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1.
Infectio ; 23(supl.1): 73-91, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-984511

RESUMO

Resumen: Los pacientes con infección por VIH tienen una mayor incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares en comparación con la población general; los factores que contribuyen al incremento del riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares son la prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular tradicionales (FRCV), la infección por VIH que condiciona tanto un proceso de inflamación crónica como alteración de la función endotelial y la exposición a los antirretrovirales. Los factores que deben ser objeto de intervención son los FRCV tradicionales, en especial la alta tasa de fumadores entre este grupo de pacientes, la tamización y tratamiento de HTA, el síndrome metabólico y el acceso temprano a la terapia antirretroviral con medicamentos con mayor perfil de seguridad . Esta guía pretende proveer información y recomendaciones en el ámbito nacional acerca de la relación entre la infección por VIH/SIDA (Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida), uso de antirretrovirales y riesgo cardiovascular.


Abstract: Patients with VIH infection have greater risk for cardiovascular diseases compared to general population. Risk factors that increase the frequency of cardiovascular events are: presence of cardiovascular traditional risk factors, chronic inflammation by HIV that impairs endothelial function and the exposure to antiretrovirals. The factors that should be the target for intervention are the traditional know cardiovascular factors such, especially high rate of smokers, screening and treatment for hypertension, metabolic syndrome and early access to HAART. The present guidelines provides information about the use of antiretrovirals in patients with HIV and its relation with cardiovascular risk.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 793, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HLA-B*57:01 allele is associated with a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir. Due to the lack of knowledge of HLA-B*57:01 prevalence in Colombia, routine screening is not performed and is not recommended by the national guidelines. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HLA-B*57:01 in HIV population from Colombia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included naïve HIV-infected adults from 13 cities of the country. The presence of HLA-B*57:01 was determined by using SSP-PCR in blood samples. Prevalence rates were stratified by sex, race, and region of origin. RESULTS: HLA-B*57:01 allele prevalence in Colombian HIV-infected individuals was 2.7%. When stratifying for the race, the prevalence was 4% for whites, 2.6% for other race (mainly mestizo), and 1.9% for Afro-Colombians. The prevalence varied from 0% up to 11.4% depending on the department of origin. The highest prevalence rates were found in Caldas (11.4%), Antioquia (5%), Risaralda (4.8%), and Valle del Cauca (4.3%). When distributed by country zones, the central, with a racial predominance of Caucasians and mestizos, was the highest (6.0%, 0R = 4.1, CI 1.2-12.8, p = 0,016). CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of HLA-B*57:01 in Colombia was lower than the reported rates for other Latin American countries such as Brazil, Costa Rica, and Argentina, but similar in comparison to Chile and Mexico. The diversity in the racial and ethnic heritage shown in our data supports the recommendation to implement routine screening for the HLA-B*57:01 allele before initiation of abacavir-containing antiretroviral therapy in the Colombian HIV management guidelines.

3.
Infectio ; 23(3): 271-304, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1002162

RESUMO

Abstract Invasive Candidiasis (IC) and candidemia (as its most frequent manifestation) have become the main cause of opportunistic mycosis at hospital settings. This study, made by members of the Colombian Association of Infectious Diseases (ACIN), was aimed at providing a set of recommendations for the management, follow-up and prevention of IC / candidemia and mucous membrane candida infection in adult, pediatric and neonatal patients in a hospital setting, including the hemato-oncological and critical care units. All the data obtained through an exhaustive search were reviewed and analyzed in a comprehensive manner by all the members of the group, and the recommendations issued are being made after a careful review of the scientific literature available and the consensus of all specialists involved; the emergence of Candida Spp. problem is highlighted and a correct orientation to health professionals regarding the management of patients with candidiasis is provided in a rational and practical way, emphasizing patient evaluation, diagnostic strategies, prophylaxis, empirical treatment, directed treatment and preventative therapy.


Resumen La Candidiasis Invasora (CI) y la candidemia, como su manifestación más frecuente, se ha convertido en la principal causa de micosis oportunista a nivel hospitalario. Este manuscrito realizado por miembros de la Asociación Colombiana de Infectología (ACIN), tuvo como objetivo proporcionar un conjunto de recomendaciones para manejo, seguimiento y prevención de la CI/candidemia y de la infección candidiásica de mucosas, en población adulta, pediátrica y neonatal, en un entorno hospitalario, incluyendo las unidades hemato-oncológicas y unidades de cuidado crítico. Todos los datos obtenidos mediante una búsqueda exhaustiva, fueron revisados y analizados de manera amplia por todos los miembros del grupo, y las recomendaciones emitidas se elaboraron luego de la evaluación de la literatura científica disponible, y el consenso de todos los especialistas involucrados, reconociendo el problema de la emergencia de las infecciones por Candida Spp. y brindando una correcta orientación a los profesionales de la salud sobre el manejo de pacientes con enfermedad candidiásica, de una forma racional y práctica, enfatizando en la evaluación del paciente, estrategias de diagnóstico, profilaxis, tratamiento empírico, tratamiento dirigido y terapia preventiva.

4.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 34(1): 17-22, ene.-mar. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-160729

RESUMO

Background. The frequency of Candida isolates as a cause of hospital infections has risen in recent years, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality. The knowledge of the epidemiology of those hospital acquired fungal infections is essential to implement an adequate antifungal therapy. Aims. To describe the epidemiology of Candida infections in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) from a surveillance network in Colombia. Methods. Information was collected from the microbiology laboratories of 20 tertiary healthcare institutions from 10 Colombian cities using the Whonet® software version 5.6. A general descriptive analysis of Candida species and susceptibility profiles focusing on fluconazole and voriconazole was completed between 2010 and 2013, including a sub-analysis of healthcare associated infections (HAIs) during the last year. Results. Candida isolates made up 94.5% of the 2680 fungal isolates considered, with similar proportions for Candida albicans and non-C. albicans Candida species (48.3% and 51.7%, respectively). Among the latter, Candida tropicalis (38.6%) and Candida parapsilosis (28.5%) were the most frequent species. Of note, among the blood isolates C. albicans was not the main species. Most of the species isolated were susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole. From the HAIs reported, 25.5% were caused by Candida; central line-associated bloodstream infection was the most common HAI (58.8%). There were no statistically significant differences regarding length of hospital stay and device days among HAIs. Conclusions. In ICUs of Colombia, non-C. albicans Candida species are as frequent as C. albicans, except in blood samples where non-C. albicans Candida isolates predominate. Further studies are needed to evaluate Candida associated risk factors and to determine its clinical impact (AU)


Antecedentes. La frecuencia de aislamientos de Candida causantes de infecciones hospitalarias ha aumentado en los últimos años, lo que implica altas tasas de morbimortalidad. El conocimiento de la epidemiología de estas infecciones nosocomiales asociadas con hongos es indispensable para instaurar una terapia antifúngica adecuada. Objetivos. Describir la epidemiologia de las infecciones causadas por Candida en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) de una red de vigilancia de Colombia. Métodos. La información se recogió en los laboratorios de microbiología de 20 instituciones de tercer nivel en 10 ciudades de Colombia a través de Whonet® versión 5.6. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo general de las especies de Candida más frecuentes y de su perfil de sensibilidad al fluconazol y al voriconazol desde 2010 hasta 2013, incluyendo un subanálisis de las infecciones asociadas con la atención de salud (IAAS) durante el último año. Resultados. De los 2.680 aislamientos de hongos, el 94,5% correspondió a especies de Candida, con proporciones similares entre Candida albicans y el resto de especies del género halladas (el 48,3 y el 51,7%, respectivamente). La mayor prevalencia entre estas últimas correspondió a Candida tropicalis (38,6%) y Candida parapsilosis (28,5%). En muestras de sangre, C. albicans no fue la especie más frecuente. La mayoría de especies fue sensible al fluconazol y al voriconazol. Candida causó el 25,5% de las IAAS reportadas, con la infección del torrente circulatorio asociada con catéter (58,8%) como la más frecuente de las patologías. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el tiempo de estancia hospitalaria o en el de uso de cualquier eventual dispositivo entre las IAAS. Conclusiones. En las UCI de Colombia, la prevalencia de C. albicans es muy similar al del resto de especies en conjunto. Únicamente en sangre fue evidente el predominio de otras especies del género diferentes de C. albicans. Otros estudios son necesarios para evaluar factores asociados con la infección por Candida y determinar su impacto en estos pacientes (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Candida tropicalis/isolamento & purificação , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Atenção à Saúde , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
5.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 34(1): 17-22, 2017 Jan - Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27810262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The frequency of Candida isolates as a cause of hospital infections has risen in recent years, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality. The knowledge of the epidemiology of those hospital acquired fungal infections is essential to implement an adequate antifungal therapy. AIMS: To describe the epidemiology of Candida infections in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) from a surveillance network in Colombia. METHODS: Information was collected from the microbiology laboratories of 20 tertiary healthcare institutions from 10 Colombian cities using the Whonet® software version 5.6. A general descriptive analysis of Candida species and susceptibility profiles focusing on fluconazole and voriconazole was completed between 2010 and 2013, including a sub-analysis of healthcare associated infections (HAIs) during the last year. RESULTS: Candida isolates made up 94.5% of the 2680 fungal isolates considered, with similar proportions for Candida albicans and non-C. albicans Candida species (48.3% and 51.7%, respectively). Among the latter, Candida tropicalis (38.6%) and Candida parapsilosis (28.5%) were the most frequent species. Of note, among the blood isolates C. albicans was not the main species. Most of the species isolated were susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole. From the HAIs reported, 25.5% were caused by Candida; central line-associated bloodstream infection was the most common HAI (58.8%). There were no statistically significant differences regarding length of hospital stay and device days among HAIs. CONCLUSIONS: In ICUs of Colombia, non-C. albicans Candida species are as frequent as C. albicans, except in blood samples where non-C. albicans Candida isolates predominate. Further studies are needed to evaluate Candida associated risk factors and to determine its clinical impact.


Assuntos
Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(10): e0005070, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27760143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunizing human volunteers by mosquito bite with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (RAS) results in high-level protection against infection. Only two volunteers have been similarly immunized with P. vivax (Pv) RAS, and both were protected. A phase 2 controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the safety and protective efficacy of PvRAS immunization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A randomized, single-blinded trial was conducted. Duffy positive (Fy+; Pv susceptible) individuals were enrolled: 14 received bites from irradiated (150 ± 10 cGy) Pv-infected Anopheles mosquitoes (RAS) and 7 from non-irradiated non-infected mosquitoes (Ctl). An additional group of seven Fy- (Pv refractory) volunteers was immunized with bites from non-irradiated Pv-infected mosquitoes. A total of seven immunizations were carried out at mean intervals of nine weeks. Eight weeks after last immunization, a controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) with non-irradiated Pv-infected mosquitoes was performed. Nineteen volunteers completed seven immunizations (12 RAS, 2 Ctl, and 5 Fy-) and received a CHMI. Five of 12 (42%) RAS volunteers were protected (receiving a median of 434 infective bites) compared with 0/2 Ctl. None of the Fy- volunteers developed infection by the seventh immunization or after CHMI. All non-protected volunteers developed symptoms 8-13 days after CHMI with a mean pre-patent period of 12.8 days. No serious adverse events related to the immunizations were observed. Specific IgG1 anti-PvCS response was associated with protection. CONCLUSION: Immunization with PvRAS was safe, immunogenic, and induced sterile immunity in 42% of the Fy+ volunteers. Moreover, Fy- volunteers were refractory to Pv malaria. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT01082341.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Imunização/métodos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Malária Vivax/imunologia , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Plasmodium vivax/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Colômbia , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Duffy , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização/efeitos adversos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Vacinas Antimaláricas/administração & dosagem , Malária Vivax/etnologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Plasmodium vivax/efeitos da radiação , Método Simples-Cego , Esporozoítos/efeitos da radiação , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Voluntários , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e99754, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24963662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant progress has been recently achieved in the development of Plasmodium vivax challenge infections in humans, which are essential for vaccine and drug testing. With the goal of accelerating clinical development of malaria vaccines, the outcome of infections experimentally induced in naïve and semi-immune volunteers by infected mosquito bites was compared. METHODS: Seven malaria-naïve and nine semi-immune Colombian adults (n = 16) were subjected to the bites of 2-4 P. vivax sporozoite-infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Parasitemia levels, malaria clinical manifestations, and immune responses were assessed and compared. RESULTS: All volunteers developed infections as confirmed by microscopy and RT-qPCR. No significant difference in the pre-patent period (mean 12.5 and 12.8 days for malaria-naïve and malaria-exposed, respectively) was observed but naïve volunteers developed classical malaria signs and symptoms, while semi-immune volunteers displayed minor or no symptoms at the day of diagnosis. A malaria-naïve volunteer developed a transient low submicroscopic parasitemia that cured spontaneously. Infection induced an increase in specific antibody levels in both groups. CONCLUSION: Sporozoite infectious challenge was safe and reproducible in semi-immune and naïve volunteers. This model will provide information for simultaneous comparison of the protective efficacy of P. vivax vaccines in naïve and semi-immune volunteers under controlled conditions and would accelerate P. vivax vaccine development. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT01585077.


Assuntos
Malária/imunologia , Plasmodium vivax/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Colômbia , Feminino , Humanos , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Vacinas Antimaláricas , Masculino , Parasitemia , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Infectio ; 15(1): 44-48, mar. 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-635675

RESUMO

Las manifestaciones en el sistema nervioso central por Listeria monocytogenes son variadas, e incluyen desde la meningitis hasta las presentaciones más infrecuentes como los abscesos cerebrales. Éstos son clínicamente indistinguibles de otros tipos de abscesos y sugieren una alteración de la inmunidad celular. Se describe el caso de una mujer seropositiva para el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) que consultó al servicio de urgencias con un síndrome convulsivo tónico-clónico generalizado de un mes de evolución y deterioro progresivo de su estado de conciencia. En el estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo se encontró pleocitosis linfocitaria, con elevación de las proteínas e hipoglucorraquia. En el estudio del sistema nervioso central por resonancia magnética se observaron múltiples lesiones hipodensas que se realzaban con el medio contraste. Se aisló L. monocytogenes en el cultivo del líquido cefalorraquídeo. Después de un esquema de tratamiento antibiótico específico asociado a esteroides, los síntomas neurológicos mejoraron y, concomitantemente, se observó una disminución progresiva hasta la desaparición de las lesiones en el seguimiento imaginológico del sistema nervioso central. L. monocytogenes es causa de abscesos cerebrales en pacientes inmunosuprimidos, en especial, con VIH sin terapia antirretroviral o sin profilaxis con trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol.


The manifestations of Listeria monocytogenes central nervous system infection are wide, ranging from meningitis to cerebral abscesses. Those are clinically indistinguishable from other forms of cerebral abscesses. We are describing a HIV positive woman who presented with generalized tonicclonic seizures, progressive alter mental status, evidence of lymphocytic pleocytosis and multiple hypodense lesions that enhanced with contrastae on imaging studies (CT and MRI) Listeria monocytogenes was isolated of cefaloraquid liquid cultures. After a specific antibiotic treatment regimen associated with steroids, improved neurological symptoms and concomitant documented a progressive decrease until disappearance of the lesions in the CNS imaging follow. Listeria monocytogenes is a cause of brain abscesses in immunosuppressed patients especially HIV patients without antiretroviral therapy and without prophylaxis with trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole.

9.
Biomedica ; 22(3): 280-6, 2002 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12404928

RESUMO

Paracoccidioidomycosis is regularly associated with adrenal insufficiency in 10-15% of symptomatic cases, and in some instances, diagnosis of the mycosis precedes the adrenal manifestation. To establish the frequency of this association, records were reviewed of 207 cases diagnosed with mycosis at the Mycology Service of the Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas. Six cases (2.9%) were found to have adrenal insufficiency. Patients were all males with a mean age of 67.2 years (range 48-75) and most worked in agriculture. The duration of the symptoms of adrenal damage was 4.1 months (range 2-6). All patients experienced weight loss and malaise; all had abnormal lung X-rays. Major clinical improvement was recorded after initiation of the specific treatments consisting of itraconazole, prednisolone and fluorcortisone. Diminished antibody titers against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were also recorded after treatment. Prompt treatment re-established adrenal function and effected recovery of normal gland morphology. Consequently, early detection of hypoadrenalism in patients living in the endemic areas is necessary to avoid further adrenal damage and permits a shorter hormonal treatment period in patients afflicted by the mycosis.


Assuntos
Doença de Addison/parasitologia , Paracoccidioidomicose/complicações , Doença de Addison/diagnóstico , Doença de Addison/terapia , Idoso , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 22(3): 280-286, sep. 2002.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-330480

RESUMO

Paracoccidioidomycosis is regularly associated with adrenal insufficiency in 10-15 of symptomatic cases, and in some instances, diagnosis of the mycosis precedes the adrenal manifestation. To establish the frequency of this association, records were reviewed of 207 cases diagnosed with mycosis at the Mycology Service of the Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas. Six cases (2.9) were found to have adrenal insufficiency. Patients were all males with a mean age of 67.2 years (range 48-75) and most worked in agriculture. The duration of the symptoms of adrenal damage was 4.1 months (range 2-6). All patients experienced weight loss and malaise; all had abnormal lung X-rays. Major clinical improvement was recorded after initiation of the specific treatments consisting of itraconazole, prednisolone and fluorcortisone. Diminished antibody titers against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were also recorded after treatment. Prompt treatment re-established adrenal function and effected recovery of normal gland morphology. Consequently, early detection of hypoadrenalism in patients living in the endemic areas is necessary to avoid further adrenal damage and permits a shorter hormonal treatment period in patients afflicted by the mycosis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Addison/parasitologia , Paracoccidioidomicose , Algoritmos , Doença de Addison/diagnóstico , Doença de Addison/terapia
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