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1.
Trends Biotechnol ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535228

RESUMO

Humoral immunity is divided into the cellular B cell and protein-level antibody responses. High-throughput sequencing has advanced our understanding of both these fundamental aspects of B cell immunology as well as aspects pertaining to vaccine and therapeutics biotechnology. Although the protein-level serum and mucosal antibody repertoire make major contributions to humoral protection, the sequence composition and dynamics of antibody repertoires remain underexplored. This limits insight into important immunological and biotechnological parameters such as the number of antigen-specific antibodies, which are for example, relevant for pathogen neutralization, microbiota regulation, severity of autoimmunity, and therapeutic efficacy. High-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) has allowed initial insights into the antibody repertoire. We outline current challenges in MS-based sequence analysis of antibody repertoires and propose strategies for their resolution.

2.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1178: 338551, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482862

RESUMO

Single-cell analysis can allow for an in-depth understanding of diseases, diagnostics, and aid the development of therapeutics. However, single-cell analysis is challenging, as samples are both extremely limited in size and complex. But the concept is gaining promise, much due to novel sample preparation approaches and the ever-improving field of mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometer's output is often linked to the preceding compound separation step, typically being liquid chromatography (LC). In this review, we focus on LC's role in single-cell omics. Particle-packed nano LC columns (typically 50-100 µm inner diameter) have traditionally been the tool of choice for limited samples, and are also used for single cells. Several commercial products and systems are emerging with single cells in mind, featuring particle-packed columns or miniaturized pillar array systems. In addition, columns with inner diameters as narrow as 2 µm are being explored to maximize sensitivity. Hence, LC column down-scaling is a key focus in single-cell analysis. But narrow columns are associated with considerable technical challenges, while single cell analysis may be expected to become a "routine" service, requiring higher degrees of robustness and throughput. These challenges and expectations will increase the need and attention for the development (and even the reinvention) of alternative nano LC column formats. Therefore, monolith columns and even open tubular columns may finally find their "killer-application" in single cell analysis.


Assuntos
Análise de Célula Única , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas
3.
Eur Heart J ; 42(39): 4064-4072, 2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405870

RESUMO

AIMS: We recently reported five cases of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) 7-10 days after receiving the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 adenoviral vector vaccine against corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate the pathogenic immunological responses operating in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed circulating inflammatory markers by immune assays and immune cell phenotyping by flow cytometry analyses and performed immunoprecipitation with anti-platelet factor (PF)4 antibody in plasma samples followed by mass spectrometry from all five patients. A thrombus was retrieved from the sinus sagittal superior of one patient and analysed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Precipitated immune complexes revealed multiple innate immune pathway triggers for platelet and leucocyte activation. Plasma contained increased levels of innate immune response cytokines and markers of systemic inflammation, extensive degranulation of neutrophils, and tissue and endothelial damage. Blood analyses showed activation of neutrophils and increased levels of circulating H3Cit, dsDNA, and myeloperoxidase-DNA complex. The thrombus had extensive infiltration of neutrophils, formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and IgG deposits. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that anti-PF4/polyanion IgG-mediated thrombus formation in VITT patients is accompanied by a massive innate immune activation and particularly the fulminant activation of neutrophils including NETosis. These results provide novel data on the immune response in this rare adenoviral vector-induced VITT.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Trombocitopenia , Vacinas , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 672975, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248881

RESUMO

Bacterial biofilms are an important underlying cause for chronic infections. By switching into the biofilm state, bacteria can evade host defenses and withstand antibiotic chemotherapy. Despite the fact that biofilms at clinical and environmental settings are mostly composed of multiple microbial species, biofilm research has largely been focused on single-species biofilms. In this study, we investigated the interaction between two clinically relevant bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by label-free quantitative proteomics focusing on proteins associated with the bacterial cell surfaces (surfaceome) and proteins exported/released to the extracellular space (exoproteome). The changes observed in the surfaceome and exoproteome of P. aeruginosa pointed toward higher motility and lower pigment production when co-cultured with S. aureus. In S. aureus, lower abundances of proteins related to cell wall biosynthesis and cell division, suggesting increased persistence, were observed in the dual-species biofilm. Complementary phenotypic analyses confirmed the higher motility and the lower pigment production in P. aeruginosa when co-cultured with S. aureus. Higher antimicrobial tolerance associated with the co-culture setting was additionally observed in both species. To the best of our knowledge, this study is among the first systematic explorations providing insights into the dynamics of both the surfaceome and exoproteome of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa dual-species biofilms.

5.
J Immunol ; 207(4): 1128-1137, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321230

RESUMO

TCR signaling critically depends on the tyrosine kinase Lck (lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase). Two phosphotyrosines, the activating pTyr394 and the inhibitory pTyr505, control Lck activity. Recently, pTyr192 in the Lck SH2 domain emerged as a third regulator. How pTyr192 may affect Lck function remains unclear. In this study, we explored the role of Lck Tyr192 using CRISPR/Cas9-targeted knock-in mutations in the human Jurkat T cell line. Our data reveal that both Lck pTyr394 and pTyr505 are controlled by Lck Tyr192 Lck with a nonphosphorylated SH2 domain (Lck Phe192) displayed hyperactivity, possibly by promoting Lck Tyr394 transphosphorylation. Lck Glu192 mimicking stable Lck pTyr192 was inhibited by Tyr505 hyperphosphorylation. To overcome this effect, we further mutated Tyr505 The resulting Lck Glu192/Phe505 displayed strongly increased amounts of pTyr394 both in resting and activated T cells. Our results suggest that a fundamental role of Lck pTyr192 may be to protect Lck pTyr394 and/or pTyr505 to maintain a pool of already active Lck in resting T cells. This provides an additional mechanism for fine-tuning of Lck as well as T cell activity.


Assuntos
Proteína Tirosina Quinase p56(lck) Linfócito-Específica , Linfócitos T , Humanos , Proteína Tirosina Quinase p56(lck) Linfócito-Específica/genética , Proteína Tirosina Quinase p56(lck) Linfócito-Específica/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Domínios de Homologia de src
6.
mSystems ; 6(3): e0050021, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156290

RESUMO

The complex cell wall and biofilm matrix (ECM) act as key barriers to antibiotics in mycobacteria. Here, the ECM and envelope proteins of Mycobacterium marinum ATCC 927, a nontuberculous mycobacterial model, were monitored over 3 months by label-free proteomics and compared with cell surface proteins on planktonic cells to uncover pathways leading to virulence, tolerance, and persistence. We show that ATCC 927 forms pellicle-type and submerged-type biofilms (PBFs and SBFs, respectively) after 2 weeks and 2 days of growth, respectively, and that the increased CelA1 synthesis in this strain prevents biofilm formation and leads to reduced rifampicin tolerance. The proteomic data suggest that specific changes in mycolic acid synthesis (cord factor), Esx1 secretion, and cell wall adhesins explain the appearance of PBFs as ribbon-like cords and SBFs as lichen-like structures. A subpopulation of cells resisting 64× MIC rifampicin (persisters) was detected in both biofilm subtypes and already in 1-week-old SBFs. The key forces boosting their development could include subtype-dependent changes in asymmetric cell division, cell wall biogenesis, tricarboxylic acid/glyoxylate cycle activities, and energy/redox/iron metabolisms. The effect of various ambient oxygen tensions on each cell type and nonclassical protein secretion are likely factors explaining the majority of the subtype-specific changes. The proteomic findings also imply that Esx1-type protein secretion is more efficient in planktonic (PL) and PBF cells, while SBF may prefer both the Esx5 and nonclassical pathways to control virulence and prolonged viability/persistence. In conclusion, this study reports the first proteomic insight into aging mycobacterial biofilm ECMs and indicates biofilm subtype-dependent mechanisms conferring increased adaptive potential and virulence of nontuberculous mycobacteria. IMPORTANCE Mycobacteria are naturally resilient, and mycobacterial infections are notoriously difficult to treat with antibiotics, with biofilm formation being the main factor complicating the successful treatment of tuberculosis (TB). The present study shows that nontuberculous Mycobacterium marinum ATCC 927 forms submerged- and pellicle-type biofilms with lichen- and ribbon-like structures, respectively, as well as persister cells under the same conditions. We show that both biofilm subtypes differ in terms of virulence-, tolerance-, and persistence-conferring activities, highlighting the fact that both subtypes should be targeted to maximize the power of antimycobacterial treatment therapies.

7.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 638646, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163352

RESUMO

The cardiac sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX1) is important for normal Na+- and Ca2+-homeostasis and cardiomyocyte relaxation and contraction. It has been suggested that NCX1 activity is reduced by phosphorylated phospholemman (pSer68-PLM); however its direct interaction with PLM is debated. Disruption of the potentially inhibitory pSer68-PLM-NCX1 interaction might be a therapeutic strategy to increase NCX1 activity in cardiac disease. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the binding affinities and kinetics of the PLM-NCX1 and pSer68-PLM-NCX1 interactions by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and to develop a proteolytically stable NCX1 activator peptide for future in vivo studies. The cytoplasmic parts of PLM (PLMcyt) and pSer68-PLM (pSer68-PLMcyt) were found to bind strongly to the intracellular loop of NCX1 (NCX1cyt) with similar K D values of 4.1 ± 1.0 nM and 4.3 ± 1.9 nM, but the PLMcyt-NCX1cyt interaction showed higher on/off rates. To develop a proteolytically stable NCX1 activator, we took advantage of a previously designed, high-affinity PLM binding peptide (OPT) that was derived from the PLM binding region in NCX1 and that reverses the inhibitory PLM (S68D)-NCX1 interaction in HEK293. We performed N- and C-terminal truncations of OPT and identified PYKEIEQLIELANYQV as the minimum sequence required for pSer68-PLM binding. To increase peptide stability in human serum, we replaced the proline with an N-methyl-proline (NOPT) after identification of N-terminus as substitution tolerant by two-dimensional peptide array analysis. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the half-life of NOPT was increased 17-fold from that of OPT. NOPT pulled down endogenous PLM from rat left ventricle lysate and exhibited direct pSer68-PLM binding in an ELISA-based assay and bound to pSer68-PLMcyt with a K D of 129 nM. Excess NOPT also reduced the PLMcyt-NCX1cyt interaction in an ELISA-based competition assay, but in line with that NCX1 and PLM form oligomers, NOPT was not able to outcompete the physical interaction between endogenous full length proteins. Importantly, cell-permeable NOPT-TAT increased NCX1 activity in cardiomyocytes isolated from both SHAM-operated and aorta banded heart failure (HF) mice, indicating that NOPT disrupted the inhibitory pSer68-PLM-NCX1 interaction. In conclusion, we have developed a proteolytically stable NCX1-derived PLM binding peptide that upregulates NCX1 activity in SHAM and HF cardiomyocytes.

8.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(4): 2003526, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643806

RESUMO

In celiac disease (CeD), gluten activates adaptive immune cells that cause damage to the small intestinal mucosa. Histological evaluation of intestinal biopsies allows for grading of disease severity. CeD can effectively be treated with a life-long gluten-free diet. Gluten challenge of treated CeD patients is used to confirm diagnosis and to test drug efficacy in clinical trials, but patients respond with different magnitudes to the same gluten challenge. In this study of 19 well-treated CeD patients, proteome analysis of total tissue or isolated epithelial cell compartment from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded biopsies collected before and after 14-day gluten challenge demonstrates that patients with strong mucosal response to challenge have signs of ongoing tissue inflammation already before challenge. This low-level tissue inflammation at baseline is paralleled by increased gluten specific CD4+ T-cell frequencies in the gut and presence of a low-level blood inflammatory profile. Thus, apparently well-treated CeD is frequently not entirely quiescent, with presence of low-grade inflammation and antigluten immunity in the gut mucosa. Histology assessment alone appears insufficient to judge full recovery and gut mucosal healing of CeD patients. The findings raise a concern whether a seemingly proper gluten-free diet is able to curb gut inflammation in all CeD patients.

9.
Atherosclerosis ; 324: 123-132, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Atherogenesis involves a complex interaction between immune cells and lipids, processes greatly influenced by the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype. The DNA glycosylase NEIL3 has previously been shown to have a role in atherogenesis, though whether this is due to its ability to repair DNA damage or to other non-canonical functions is not yet clear. Hereby, we investigate the role of NEIL3 in atherogenesis, specifically in VSMC phenotypic modulation, which is critical in plaque formation and stability. METHODS: Chow diet-fed atherosclerosis-prone Apoe-/- mice deficient in Neil3, and NEIL3-abrogated human primary aortic VSMCs were characterized by qPCR, and immunohistochemical and enzymatic-based assays; moreover, single-cell RNA sequencing, mRNA sequencing, and proteomics were used to map the molecular effects of Neil3/NEIL3 deficiency in the aortic VSMC phenotype. Furthermore, BrdU-based proliferation assays and Western blot were performed to elucidate the involvement of the Akt signaling pathway in the transdifferentiation of aortic VSMCs lacking Neil3/NEIL3. RESULTS: We show that Neil3 deficiency increases atherosclerotic plaque development without affecting systemic lipids. This observation was associated with a shift in VSMC phenotype towards a proliferating, lipid-accumulating and secretory macrophage-like cell phenotype, without changes in DNA damage. VSMC transdifferentiation in Neil3-deficient mice encompassed increased activity of the Akt signaling pathway, supported by cell experiments showing Akt-dependent proliferation in NEIL3-abrogated human primary aortic VSMCs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that Neil3 deficiency promotes atherosclerosis development through non-canonical mechanisms affecting VSMC phenotype involving activation of the Akt signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , DNA Glicosilases , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/enzimologia , Placa Aterosclerótica , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Endodesoxirribonucleases , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , N-Glicosil Hidrolases , Fenótipo
10.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 13: 570640, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281550

RESUMO

Progressive myoclonus epilepsy of Unverricht-Lundborg type (EPM1) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the cystatin B (CSTB) gene. Progression of the clinical symptoms in EPM1 patients, including stimulus-sensitive myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, and ataxia, are well described. However, the cellular dysfunction during the presymptomatic phase that precedes the disease onset is not understood. CSTB deficiency leads to alterations in GABAergic signaling, and causes early neuroinflammation followed by progressive neurodegeneration in brains of a mouse model, manifesting as progressive myoclonus and ataxia. Here, we report the first proteome atlas from cerebellar synaptosomes of presymptomatic Cstb-deficient mice, and propose that early mitochondrial dysfunction is important to the pathogenesis of altered synaptic function in EPM1. A decreased sodium- and chloride dependent GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) abundance was noted in synaptosomes with CSTB deficiency, but no functional difference was seen between the two genotypes in electrophysiological experiments with pharmacological block of GAT-1. Collectively, our findings provide novel insights into the early onset and pathogenesis of CSTB deficiency, and reveal greater complexity to the molecular pathogenesis of EPM1.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066652

RESUMO

Functioning (FCA) and silent corticotroph (SCA) pituitary adenomas act differently from a clinical perspective, despite both subtypes showing positive TBX19 (TPIT) and/or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) staining by immunohistochemistry. They are challenging to treat, the former due to functional ACTH production and consequently hypercortisolemia, and the latter due to invasive and recurrent behavior. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms behind their distinct behavior are not clear. We investigated global transcriptome and proteome changes in order to identify signaling pathways that can explain FCA and SCA differences (e.g., hormone production vs. aggressive growth). In the transcriptomic study, cluster analyses of differentially expressed genes revealed two distinct groups in accordance with clinical and histological classification. However, in the proteomic study, a greater degree of heterogeneity within the SCA group was found. Genes and proteins related to protein synthesis and vesicular transport were expressed by both adenoma groups, although different types and a distinct pattern of collagen/extracellular matrix proteins were presented by each group. Moreover, several genes related to endoplasmic reticulum protein processing were overexpressed in the FCA group. Together, our findings shed light on the different repertoires of activated signaling pathways in corticotroph adenomas, namely, the increased protein processing capacity of FCA and a specific pattern of adhesion molecules that may play a role in the aggressiveness of SCA.

12.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 792, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984315

RESUMO

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is important in cardiac remodeling and syndecans have gained increased interest in this process due to their ability to convert changes in the ECM to cell signaling. In particular, syndecan-4 has been shown to be important for cardiac remodeling, whereas the role of its close relative syndecan-2 is largely unknown in the heart. To get more insight into the role of syndecan-2, we here sought to identify interaction partners of syndecan-2 in rat left ventricle. By using three different affinity purification methods combined with mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, we identified 30 novel partners and 9 partners previously described in the literature, which together make up the first cardiac syndecan-2 interactome. Eleven of the novel partners were also verified in HEK293 cells (i.e., AP2A2, CAVIN2, DDX19A, EIF4E, JPH2, MYL12A, NSF, PFDN2, PSMC5, PSMD11, and RRAD). The cardiac syndecan-2 interactome partners formed connections to each other and grouped into clusters mainly involved in cytoskeletal remodeling and protein metabolism, but also into a cluster consisting of a family of novel syndecan-2 interaction partners, the CAVINs. MS analyses revealed that although syndecan-2 was significantly enriched in fibroblast fractions, most of its partners were present in both cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. Finally, a comparison of the cardiac syndecan-2 and -4 interactomes revealed surprisingly few protein partners in common.

13.
Proteomics ; 20(19-20): e2000135, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865868

RESUMO

Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a ligand-inducible transcription factor which mediates estrogen actions in hormone-responsive tumors and is targeted by effective anticancer therapies based on the ERα antagonist ligands, selective estrogen receptor modulators (such as Tamoxifen/TAM) or disruptors (such as Fulvestrant/ICI). Despite its importance for cancer therapy, including acquired resistance to endocrine therapy, the molecular basis of ERα response to different ligands is not fully known to date. Interaction proteomics shows great potential to identify and characterize molecular mechanisms of disease based on physical and functional protein-protein interaction networks. Tandem affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry is applied here for mapping in hormone-responsive breast cancer cells nuclei, the ERα interactomes, induced by each of the two classes of antiestrogens. The results provide new insights on the molecular bases for antiestrogen-mediated control of ERα function and reveal new potential ways to overcome endocrine therapy resistance in cancer.

14.
J Cell Biol ; 219(10)2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970793

RESUMO

Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes of the innate immune system. Their activation leads to robust secretion of exosomes. In this issue, Wozniak et al. (2020. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201912074) reveal a connection between inflammasome-mediated cleavage of Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) and sequence-specific loading of miRNAs into exosomes.


Assuntos
Exossomos , MicroRNAs , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Exossomos/genética , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental , Humanos , Inflamassomos , Inflamação , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA
15.
J Immunol ; 204(12): 3063-3069, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513874

RESUMO

Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes of the innate immune system that orchestrate development of inflammation by activating the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1ß and IL-18. The LPS of Gram-negative bacteria have been shown to activate a novel, noncanonical inflammasome by directly binding in the cytosol to human caspase-4 and mouse caspase-11. Activation of noncanonical inflammasome exerts two major effects: it activates the NLRP3-caspase-1-mediated processing and secretion of IL-1ß and IL-18 and induces the inflammatory cell death, pyroptosis, via gasdermin D. This previously unexpected cytosolic LPS sensing of the innate immune system provides critical hints for host response to Gram-negative bacterial infections and development of different inflammatory diseases. However, many of its molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet to be discovered. In this review, we provide comprehensive analysis of current understanding of intracellular LPS detection and pyroptosis via noncanonical inflammasome and discuss the recently proposed mechanisms of its function and regulation.


Assuntos
Caspases/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Piroptose/fisiologia
16.
Pancreatology ; 20(4): 676-682, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: /Objectives: We aimed to metabolically compare healthy primary human pancreatic epithelial cells (hPEC) to a pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1) and explore the effect on energy metabolism of exposing primary human myotubes to conditioned medium from hPEC and PANC-1 cells. METHODS: Differences in metabolism were examined with radiolabeled glucose, oleic acid and lactic acid, and by qPCR. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics was used to study global protein secretion from the two cell types. Pathway analyses were performed. RESULTS: PANC-1 cells tended to have higher glucose uptake, production of lactic acid, and glucose oxidation compared to hPEC cells. PANC-1 cells had higher uptake but lower oxidation of oleic acid, and mitochondrial reserve capacity from oleic acid was lower in PANC-1 cells. These differences in energy metabolism were reflected by differences in gene expressions and pathway analyses of the secretome. Conditioned medium from PANC-1 cells attenuated oleic acid oxidation in primary human myotubes. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic characterization of the PANC-1 cells revealed a glycolytic phenotype since they had an active glucose oxidation. Furthermore, PANC-1 cells showed a lower oleic acid oxidation and secreted a high amount of proteins into conditioned medium that also induced a reduced oleic acid oxidation in myotubes.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/metabolismo , Pâncreas/citologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácido Láctico , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oxirredução
17.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(6): 3534-3548, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040259

RESUMO

Cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury has been attributed to stress signals arising from an impaired mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), which include redox imbalance, metabolic stalling and excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The alternative oxidase (AOX) is a respiratory enzyme, absent in mammals, that accepts electrons from a reduced quinone pool to reduce oxygen to water, thereby restoring electron flux when impaired and, in the process, blunting ROS production. Hence, AOX represents a natural rescue mechanism from respiratory stress. This study aimed to determine how respiratory restoration through xenotopically expressed AOX affects the re-perfused post-ischaemic mouse heart. As expected, AOX supports ETC function and attenuates the ROS load in post-anoxic heart mitochondria. However, post-ischaemic cardiac remodelling over 3 and 9 weeks was not improved. AOX blunted transcript levels of factors known to be up-regulated upon I/R such as the atrial natriuretic peptide (Anp) whilst expression of pro-fibrotic and pro-apoptotic transcripts were increased. Ex vivo analysis revealed contractile failure at nine but not 3 weeks after ischaemia whilst label-free quantitative proteomics identified an increase in proteins promoting adverse extracellular matrix remodelling. Together, this indicates an essential role for ETC-derived signals during cardiac adaptive remodelling and identified ROS as a possible effector.

18.
Microorganisms ; 8(1)2020 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940921

RESUMO

The present study investigated Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 surfaceomes (cell surface proteins) during prolonged growth by subjecting planktonic and biofilm cultures (initiated from exponential or stationary cells) to label-free quantitative surfaceomics and phenotypic confirmations. The abundance of adhesion, autolytic, hemolytic, and lipolytic proteins decreased over time in both growth modes, while an opposite trend was detected for many tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, Fe-S repair, and peptidolytic moonlighters. In planktonic cells, these changes were accompanied by decreasing and increasing adherence to hydrophobic surface and fibronectin, respectively. Specific RNA/DNA binding (cold-shock protein CspD and ribosomal proteins) and the immune evasion (SpA, ClfA, and IsaB) proteins were notably more abundant on fully mature biofilms initiated with stationary-phase cells (SDBF) compared to biofilms derived from exponential cells (EDBF) or equivalent planktonic cells. The fully matured SDBF cells demonstrated higher viability in THP-1 monocyte/macrophage cells compared to the EDBF cells. Peptidoglycan strengthening, specific urea-cycle, and detoxification enzymes were more abundant on planktonic than biofilm cells, indicating the activation of growth-mode specific pathways during prolonged cultivation. Thus, we show that S. aureus shapes its surfaceome in a growth mode-dependent manner to reach high levofloxacin tolerance (>200-times the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration). This study also demonstrates that the phenotypic state of the cells prior to biofilm formation affects the immune-evasion and persistence-related traits of S. aureus.

19.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 19(2): 245-260, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792072

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by poor response to therapy and low overall patient survival. Recently, Estrogen Receptor beta (ERß) has been found to be expressed in a fraction of TNBCs where, because of its oncosuppressive actions on the genome, it represents a potential therapeutic target, provided a better understanding of its actions in these tumors becomes available. To this end, the cell lines Hs 578T, MDA-MB-468 and HCC1806, representing the claudin-low, basal-like 1 and 2 TNBC molecular subtypes respectively, were engineered to express ERß under the control of a Tetracycline-inducible promoter and used to investigate the effects of this transcription factor on gene activity. The antiproliferative effects of ERß in these cells were confirmed by multiple functional approaches, including transcriptome profiling and global mapping of receptor binding sites in the genome, that revealed direct negative regulation by ERß of genes, encoding for key components of cellular pathways associated to TNBC aggressiveness representing novel therapeutic targets such as angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis and cholesterol biosynthesis. Supporting these results, interaction proteomics by immunoprecipitation coupled to nano LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry revealed ERß association with several potential nuclear protein partners, including key components of regulatory complexes known to control chromatin remodeling, transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation and RNA splicing. Among these, ERß association with the Polycomb Repressor Complexes 1 and 2 (PRC1/2), known for their central role in gene regulation in cancer cells, was confirmed in all three TNBC subtypes investigated, suggesting its occurrence independently from the cellular context. These results demonstrate a significant impact of ERß in TNBC genome activity mediated by its cooperation with regulatory multiprotein chromatin remodeling complexes, providing novel ground to devise new strategies for the treatment of these diseases based on ligands affecting the activity of this nuclear receptor or some of its protein partners.


Assuntos
Colesterol/biossíntese , Cromatina/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteômica , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética
20.
Atherosclerosis ; 296: 74-82, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We have previously found increased levels of the cysteine protease legumain in plasma and plaques from patients with carotid atherosclerosis. This study further investigated legumain during acute cardiovascular events. METHODS: Circulating levels of legumain from patients and legumain released from platelets were assessed by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay. Quantitative PCR and immunoblotting were used to study expression, while localization was visualized by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In the SUMMIT Malmö cohort (n = 339 with or without type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease [CVD], and 64 healthy controls), the levels of circulating legumain were associated with the presence of CVD in non-diabetics, with no relation to outcome. In symptomatic carotid plaques and in samples from both coronary and intracerebral thrombi obtained during acute cardiovascular events, legumain was co-localized with macrophages in the same regions as platelets. In vitro, legumain was shown to be present in and released from platelets upon activation. In addition, THP-1 macrophages exposed to releasate from activated platelets showed increased legumain expression. Interestingly, primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with recombinant legumain promoted anti-inflammatory responses. Finally, in a STEMI population (POSTEMI; n = 272), patients had significantly higher circulating legumain before and immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention compared with healthy controls (n = 67), and high levels were associated with improved outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate for the first time that legumain is upregulated during acute cardiovascular events and is associated with improved outcome.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Cisteína Endopeptidases/biossíntese , Macrófagos/enzimologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/sangue , Doença Aguda , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/metabolismo , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Cisteína Endopeptidases/sangue , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Cisteína Endopeptidases/farmacologia , Citocinas/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Placa Aterosclerótica/química , Ativação Plaquetária , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Suécia/epidemiologia , Células THP-1
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