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Crit Care ; 24(1): 244, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448380


BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare though often fatal hyperinflammatory syndrome mimicking sepsis in the critically ill. Diagnosis relies on the HLH-2004 criteria and HScore, both of which have been developed in pediatric or adult non-critically ill patients, respectively. Therefore, we aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of HLH-2004 criteria and HScore in a cohort of adult critically ill patients. METHODS: In this further analysis of a retrospective observational study, patients ≥ 18 years admitted to at least one adult ICU at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin between January 2006 and August 2018 with hyperferritinemia of ≥ 500 µg/L were included. Patients' charts were reviewed for clinically diagnosed or suspected HLH. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed to determine prediction accuracy. RESULTS: In total, 2623 patients with hyperferritinemia were included, of whom 40 patients had HLH. We found the best prediction accuracy of HLH diagnosis for a cutoff of 4 fulfilled HLH-2004 criteria (95.0% sensitivity and 93.6% specificity) and HScore cutoff of 168 (100% sensitivity and 94.1% specificity). By adjusting HLH-2004 criteria cutoffs of both hyperferritinemia to 3000 µg/L and fever to 38.2 °C, sensitivity and specificity increased to 97.5% and 96.1%, respectively. Both a higher number of fulfilled HLH-2004 criteria [OR 1.513 (95% CI 1.372-1.667); p <  0.001] and a higher HScore [OR 1.011 (95% CI 1.009-1.013); p <  0.001] were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: An HScore cutoff of 168 revealed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 94.1%, thereby providing slightly superior diagnostic accuracy compared to HLH-2004 criteria. Both HLH-2004 criteria and HScore proved to be of good diagnostic accuracy and consequently might be used for HLH diagnosis in critically ill patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered with (NCT02854943) on August 1, 2016.

Crit Care Med ; 48(4): 459-465, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205591


OBJECTIVE: Hyperferritinemia is frequently seen in critically ill patients. A rather rare though life-threatening condition related to severely elevated ferritin is hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. We analyze ferritin levels to differentiate hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis from other causes of hyperferritinemia in a mixed cohort of critically ill patients. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Adult surgical, anesthesiologic, and medical ICUs of a university hospital. PATIENTS: Critical care patients (≥ 18 yr old) admitted to any of the adult ICUs at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin between January 2006 and August 2018 with at least one ferritin value and hyperferritinemia (≥ 500 µg/L). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were categorized into hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, sepsis, septic shock, and other diagnoses. These were further categorized into 17 subgroups. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis diagnosis was based on Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis-2004 criteria and the HScore. Of 2,623 patients with hyperferritinemia, 40 were considered to have hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (1.52%). Maximum ferritin levels were highest in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients compared with all other disease groups (each p < 0.001). Sepsis and septic shock patients had higher maximum ferritin levels than patients with other diagnoses (each p < 0.001). A maximum ferritin value of 9,083 µg/L was at 92.5% sensitivity and 91.9% specificity for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (area under the curve, 0.963; 95% CI, 0.949-0.978). Of all subgroups with other diagnoses, maximum ferritin levels were highest in patients with varicella-zoster virus, hepatitis, or malaria (median, 1,935, 1,928, and 1,587 µg/L, respectively). Maximum ferritin levels were associated with increased in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 1.518 per log µg/L [95% CI, 1.384-1.665 per log µg/L]; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study of patients with ferritin available in a mixed ICU cohort. Ferritin levels in patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, sepsis, septic shock, and other conditions were distinctly different, with the highest ferritin levels observed in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients. Maximum ferritin of 9,083 µg/L showed high sensitivity and specificity and, therefore, may contribute to improved diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in ICU. The inclusion of ferritin into the sepsis laboratory panel is warranted.

BMJ Open ; 9(10): e032695, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666276


INTRODUCTION: Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in adults is characterised by toxic immune activation and a sepsis-like syndrome, leading to high numbers of undiagnosed cases and mortality rates of up to 68%. Early diagnosis and specific immune suppressive treatment are mandatory to avoid fatal outcome, but the diagnostic criteria (HLH-2004) are adopted from paediatric HLH and have not been validated in adults. Experimental studies suggest biomarkers to sufficiently diagnose HLH. However, biomarkers for the diagnosis of adult HLH have not yet been investigated. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The HEMICU (Diagnostic biomarkers for adult haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in critically ill patients) study aims to estimate the incidence rate of adult HLH among suspected adult patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Screening for HLH will be performed in 16 ICUs of Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. The inclusion criteria are bicytopaenia, hyperferritinaemia (≥500 µg/L), fever or when HLH is suspected by the clinician. Over a period of 2 years, we expect inclusion of about 100 patients with suspected HLH. HLH will be diagnosed if at least five of the HLH-2004 criteria are fulfilled, together with an expert review; all other included patients will serve as controls. Second, a panel of potential biomarker candidates will be explored. DNA, plasma and serum will be stored in a biobank. The primary endpoint of the study is the incidence rate of adult HLH among suspected adult patients during ICU stay. Out of a variety of measured biomarkers, this study furthermore aims to find highly potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of adult HLH in ICU. The results of this study will contribute to improved recognition and patient outcome of adult HLH in clinical routine. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The institutional ethics committee approved this study on 1 August 2018 (Ethics Committee of Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, EA4/006/18). The results of the study will be disseminated in an international peer-reviewed journal and presented at international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03510650.

Shock ; 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626037


BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), an uncontrolled overactivation of the immune system, is well characterized in pediatric patients, yet, much less is known about this life-threatening condition in adult patients. As HLH is often complicated by organ failure, patients will require admission to the intensive care unit for organ support therapy. However, recognition of HLH patients in the ICU is challenged by the clinical overlap with sepsis. Here, we analyze HLH patients to better understand its clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: For the purpose of this retrospective observational study, we searched for suspected and diagnosed adult HLH of all patients admitted to at least one adult surgical, anesthesiological or medical ICU between January 2006 and August 2018 at the university hospital Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. All cases were reviewed by two HLH experts, who confirmed or declined the diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 6340 ICU patients with ferritin measurement, 40 suffered from HLH (0.63%). Of these, in-hospital mortality was 60.0% over all cases, which was highest in malignancy-associated HLH (71.4%). Infections were identified as most common triggers (42.5%). A variety of 19 different treatment strategies were applied. Non-survivors showed higher ferritin at diagnosis compared to survivors (p = 0.021), which was also seen in multivariable analyses. A minimum ferritin of 4083 µg/L after diagnosis was most predictive for 30-day mortality (AUC 0.888, 95% CI 0.771-1.000; sensitivity 93.8%, specificity 78.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality in adult HLH patients in the ICU is high, particularly in malignancy-associated HLH. Infections are the most frequent HLH triggers in critically ill patients. At present, there is no standardized treatment for HLH in adult patients available. Assessment of ferritin is valuable for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment monitoring. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered with (NCT02854943) on August 1, 2016.

Anaesthesist ; 68(9): 626-632, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396675


Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), also known as hemophagocytic syndrome or macrophage activation syndrome within a pre-existing rheumatological disease, remains undiagnosed in over 70% of all cases in intensive care units (ICU) due to the sepsis-like clinical presentation. This report describes the case of a 30-year-old previously healthy male patient who was admitted to the normal infectiology ward of the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin with unclear fever after a 3­month journey around Asian and South America. The patient was transferred to the ICU after 3 days because of respiratory failure. Due to the immediate diagnostics of HLH and initiation of specific immunosuppressive treatment with dexamethasone, immunoglobulins and anakinra, the patient completely recovered and could finally be discharged after a 2­week stay in hospital. Furthermore, the current diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed. Ferritin is a decisive diagnostic marker that should be determined in every patient with unclear organ failure.