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1.
Cell ; 184(5): 1262-1280.e22, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636129

RESUMO

Improving effector activity of antigen-specific T cells is a major goal in cancer immunotherapy. Despite the identification of several effector T cell (TEFF)-driving transcription factors (TFs), the transcriptional coordination of TEFF biology remains poorly understood. We developed an in vivo T cell CRISPR screening platform and identified a key mechanism restraining TEFF biology through the ETS family TF, Fli1. Genetic deletion of Fli1 enhanced TEFF responses without compromising memory or exhaustion precursors. Fli1 restrained TEFF lineage differentiation by binding to cis-regulatory elements of effector-associated genes. Loss of Fli1 increased chromatin accessibility at ETS:RUNX motifs, allowing more efficient Runx3-driven TEFF biology. CD8+ T cells lacking Fli1 provided substantially better protection against multiple infections and tumors. These data indicate that Fli1 safeguards the developing CD8+ T cell transcriptional landscape from excessive ETS:RUNX-driven TEFF cell differentiation. Moreover, genetic deletion of Fli1 improves TEFF differentiation and protective immunity in infections and cancer.

2.
Sci Immunol ; 6(55)2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452106

RESUMO

The developmental origins of memory T cells remain incompletely understood. During the expansion phase of acute viral infection, we identified a distinct subset of virus-specific CD8+ T cells that possessed distinct characteristics including expression of CD62L, T cell factor 1 (TCF-1), and Eomesodermin; relative quiescence; expression of activation markers; and features of limited effector differentiation. These cells were a quantitatively minor subpopulation of the TCF-1+ pool and exhibited self-renewal, heightened DNA damage surveillance activity, and preferential long-term recall capacity. Despite features of memory and somewhat restrained proliferation during the expansion phase, this subset displayed evidence of stronger TCR signaling than other responding CD8+ T cells, coupled with elevated expression of multiple inhibitory receptors including programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), lymphocyte activating gene 3 (LAG-3), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), CD5, and CD160. Genetic ablation of PD-1 and LAG-3 compromised the formation of this CD62Lhi TCF-1+ subset and subsequent CD8+ T cell memory. Although central memory phenotype CD8+ T cells were formed in the absence of these cells, subsequent memory CD8+ T cell recall responses were compromised. Together, these results identify an important link between genome integrity maintenance and CD8+ T cell memory. Moreover, the data indicate a role for inhibitory receptors in preserving key memory CD8+ T cell precursors during initial activation and differentiation. Identification of this rare subpopulation within the memory CD8+ T cell precursor pool may help reconcile models of the developmental origin of long-term CD8+ T cell memory.

3.
Science ; 369(6508)2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669297

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a global pandemic, but human immune responses to the virus remain poorly understood. We used high-dimensional cytometry to analyze 125 COVID-19 patients and compare them with recovered and healthy individuals. Integrated analysis of ~200 immune and ~50 clinical features revealed activation of T cell and B cell subsets in a proportion of patients. A subgroup of patients had T cell activation characteristic of acute viral infection and plasmablast responses reaching >30% of circulating B cells. However, another subgroup had lymphocyte activation comparable with that in uninfected individuals. Stable versus dynamic immunological signatures were identified and linked to trajectories of disease severity change. Our analyses identified three immunotypes associated with poor clinical trajectories versus improving health. These immunotypes may have implications for the design of therapeutics and vaccines for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
bioRxiv ; 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511371

RESUMO

COVID-19 has become a global pandemic. Immune dysregulation has been implicated, but immune responses remain poorly understood. We analyzed 71 COVID-19 patients compared to recovered and healthy subjects using high dimensional cytometry. Integrated analysis of ~200 immune and >30 clinical features revealed activation of T cell and B cell subsets, but only in some patients. A subgroup of patients had T cell activation characteristic of acute viral infection and plasmablast responses could reach >30% of circulating B cells. However, another subgroup had lymphocyte activation comparable to uninfected subjects. Stable versus dynamic immunological signatures were identified and linked to trajectories of disease severity change. These analyses identified three "immunotypes" associated with poor clinical trajectories versus improving health. These immunotypes may have implications for therapeutics and vaccines.

5.
Immunity ; 52(5): 825-841.e8, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396847

RESUMO

CD8+ T cell exhaustion is a major barrier to current anti-cancer immunotherapies. Despite this, the developmental biology of exhausted CD8+ T cells (Tex) remains poorly defined, restraining improvement of strategies aimed at "re-invigorating" Tex cells. Here, we defined a four-cell-stage developmental framework for Tex cells. Two TCF1+ progenitor subsets were identified, one tissue restricted and quiescent and one more blood accessible, that gradually lost TCF1 as it divided and converted to a third intermediate Tex subset. This intermediate subset re-engaged some effector biology and increased upon PD-L1 blockade but ultimately converted into a fourth, terminally exhausted subset. By using transcriptional and epigenetic analyses, we identified the control mechanisms underlying subset transitions and defined a key interplay between TCF1, T-bet, and Tox in the process. These data reveal a four-stage developmental hierarchy for Tex cells and define the molecular, transcriptional, and epigenetic mechanisms that could provide opportunities to improve cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transcrição Genética/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Epigênese Genética/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/imunologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/genética
6.
Cell ; 174(1): 117-130.e14, 2018 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909981

RESUMO

Heterogeneity is a hallmark feature of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates. Following infection, naive T cells differentiate into various subsets of effector and memory T cells, which help to eliminate pathogens and maintain long-term immunity. The current model suggests there is a single lineage of naive T cells that give rise to different populations of effector and memory T cells depending on the type and amounts of stimulation they encounter during infection. Here, we have discovered that multiple sub-populations of cells exist in the naive CD8+ T cell pool that are distinguished by their developmental origin, unique transcriptional profiles, distinct chromatin landscapes, and different kinetics and phenotypes after microbial challenge. These data demonstrate that the naive CD8+ T cell pool is not as homogeneous as previously thought and offers a new framework for explaining the remarkable heterogeneity in the effector and memory T cell subsets that arise after infection.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Genes Controladores do Desenvolvimento , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidade , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/metabolismo , Citocinas/farmacologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito T/metabolismo , Memória Imunológica , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Listeria monocytogenes/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise de Componente Principal , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/citologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Timo/transplante , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
7.
Cell Rep ; 23(7): 2142-2156, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768211

RESUMO

Persistent viral infections and tumors drive development of exhausted T (TEX) cells. In these settings, TEX cells establish an important host-pathogen or host-tumor stalemate. However, TEX cells erode over time, leading to loss of pathogen or cancer containment. We identified microRNA (miR)-155 as a key regulator of sustained TEX cell responses during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. Genetic deficiency of miR-155 ablated CD8 T cell responses during chronic infection. Conversely, enhanced miR-155 expression promoted expansion and long-term persistence of TEX cells. However, rather than strictly antagonizing exhaustion, miR-155 promoted a terminal TEX cell subset. Transcriptional profiling identified coordinated control of cell signaling and transcription factor pathways, including the key AP-1 family member Fosl2. Overexpression of Fosl2 reversed the miR-155 effects, identifying a link between miR-155 and the AP-1 transcriptional program in regulating TEX cells. Thus, we identify a mechanism of miR-155 regulation of TEX cells and a key role for Fosl2 in T cell exhaustion.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células/genética , Doença Crônica , Doenças Transmissíveis/patologia , Antígeno 2 Relacionado a Fos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
8.
J Immunol ; 196(4): 1604-16, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26764033

RESUMO

CMV is the most common congenital infection in the United States. The major target of congenital CMV is the brain, with clinical manifestations including mental retardation, vision impairment, and sensorineural hearing loss. Previous reports have shown that CD8(+) T cells are required to control viral replication and significant numbers of CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells persist in the brain even after the initial infection has been cleared. However, the dynamics of CD8(+) T cells in the brain during latency remain largely undefined. In this report, we used TCR sequencing to track the development and maintenance of neonatal clonotypes in the brain and spleen of mice during chronic infection. Given the discontinuous nature of tissue-resident memory CD8(+) T cells, we hypothesized that neonatal TCR clonotypes would be locked in the brain and persist into adulthood. Surprisingly, we found that the Ag-specific T cell repertoire in neonatal-infected mice diversified during persistent infection in both the brain and spleen, while maintaining substantial similarity between the CD8(+) T cell populations in the brain and spleen in both early and late infection. However, despite the diversification of, and potential interchange between, the spleen and brain Ag-specific T cell repertoires, we observed that germline-encoded TCR clonotypes, characteristic of neonatal infection, persisted in the brain, albeit sometimes in low abundance. These results provide valuable insights into the evolution of CD8(+) T cell repertoires following neonatal CMV infection and thus have important implications for the development of therapeutic strategies to control CMV in early life.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Genes Codificadores dos Receptores de Linfócitos T , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Baço/citologia , Baço/imunologia
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 9(9): e1003572, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24068921

RESUMO

Microbial infection during various stages of human development produces widely different clinical outcomes, yet the links between age-related changes in the immune compartment and functional immunity remain unclear. The ability of the immune system to respond to specific antigens and mediate protection in early life is closely correlated with the level of diversification of lymphocyte antigen receptors. We have previously shown that the neonatal primary CD8+ T cell response to replication competent virus is significantly constricted compared to the adult response. In the present study, we have analyzed the subsequent formation of neonatal memory CD8+ T cells and their response to secondary infectious challenge. In particular, we asked whether the less diverse CD8+ T cell clonotypes that are elicited by neonatal vaccination with replication competent virus are 'locked-in' to the adult memory T cell, and thus may compromise the strength of adult immunity. Here we report that neonatal memory CD8+ T cells mediate poor recall responses compared to adults and are comprised of a repertoire of lower avidity T cells. During a later infectious challenge the neonatal memory CD8+ T cells compete poorly with the fully diverse repertoire of naïve adult CD8+ T cells and are outgrown by the adult primary response. This has important implications for the timing of vaccination in early life.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/etiologia , Memória Imunológica , Listeriose/fisiopatologia , Modelos Imunológicos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , DNA Recombinante/metabolismo , Herpes Simples/imunologia , Herpes Simples/prevenção & controle , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/patologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/patologia , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/imunologia , Listeria monocytogenes/metabolismo , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidade , Listeriose/imunologia , Listeriose/microbiologia , Listeriose/prevenção & controle , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/metabolismo , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vaccinia/imunologia , Vaccinia/prevenção & controle , Vaccinia/virologia , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Vírus Vaccinia/imunologia , Vírus Vaccinia/metabolismo , Virulência
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