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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822328

RESUMO

The histologically identifiable cellular structure(s) involved in ultrasonic scattering is(are) yet to be uniquely identified. The study quantifies six possible cellular scattering parameters, namely, cell and nucleus radii and their respective cell and nucleus volume fractions as well as a combination of cell and nucleus radii and their volume fraction. The six cellular parameters are each derived from four cell lines (4T1, JC, LMTK and MAT) and two tissue types (cell-pellet biophantom and ex vivo tumor). Optical histology and quantitative ultrasound (QUS), both independent approaches, are used to yield these cellular parameters. QUS scatterer parameters are experimentally determined using two ultrasonic scattering models: the spherical Gaussian model (GM) and the structure factor model (SFM) to yield insight about scattering from nuclei only and cells only. GM is a classical ultrasonic scattering model to evaluate QUS parameters and is well adapted for diluted media. SFM is adapted for dense media to estimate reasonably well scatterer parameters of cellular structures from ex vivo tissue. Nucleus and cell radii and volume fractions are measured optically from histology. They were used as inputs to calculate BSC for scattering from cells, nuclei, and both cells and nuclei. The QUS-derived scatterers (radii, volume fractions) distributions were then compared to the optical histology scatterer parameters derived from these calculated BSCs. The results suggest scattering from cells only (LMTK and MAT) or both cells and nuclei (4T1 and JC) for cellpellet biophantoms and scattering from nuclei only for tumors.

2.
JASA Express Lett ; 1(8): 082001, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396365

RESUMO

Pulsed ultrasound can produce chronotropic and inotropic effects on the heart with potential therapeutic applications. Fourteen 3-month-old female rats were exposed transthoracically to 3.5-MHz 2.0-MPa peak rarefactional pressure amplitude ultrasonic pulses of increasing 5-s duration pulse repetition frequency (PRF) sequences. An increase in the heart rate was observed following each PRF sequence: an ∼50% increase after the 4-5-6 Hz sequence, an ∼57% increase after the 5-6-7 Hz sequence, and an ∼48% increase after the 6-7-8 Hz sequence. Other cardiac parameters showed a normal or indicated a compensatory decrease at 3 and 15 min post-ultrasound compared to control.

3.
J Nutr ; 151(11): 3421-3430, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tomatoes contain carotenoids that have the potential to alter the effects of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that dietary lyophilized tomato paste (TP) would reduce apoptosis within carotenoid-containing nonneoplastic tissues in EBRT-treated TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice. METHODS: Male TRAMP mice (n = 73) were provided an AIN-93G diet or a modified AIN-93G diet containing 10% TP (wt:wt) at 4 wk of age. Prostate tumor growth was monitored by ultrasound. The caudal half of the mouse was irradiated with 7.5 Gy (Rad) or 0 Gy (sham) at 24 wk of age or after the tumor volume exceeded 1000 mm3 with a Cobalt-60 source. Mice were euthanized 24 h postradiation. Carotenoids and α-tocopherol were measured by HPLC and compared by a t test. Tissues were assessed for radiation-induced changes (hematoxylin and eosin) and apoptosis [cleaved caspase-3 (CC3)] and compared by Kruskal-Wallis test or Freedman-Lane's permutation test. RESULTS: Serum concentrations of lycopene (52% lower), phytoene (26% lower), and α-tocopherol (22% lower) were decreased in TP-fed irradiated mice (TP-Rad) compared with TP-fed sham mice (P < 0.05). CC3 scores increased within the prostate tumor with radiation treatments (P < 0.05), but were not affected by tomato consumption. In nonneoplastic tissues, TP-Rad had a lower percentage of CC3-positive cells within the cranial (67% lower) and caudal (75% lower) duodenum than irradiated mice on the control diet (Rad) (P < 0.005). Likewise, CC3 scores within the dorsolateral prostate of TP-Rad trended toward lower scores than for Rad (P = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: TP selectively reduces radiation-induced apoptosis in extratumoral tissues without decreasing radiation-induced apoptosis within the prostate tumor in TRAMP mice. Additional studies are needed to confirm and expand upon these findings.

4.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate deep learning models devised for liver fat assessment based on ultrasound (US) images acquired from four different liver views: transverse plane (hepatic veins at the confluence with the inferior vena cava, right portal vein, right posterior portal vein) and sagittal plane (liver/kidney). METHODS: US images (four separate views) were acquired from 135 participants with known or suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Proton density fat fraction (PDFF) values derived from chemical shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging served as ground truth. Transfer learning with a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) was applied to develop models for diagnosis of fatty liver (PDFF ≥ 5%), diagnosis of advanced steatosis (PDFF ≥ 10%), and PDFF quantification for each liver view separately. In addition, an ensemble model based on all four liver view models was investigated. Diagnostic performance was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), and quantification was assessed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC). RESULTS: The most accurate single view was the right posterior portal vein, with an SCC of 0.78 for quantifying PDFF and AUC values of 0.90 (PDFF ≥ 5%) and 0.79 (PDFF ≥ 10%). The ensemble of models achieved an SCC of 0.81 and AUCs of 0.91 (PDFF ≥ 5%) and 0.86 (PDFF ≥ 10%). CONCLUSION: Deep learning-based analysis of US images from different liver views can help assess liver fat.

5.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964505

RESUMO

An advantage of therapeutic ultrasound (US) is the ability to cause controlled biological effects noninvasively. Depending on the magnitude and frequency of exposure parameters, US can interact in different ways with a variety of biological tissues. The development and clinical utility of therapeutic US techniques are now rapidly growing, especially with regard to the application of US pulses for cardiac pacing and the potential treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This review outlines the basic principles of US-based therapy in cardiology, including the acoustic properties of the cardiovascular tissue, and the use of US in therapeutic cardiovascular medicine.

6.
J Nutr ; 150(7): 1808-1817, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary tomato products or lycopene protect against prostate carcinogenesis, but their impact on the emergence of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that tomato or lycopene products would reduce the emergence of CRPC. METHODS: Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice were castrated at 12-13 wk and the emergence of CRPC was monitored by ultrasound in each study. In Study 1, TRAMP mice (n = 80) were weaned onto an AIN-93G-based control diet (Con-L, n = 28), a 10% tomato powder diet (TP-L, 10% lyophilized w/w, n = 26), or a control diet followed by a tomato powder diet after castration (TP-Int1, n = 26). In Study 2, TRAMP mice (n = 85) were randomized onto a control diet with placebo beadlets (Con-Int, n = 29), a tomato diet with placebo beadlets (TP-Int2, n = 29), or a control diet with lycopene beadlets (Lyc-Int, n = 27) following castration (aged 12 wk). Tumor incidence and growth were monitored by ultrasound beginning at an age of 10 wk. Mice were euthanized 4 wk after tumor detection or aged 30 wk if no tumor was detected. Tissue weights were compared by ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. Tumor volumes were compared using generalized linear mixed model regression. RESULTS: Ultrasound estimates for the in vivo tumor volume were strongly correlated with tumor weight at necropsy (R2 = 0.75 and 0.94, P <0.001 for both Studies 1 and 2, respectively). Dietary treatments after castration did not significantly impact cancer incidence, time to tumor detection, or final tumor weight. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to studies of de novo carcinogenesis in multiple preclinical models, tomato components had no significant impact on the emergence of CRPC in the TRAMP model. It is possible that specific mutant subclones of prostate cancer may continue to show some antiproliferative response to tomato components, but further studies are needed to confirm this.


Assuntos
Dieta , Licopeno/uso terapêutico , Lycopersicon esculentum , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Orquiectomia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico
7.
J Ultrasound Med ; 39(8): 1581-1587, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073680

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the motivations of pregnant women in participating in an ultrasound study and the acceptability of vaginal ultrasound examinations. METHODS: A prospective sample of 270 women were asked one question: "Can you tell me what motivated you to participate in the study?" The data were then analyzed through a qualitative thematic analysis with an inductive approach. In addition to the thematic analysis, quantification of the data was performed to enhance the qualitative result. RESULTS: Through the thematic analysis, 5 themes emerged from the responses of the participants: altruism, research, personal experience, personal benefit, and finding out. All responses were relatively short, and some responses included more than one theme. CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal ultrasound examinations were acceptable to the participants, and pregnant women had many motivations to participate. Regardless of race, ethnicity, or insurance status, the women in our study were altruistic and curious about our research.


Assuntos
Gestantes , Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Feminino , Humanos , Motivação , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia
8.
Radiology ; 295(1): 106-113, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013792

RESUMO

Background Advanced confounder-corrected chemical shift-encoded MRI-derived proton density fat fraction (PDFF) is a leading parameter for fat fraction quantification in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Because of the limited availability of this MRI technique, there is a need to develop and validate alternative parameters to assess liver fat. Purpose To assess relationship of quantitative US parameters to MRI PDFF and to develop multivariable quantitative US models to detect hepatic steatosis and quantify hepatic fat. Materials and Methods Adults with known NAFLD or who were suspected of having NAFLD were prospectively recruited between August 2015 and February 2019. Participants underwent quantitative US and chemical shift-encoded MRI liver examinations. Liver biopsies were performed if clinically indicated. The correlation between seven quantitative US parameters and MRI PDFF was evaluated. By using leave-one-out cross validation, two quantitative US multivariable models were evaluated: a classifier to differentiate participants with NAFLD versus participants without NAFLD and a fat fraction estimator. Classifier performance was summarized by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the precision-recall curve. Fat fraction estimator performance was evaluated by correlation, linearity, and bias. Results Included were 102 participants (mean age, 52 years ± 13 [standard deviation]; 53 women), 78 with NAFLD (MRI PDFF ≥ 5%). A two-variable classifier yielded a cross-validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.96) and an area under the precision-recall curve of 0.96 (95% confidence interval: 0.93, 0.99). The cross-validated fat fraction predicted by a two-variable fat fraction estimator was correlated with MRI PDFF (Spearman ρ = 0.82 [P < .001]; Pearson r = 0.76 [P < .001]). The mean bias was 0.02% (P = .97), and 95% limits of agreement were ±12.0%. The predicted fat fraction was linear with MRI PDFF (R 2 = 0.63; slope, 0.69; intercept, 4.3%) for MRI PDFF of 34% or less. Conclusion A multivariable quantitative US approach yielded excellent correlation with MRI proton density fat fraction for hepatic steatosis assessment in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia/métodos
9.
Radiology ; 295(2): 342-350, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096706

RESUMO

Background Radiofrequency ultrasound data from the liver contain rich information about liver microstructure and composition. Deep learning might exploit such information to assess nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Purpose To develop and evaluate deep learning algorithms that use radiofrequency data for NAFLD assessment, with MRI-derived proton density fat fraction (PDFF) as the reference. Materials and Methods A HIPAA-compliant secondary analysis of a single-center prospective study was performed for adult participants with NAFLD and control participants without liver disease. Participants in the parent study were recruited between February 2012 and March 2014 and underwent same-day US and MRI of the liver. Participants were randomly divided into an equal number of training and test groups. The training group was used to develop two algorithms via cross-validation: a classifier to diagnose NAFLD (MRI PDFF ≥ 5%) and a fat fraction estimator to predict MRI PDFF. Both algorithms used one-dimensional convolutional neural networks. The test group was used to evaluate the classifier for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy and to evaluate the estimator for correlation, bias, limits of agreements, and linearity between predicted fat fraction and MRI PDFF. Results A total of 204 participants were analyzed, 140 had NAFLD (mean age, 52 years ± 14 [standard deviation]; 82 women) and 64 were control participants (mean age, 46 years ± 21; 42 women). In the test group, the classifier provided 96% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 90%, 99%) (98 of 102) accuracy for NAFLD diagnosis (sensitivity, 97% [95% CI: 90%, 100%], 68 of 70; specificity, 94% [95% CI: 79%, 99%], 30 of 32; positive predictive value, 97% [95% CI: 90%, 99%], 68 of 70; negative predictive value, 94% [95% CI: 79%, 98%], 30 of 32). The estimator-predicted fat fraction correlated with MRI PDFF (Pearson r = 0.85). The mean bias was 0.8% (P = .08), and 95% limits of agreement were -7.6% to 9.1%. The predicted fat fraction was linear with an MRI PDFF of 18% or less (r = 0.89, slope = 1.1, intercept = 1.3) and nonlinear with an MRI PDFF greater than 18%. Conclusion Deep learning algorithms using radiofrequency ultrasound data are accurate for diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic fat fraction quantification when other causes of steatosis are excluded. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Lockhart and Smith in this issue.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Ondas de Rádio , Distribuição Aleatória , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217100

RESUMO

This article evaluated the repeatability and reproducibility (R&R) of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) biomarkers attenuation coefficient (AC) and backscatter coefficient (BSC) in transvaginal QUS reference phantoms for obstetric applications. Five phantoms were scanned by three sonographers according to the scanning protocol. Each sonographer scanned each phantom with four transvaginal transducers of the same model (MC9-4) and three probe cover types (latex cover, nonlatex cover, and no cover). The AC and BSC were estimated by using a reference phantom method. The R&R analysis was performed for the frequency-averaged AC and logBSC (= 10log10BSC) (5.4-5.8 MHz) by using three-factor random effects Analysis of Variance with interaction. The total R&R variabilities for AC and logBSC are small (AC: 0.042-0.065 dB/cm-MHz; logBSC: 0.50-0.68 dB), indicating high measurement precision. These values are small compared to the ranges of AC (0.28-0.99 dB/cm-MHz) and logBSC (-33.16 to -20.35 dB) of the five phantoms. The AC and logBSC biomarkers measured on transvaginal QUS phantoms using the reference phantom method are repeatable, and reproducible between sonographers, transducers, and probe covers.


Assuntos
Ultrassonografia/métodos , Vagina , Feminino , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transdutores
11.
Nutr Res ; 63: 95-105, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824402

RESUMO

Untreated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) lead to irreversible liver damage. We hypothesized that a low-fat diet (LFD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) with soy protein isolate (SPI) would be an effective intervention to halt or reverse NAFLD progression. To test these hypotheses, we conducted 2 studies. In the first study, we fed an HFD to 7-week-old C57BL/6J mice to induce NAFLD compared to an LFD (control). Hepatic steatosis was monitored by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) scans (in vivo and ex vivo). Animals were euthanized after 0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks of feeding. In the second study, 7-week-old mice were randomized onto an LFD or HFD with SPI intervention after 4 weeks of feeding HFD. Animals from each group were scanned with QUS and euthanized after 4, 9, and 12 weeks of feeding. Animals fed the HFD developed NAFLD (100%) and NASH (80%) characterized by increased liver weight, lipid accumulation, and histological scores for inflammation by 4 weeks in the first study. In the second study, the LFD ameliorated this NAFLD phenotype after 5 weeks of feeding; however, the SPI intervention failed to significantly attenuate NAFLD. QUS parameters were significantly increased with the HFDs (P < .05) and steatosis grade (P < .05) and were positively correlated with hepatic lipid concentrations. In conclusion, dietary modification may be effective at reversing NAFLD and NASH at early stages. Furthermore, QUS may become a valuable tool to track hepatic steatosis. Additional studies are needed to further evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Soja/uso terapêutico , Animais , Caseínas/administração & dosagem , Progressão da Doença , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ultrassonografia/métodos
12.
Eur Radiol ; 29(9): 4699-4708, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess inter-platform reproducibility of ultrasonic attenuation coefficient (AC) and backscatter coefficient (BSC) estimates in adults with known/suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: This HIPAA-compliant prospective study was approved by an institutional review board; informed consent was obtained. Participants with known/suspected NAFLD were recruited and underwent same-day liver examinations with clinical ultrasound scanner platforms from two manufacturers. Each participant was scanned by the same trained sonographer who performed multiple data acquisitions in the right liver lobe using a lateral intercostal approach. Each data acquisition recorded a B-mode image and the underlying radio frequency (RF) data. AC and BSC were calculated using the reference phantom method. Inter-platform reproducibility was evaluated for AC and log-transformed BSC (logBSC = 10log10BSC) by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Pearson's correlation, Bland-Altman analysis with computation of limits of agreement (LOAs), and within-subject coefficient of variation (wCV; applicable to AC). RESULTS: Sixty-four participants were enrolled. Mean AC values measured using the two platforms were 0.90 ± 0.13 and 0.94 ± 0.15 dB/cm/MHz while mean logBSC values were - 30.6 ± 5.0 and - 27.9 ± 5.6 dB, respectively. Inter-platform ICC was 0.77 for AC and 0.70 for log-transformed BSC in terms of absolute agreement. Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.81 for AC and 0.80 for logBSC. Ninety-five percent LOAs were - 0.21 to 0.13 dB/cm/MHz for AC, and - 9.48 to 3.98 dB for logBSC. The wCV was 7% for AC. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic AC and BSC are reproducible across two different ultrasound platforms in adults with known or suspected NAFLD. KEY POINTS: • Ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and backscatter coefficient are reproducible between two different ultrasound platforms in adults with NAFLD. • This inter-platform reproducibility may qualify quantitative ultrasound biomarkers for generalized clinical application in patients with suspected/known NAFLD.


Assuntos
Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
J Ultrasound Med ; 38(8): 2093-2102, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To show that quantitative ultrasound biomarkers attenuation (AC) and backscatter (BSC) coefficients are effective tools to detect early changes in acute pancreatitis, using a cerulein-induced pancreatitis rat model. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 68) were divided into 8 groups: uninjected cage controls, saline-injected controls, and cerulein-injected rats euthanized at 2, 4, 15, 24, 48, and 60 hours after injection. Pancreatic AC and BSC (25-55 MHz) were estimated in vivo (Vevo 2100, VisualSonics, Toronto, CA) and ex vivo (40-MHz transducer). The pancreas of each rat was evaluated histopathologically. RESULTS: Changes in both in vivo and ex vivo AC and BSC relative to controls reflected temporal histomorphologic changes. Overall, there were decreased AC and BSC at early time points and then rebound toward control values over time. Maximal in vivo AC and BSC decreases occurred at 2 hours after cerulein injection. Attenuation coefficient changes corresponded well with early pancreatic edema and acinar cell vacuolation, with rebound as edema decreased, autophagy/cellular death occurred, and histiocytic infiltrates and fibrosis manifested. Backscatter coefficient decreased early but rebounded as autophagy and apoptosis increased, only to fall as acinar atrophy peaked, and fibrosis and histiocytic infiltration increased. CONCLUSIONS: Cerulein-induced pancreatitis is an excellent model for studying ultrasonic AC and BSC biomarkers during the early stages of acute pancreatitits, reflecting microscopic structural changes. Edema followed by cell shrinkage and apoptosis, then histiocytic infiltration and fibrosis, has certain similarities with the morphologies of some forms of pancreatic carcinoma. This suggests that quantitative ultrasound may be very useful for early detection of disease onset or response to therapy for not only acute pancreatitis but also pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Pancreatite/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Doença Aguda , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Diagnóstico Precoce , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Eur Radiol ; 28(12): 4992-5000, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29869170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess inter-sonographer reproducibility of ultrasound attenuation coefficient (AC), backscatter coefficient (BSC) and shear wave speed (SWS) in adults with known/suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant prospective study; informed consent was obtained. Participants with known/suspected NAFLD were recruited and underwent same-day liver examinations with a clinical scanner. Each participant was scanned by two of the six trained sonographers. Each sonographer performed multiple data acquisitions in the right liver lobe using a lateral intercostal approach. A data acquisition was a single operator button press that recorded a B-mode image, radio-frequency data, and the SWS value. AC and BSC were calculated from the radio-frequency data using the reference phantom method. SWS was calculated automatically using product software. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and within-subject coefficient of variation (wCV) were calculated for applicable metrics. RESULTS: Sixty-one participants were recruited. Inter-sonographer ICC was 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.77-0.92) for AC and 0.87 (0.78-0.92) for log-transformed BSC (logBSC = 10log10BSC) using one acquisition per sonographer. ICC was 0.88 (0.80-0.93) for both AC and logBSC averaging 5 acquisitions. ICC for SWS was 0.57 (0.29-0.74) using one acquisition per sonographer, and 0.84 (0.66-0.93) using 10 acquisitions. The wCV was ~7% for AC, and 19-43% for SWS, depending on number of acquisitions. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic AC, BSC and SWS measures on a clinical scanner have good inter-sonographer reproducibility in adults with known or suspected NAFLD. Multiple acquisitions are required for SWS but not AC or BSC to achieve good inter-sonographer reproducibility. KEY POINTS: • AC, BSC and SWS measurements are reproducible in adults with NAFLD. • Inter-sonographer reproducibility of SWS measurement improves with more acquisitions being averaged. • Multiple acquisitions are required for SWS but not AC or BSC.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/normas , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Imagens de Fantasmas , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software
15.
J Ultrasound Med ; 37(8): 1913-1927, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29359454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient (AC) and backscatter coefficient (BSC) measured in the livers of adults with known or suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: The Institutional Review Board approved this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant prospective study; informed consent was obtained. Forty-one research participants with known or suspected NAFLD were recruited and underwent same-day ultrasound examinations of the right liver lobe with a clinical scanner by a clinical sonographer. Each participant underwent 2 scanning trials, with participant repositioning between trials. Two transducers were used in each trial. For each transducer, machine settings were optimized by the sonographer but then kept constant while 3 data acquisitions were obtained from the liver without participant repositioning and then from an external calibrated phantom. Raw RF echo data were recorded. The AC and BSC were measured within 2.6 to 3.0 MHz from a user-defined hepatic field of interest from each acquisition. The repeatability and reproducibility were analyzed by random-effects models. RESULTS: The mean AC and log-transformed BSC (logBSC) were 0.94 dB/cm-MHz and -27.0 dB, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.88 to 0.94 for the AC and 0.87 to 0.95 for the logBSC acquired without participant repositioning. For between-trial repeated scans with participant repositioning, the intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.80 to 0.84 for the AC and 0.69 to 0.82 for the logBSC after averaging results from 3 within-trial images. The variability introduced by the transducer was less than the repeatability error. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic AC and BSC measures using a reference phantom technique on a clinical scanner are repeatable and reproducible between transducers in adults with known or suspected NAFLD.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Ultrason Imaging ; 40(2): 84-96, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28945169

RESUMO

There are two well-known ultrasonic approaches to extract sets of quantitative parameters: Lizzi-Feleppa (LF) parameters: slope, intercept, and midband; and quantitative ultrasound (QUS)-derived parameters: effective scatterer diameter (ESD) and effective acoustic concentration (EAC). In this study, the relation between the LF and QUS-derived parameters is studied theoretically and experimentally on ex vivo mouse livers. As expected from the theory, LF slope is correlated to ESD ([Formula: see text]), and from experimental data, LF midband is correlated to EAC ([Formula: see text]). However, LF intercept is not correlated to ESD ([Formula: see text]) nor EAC ([Formula: see text]). The unexpected correlation observed between LF slope and EAC ([Formula: see text]) results likely from the high correlation between ESD and EAC due to the inversion process. For a liver fat percentage estimation, an important potential medical application, the parameters presenting the better correlation are EAC ([Formula: see text]) and LF midband ([Formula: see text]).


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
17.
J Virol ; 91(15)2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490586

RESUMO

All viruses strategically alter the antiviral immune response to their benefit. The vaccinia virus (VACV) K1 protein has multiple immunomodulatory effects in tissue culture models of infection, including NF-κB antagonism. However, the effect of K1 during animal infection is poorly understood. We determined that a K1L-less vaccinia virus (vΔK1L) was less pathogenic than wild-type VACV in intranasal and intradermal models of infection. Decreased pathogenicity was correlated with diminished virus replication in intranasally infected mice. However, in intradermally inoculated ears, vΔK1L replicated to levels nearly identical to those of VACV, implying that the decreased immune response to vΔK1L infection, not virus replication, dictated lesion size. Several lines of evidence support this theory. First, vΔK1L induced slightly less edema than vK1L, as revealed by histopathology and noninvasive quantitative ultrasound technology (QUS). Second, infiltrating immune cell populations were decreased in vΔK1L-infected ears. Third, cytokine and chemokine gene expression was decreased in vΔK1L-infected ears. While these results identified the biological basis for smaller lesions, they remained puzzling; because K1 antagonizes NF-κB in vitro, antiviral gene expression was expected to be higher during vΔK1L infection. Despite these diminished innate immune responses, vΔK1L vaccination induced a protective VACV-specific CD8+ T cell response and protected against a lethal VACV challenge. Thus, vΔK1L is the first vaccinia virus construct reported that caused a muted innate immune gene expression profile and decreased immune cell infiltration in an intradermal model of infection yet still elicited protective immunity.IMPORTANCE The vaccinia virus (VACV) K1 protein inhibits NF-κB activation among its other antagonistic functions. A virus lacking K1 (vΔK1L) was predicted to be less pathogenic because it would trigger a more robust antiviral immune response than VACV. Indeed, vΔK1L was less pathogenic in intradermally infected mouse ear pinnae. However, vΔK1L infection unexpectedly elicited dramatically reduced infiltration of innate immune cells into ears. This was likely due to decreased expression of cytokine and chemokine genes in vΔK1L-infected ears. As such, our finding contradicted observations from cell culture systems. Interestingly, vΔK1L conferred protective immunity against lethal VACV challenge. This suggests that the muted immune response triggered during vΔK1L infection remained sufficient to mount an effective protective response. Our results highlight the complexity and unpredictable nature of virus-host interactions, a relationship that must be understood to better comprehend virus pathogenesis or to manipulate viruses for use as vaccines.


Assuntos
Deleção de Genes , Imunidade Inata , Vírus Vaccinia/patogenicidade , Vaccinia/patologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Vaccinia/virologia , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
18.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 208(5): W168-W177, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28267360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to explore the diagnostic performance of two investigational quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters, attenuation coefficient and backscatter coefficient, in comparison with conventional ultrasound (CUS) and MRI-estimated proton density fat fraction (PDFF) for predicting histology-confirmed steatosis grade in adults with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this prospectively designed pilot study, 61 adults with histology-confirmed NAFLD were enrolled from September 2012 to February 2014. Subjects underwent QUS, CUS, and MRI examinations within 100 days of clinical-care liver biopsy. QUS parameters (attenuation coefficient and backscatter coefficient) were estimated using a reference phantom technique by two analysts independently. Three-point ordinal CUS scores intended to predict steatosis grade (1, 2, or 3) were generated independently by two radiologists on the basis of QUS features. PDFF was estimated using an advanced chemical shift-based MRI technique. Using histologic examination as the reference standard, ROC analysis was performed. Optimal attenuation coefficient, backscatter coefficient, and PDFF cutoff thresholds were identified, and the accuracy of attenuation coefficient, backscatter coefficient, PDFF, and CUS to predict steatosis grade was determined. Interobserver agreement for attenuation coefficient, backscatter coefficient, and CUS was analyzed. RESULTS: CUS had 51.7% grading accuracy. The raw and cross-validated steatosis grading accuracies were 61.7% and 55.0%, respectively, for attenuation coefficient, 68.3% and 68.3% for backscatter coefficient, and 76.7% and 71.3% for MRI-estimated PDFF. Interobserver agreements were 53.3% for CUS (κ = 0.61), 90.0% for attenuation coefficient (κ = 0.87), and 71.7% for backscatter coefficient (κ = 0.82) (p < 0.0001 for all). CONCLUSION: Preliminary observations suggest that QUS parameters may be more accurate and provide higher interobserver agreement than CUS for predicting hepatic steatosis grade in patients with NAFLD.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Imagens de Fantasmas , Projetos Piloto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
J Ultrasound Med ; 36(4): 799-808, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28072471

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to investigate the role of sex and age of the negative chronotropic effect after exposure of 3.5-MHz pulsed ultrasound (US) to the rat heart. METHODS: Forty F344 rats were exposed transthoracically to ultrasonic pulses at a duty factor of approximately 1.0% at 2.0-MPa peak rarefactional pressure amplitude. The transthoracic ultrasonic bursts were delivered consecutively in five 10-s intervals, that is, 10 s of 6-Hz pulse repetition frequency (PRF), 10 s of 5-Hz PRF, 10 s of 4-Hz PRF, 10 s of 5-Hz PRF, and 10 s of 6-Hz, for a 50-s total exposure duration. The rats were divided into 8 groups (n = 5 each): US young male, control young male, US young female, control young female, US old male, control old male, US old female, and control old female. RESULTS: Two-way ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare heart rate, cardiac output, arterial pressure, and other hemodynamic values (baseline) before and after US stimulation. Sex versus age versus US interaction was detected for heart rate. Cardiac output showed an age effect, and ejection fraction showed age and US effects. The arterial pressure showed a sex effect. A negative chronotropic effect (∼30% decrease in heart rate) was observed for young female rats. An hypothesis is that the US effect is weight (menopause) dependent, because the young (premenopausal) female rats weighed approximately 40 to 60% less than other groups of rats. CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that the ovarian hormones are responsible for different US-induced cardiac bioeffects in different ages and sexes.


Assuntos
Coração/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27411218

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility (R&R) of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) estimates, specifically attenuation coefficient (AC) and backscatter coefficient (BSC), using the same Siemens 3000 clinical ultrasound scanner. Additionally, the purpose of this work is to detail the measurement and analysis methodology. Repeatability is closeness of agreement between measures obtained with the same method under same conditions (same sonographer and same transducer) and reproducibility is closeness of agreement between measures obtained with the same method under different conditions (different sonographers and/or different transducers). Calibrated phantoms were scanned by two sonographers using two transducers in each session for multiple sessions over a period of four months. The phantom scans occurred as part of a clinical QUS liver study in human research participants spanning a spectrum of obesity and liver disease severity. The scanner was adjusted in each participant to obtain the highest quality liver B-mode images prior to acquiring data from the phantoms for which no scanner adjustments were made. The R&R were analyzed and estimated using the unweighted sums of squares ANOVA approach by applying two random effect models. The measurement variance caused by repeatability and reproducibility is small (AC: 2.4- 3.2×10-4 [dB/cm-MHz]2; 10log10BSC: 0.23-0.27 dB2 ). The reproducibility variance is statistically significantly lower than the repeatability variance. The total R&R was not influenced by phantom properties over a wide range representing those found in liver in vivo.


Assuntos
Imagens de Fantasmas , Ultrassonografia/normas , Algoritmos , Calibragem , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Hepatopatias , Obesidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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