone, the acquisition strategy to resolve the Amide I band needs to be identified.


Assuntos
Osso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade Óssea , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Espectral Raman , Adulto Jovem
16.
Elife ; 82019 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735122

RESUMO

Two decades after signals controlling bone length were discovered, the endogenous ligands determining bone width remain unknown. We show that postnatal establishment of normal bone width in mice, as mediated by bone-forming activity of the periosteum, requires BMP signaling at the innermost layer of the periosteal niche. This developmental signaling center becomes quiescent during adult life. Its reactivation however, is necessary for periosteal growth, enhanced bone strength, and accelerated fracture repair in response to bone-anabolic therapies used in clinical orthopedic settings. Although many BMPs are expressed in bone, periosteal BMP signaling and bone formation require only Bmp2 in the Prx1-Cre lineage. Mechanistically, BMP2 functions downstream of Lrp5/6 pathway to activate a conserved regulatory element upstream of Sp7 via recruitment of Smad1 and Grhl3. Consistent with our findings, human variants of BMP2 and GRHL3 are associated with increased risk of fractures.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/genética , Osteogênese/genética , Periósteo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Periósteo/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína Smad1/genética , Fator de Transcrição Sp7/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
17.
Bone ; 120: 187-193, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394355

RESUMO

Greater understanding of the determinants of skeletal fragility is highly sought due to the great burden that bone affecting diseases and fractures have on economies, societies and health care systems. Being a complex, hierarchical composite of collagen type-I and non-stoichiometric substituted hydroxyapatite, bone derives toughness from its organic phase. In this study, we tested whether early observations that a strong correlation between bone collagen integrity measured by thermomechanical methods and work to fracture exist in a more general and heterogeneous sampling of the population. Neighboring uniform specimens from an established, highly characterized and previously published collection of human cortical bone samples (femur mid-shaft) were decalcified in EDTA. Fifty-four of the original 62 donors were included (26 male and 28 females; ages 21-101 years; aging, osteoporosis, diabetes and cancer). Following decalcification, bone collagen was tested using hydrothermal isometric tension (HIT) testing in order to measure the collagen's thermal stability (denaturation temperature, Td) and network connectivity (maximum rate of isometric tension generation; Max.Slope). We used linear regression and general linear models (GLMs) with several explanatory variables to determine whether relationships between HIT parameters and generally accepted bone quality factors (e.g., cortical porosity, pentosidine content [pen], pyridinoline content [pyd]), age, and measures of fracture toughness (crack initiation fracture toughness, Kinit, and total energy release/dissipation rate evaluated at the point of unstable fast fracture, J-int) were significant. Bone collagen connectivity (Max.Slope) correlated well with the measures of fracture toughness (R2 = 24-35%), and to a lesser degree with bound water fraction (BW; R2 = 7.9%) and pore water fraction (PW; R2 = 9.1%). Significant correlations with age, apparent volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and mature enzymatic [pyd] and non-enzymatic collagen crosslinks [pen] were not detected. GLMs found that Max.Slope and vBMD (or BW), with or without age as additional covariate, all significantly explained the variance in Kinit (adjusted-R2 = 36.7-49.0%). Also, the best-fit model for J-int (adjusted-R2 = 35.7%) included only age and Max.Slope as explanatory variables with Max.Slope contributing twice as much as age. Max.Slope and BW without age were also significant predictors of J-int (adjusted-R2 = 35.5%). In conclusion, bone collagen integrity as measured by thermomechanical methods is a key factor in cortical bone fracture toughness. This study further demonstrates that greater attention should be paid to degradation of the overall organic phase, rather than a specific biomarker (e.g. [pen]), when seeking to understand elevated fracture rates in aging and disease.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Osso Cortical/patologia , Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Biomaterials ; 179: 29-45, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960822

RESUMO

Bone fractures at weight-bearing sites are challenging to treat due to the difficulty in maintaining articular congruency. An ideal biomaterial for fracture repair near articulating joints sets rapidly after implantation, stabilizes the fracture with minimal rigid implants, stimulates new bone formation, and remodels at a rate that maintains osseous integrity. Consequently, the design of biomaterials that mechanically stabilize fractures while remodeling to form new bone is an unmet challenge in bone tissue engineering. In this study, we investigated remodeling of resorbable bone cements in a stringent model of mechanically loaded tibial plateau defects in sheep. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite-poly(ester urethane) (nHA-PEUR) hybrid polymers were augmented with either ceramic granules (85% ß-tricalcium phosphate/15% hydroxyapatite, CG) or a blend of CG and bioactive glass (BG) particles to form a settable bone cement. The initial compressive strength and fatigue properties of the cements were comparable to those of non-resorbable poly(methyl methacrylate) bone cement. In animals that tolerated the initial few weeks of early weight-bearing, CG/nHA-PEUR cements mechanically stabilized the tibial plateau defects and remodeled to form new bone at 16 weeks. In contrast, cements incorporating BG particles resorbed with fibrous tissue filling the defect. Furthermore, CG/nHA-PEUR cements remodeled significantly faster at the full weight-bearing tibial plateau site compared to the mechanically protected femoral condyle site in the same animal. These findings are the first to report a settable bone cement that remodels to form new bone while providing mechanical stability in a stringent large animal model of weight-bearing bone defects near an articulating joint.


Assuntos
Cimentos Ósseos/química , Polímeros/química , Tíbia/lesões , Animais , Transplante Ósseo , Cerâmica/química , Força Compressiva , Feminino , Vidro/química , Imuno-Histoquímica , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Ovinos , Tíbia/cirurgia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
19.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0198088, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851987

RESUMO

Immediately following a fracture, a fibrin laden hematoma is formed to prevent bleeding and infection. Subsequently, the organized removal of fibrin, via the protease plasmin, is essential to permit fracture repair through angiogenesis and ossification. Yet, when plasmin activity is lost, the depletion of fibrin alone is insufficient to fully restore fracture repair, suggesting the existence of additional plasmin targets important for fracture repair. Previously, activated matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) was demonstrated to function in fracture repair by promoting angiogenesis. Given that MMP-9 is a defined plasmin target, it was hypothesized that pro-MMP-9, following plasmin activation, promotes fracture repair. This hypothesis was tested in a fixed murine femur fracture model with serial assessment of fracture healing. Contrary to previous findings, a complete loss of MMP-9 failed to affect fracture healing and union through 28 days post injury. Therefore, these results demonstrated that MMP-9 is dispensable for timely fracture union and cartilage transition to bone in fixed femur fractures. Pro-MMP-9 is therefore not a significant target of plasmin in fracture repair and future studies assessing additional plasmin targets associated with angiogenesis are warranted.


Assuntos
Consolidação da Fratura , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/deficiência , Animais , Fraturas do Fêmur/enzimologia , Fraturas do Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
Curr Osteoporos Rep ; 16(3): 205-215, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611037

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While thinning of the cortices or trabeculae weakens bone, age-related changes in matrix composition also lower fracture resistance. This review summarizes how the organic matrix, mineral phase, and water compartments influence the mechanical behavior of bone, thereby identifying characteristics important to fracture risk. RECENT FINDINGS: In the synthesis of the organic matrix, tropocollagen experiences various post-translational modifications that facilitate a highly organized fibril of collagen I with a preferred orientation giving bone extensibility and several toughening mechanisms. Being a ceramic, mineral is brittle but increases the strength of bone as its content within the organic matrix increases. With time, hydroxyapatite-like crystals experience carbonate substitutions, the consequence of which remains to be understood. Water participates in hydrogen bonding with organic matrix and in electrostatic attractions with mineral phase, thereby providing stability to collagen-mineral interface and ductility to bone. Clinical tools sensitive to age- and disease-related changes in matrix composition that the affect mechanical behavior of bone could potentially improve fracture risk assessment.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Matriz Óssea/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Fraturas Ósseas , Tropocolágeno/metabolismo , Água , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Matriz Óssea/química , Osso e Ossos/química , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osso Esponjoso/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Humanos , Minerais , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
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