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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125921

RESUMO

Background: Grand rounds and named lectureships are forums in academic medicine for sharing research, scholarly achievements, and clinical expertise. An invitation to speak at grand rounds is regarded as an honor and is part of the pathway to academic promotion. We describe gender representation relative to the national academic medical workforce among invited speakers at departmental grand rounds and annual named lectures at a large academic medical center. Materials and Methods: Lists of external speakers for grand rounds from 2015 through 2017 were obtained from 18 departments and for annual named lectures from 2007 to 2017 from 7 departments. Results: Of the 783 invited speakers to the 25 speaker series, there were 178 women (22.7%). The proportion of women speakers for departmental grand rounds ranged from 0% to 59.3%; representation of women speakers was lower than representation in their specialty in 14 of the 18 departments and significantly lower in 4 of the 18 departments. In four departments, there was a higher proportion of women than available in the specialty-specific academic medicine workforce. The proportion of women who spoke at annual named lectures was significantly lower in two of seven lecture series and ranged from 0% to 21.2%. Three departments had no women speakers. Conclusions: The underrepresentation of women as speakers is a potential target to improve gender representation and role modeling and provide equitable opportunity for academic advancement. Solutions may include formal diversity and inclusion training, intentional overrepresentation of invited female speakers, and inclusion of women on grand rounds planning committees.

2.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 10(1): 128-132, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic dysfunction is hypothesized to be an underlying factor in the pathophysiology of yellow nail syndrome (YNS) (yellow nails, lymphedema, pleural effusions, and frequently chronic rhinosinusitis [CRS]). It is unclear why some YNS patients develop CRS. We quantified lymphatic and total vasculature of sinonasal mucosa in YNS patients and compared it to controls from CRS patients with (CRSwNP) or without polyps (CRSsNP). METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on archival sinonasal mucosal samples from 5 patients with YNS and 14 controls with antibodies against podoplanin and CD31, markers of lymphatics. Morphometric assessment was performed on digital images using ImageJ software. RESULTS: In YNS, the number of lymphatics/mm2 ranged from 7 to 18/mm2 (controls: 6 to 43/mm2 , p = 0.343), with a mean perimeter between 92 and 201 µm (controls: 42 to 280 µm, p = 0.482). Total vasculature density was higher than lymphatics, ranging between 189 and 1159 vessels/mm2 , average 669 (controls: 139 to 1467/mm2 , average 503, p = 0.257) with smaller average perimeter, 40 to 117 µm, mean 64.8 µm (controls: 42 to 92 µm, mean 65.3 µm, p = 0.965). Lymphatics constituted only a small fragment of the total vasculature, ranging from 1.15% to 4.76%, average 2.34% (controls: 0.81% to 10.58%, average 4.88%, p = 0.156). CRSwNP patients had significantly higher lymphatic density (p = 0.011) and ratio of lymphatics to total vasculature (p = 0.045) than patients with YNS or CRSsNP. CONCLUSION: This is the first histological analysis of sinus mucosa in patients with YNS. Vascular type, density, size, and distribution in the sinonasal mucosa of YNS patients are not statistically significantly different from those of the CRSsNP group. Lymphatic density and ratio to total vasculature is higher in CRSwNP patients.

4.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 10(2): 217-222, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study we aim to describe presenting characteristics and identify prognostic factors for disease resolution in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in the setting of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). METHODS: Patients evaluated at a tertiary care center with diagnoses of EGPA and CRS were identified. Descriptive statistics were obtained. Univariate analysis was used to search for prognostic factors associated with higher Lund-Mackay score at presentation and disease resolution. RESULTS: Forty-four patients were included with a mean age of 52.7 (standard deviation, 14) years. Twenty-one patients (47.7%) were female, all had a diagnosis of asthma, and 36 (83.7%) had eosinophils >10%. Common presenting symptoms for CRS included nasal discharge (87.9%) followed by nasal congestion (83.9%) and facial pain and pressure (83.8%). Medical management of CRS included systemic corticosteroids (93.2%) and systemic antibiotics (75%). Surgical intervention occurred in 29 patients (67%). Nine patients (20.5%) had resolution of sinus symptoms, including 4 with imaging confirmation. Fourteen patients (31.8%) had continued CRS, but with improved symptoms, whereas 9 patients (20.5%) had continued CRS with no improvement in symptoms. Eleven patients (25%) were lost to follow-up and 4 (9.1%) died. Univariate analysis did not show antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positivity, presence of peripheral eosinophilia, gender, age, or absence of systemic therapy to be predictive of higher Lund-Mackay score at presentation or predictive of disease resolution. CONCLUSION: CRS in patients with EGPA is often refractory to medical and surgical management. Treatment of these patients should occur in a multidisciplinary setting.

7.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 80(4): 392-398, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316885

RESUMO

Background There is little data regarding postoperative outcomes of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) undergoing skull base surgery. The purpose of this study is to determine an association between risk factors and proximity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak to surgery in patients with OSA undergoing endoscopic skull base surgery. Methods A retrospective review of neurosurgical inpatients, with and without OSA, at a tertiary care institution from 2002 to 2015 that experienced a postoperative CSF leak after undergoing endoscopic skull base surgery. Results Forty patients met inclusion criteria, 12 (30%) with OSA. OSA patients had significantly higher body mass index (BMI; median 39.4 vs. 31.7, p < 0.01) and were more likely to have diabetes (41.7 vs. 10.7%, p = 0.04) than non-OSA patients; otherwise there were no significant differences in clinical comorbidities. No patients restarted positive pressure ventilation (PPV) in the inpatient setting. The type of repair was not a significant predictor of the time from surgery to leak. Patients with OSA experienced postoperative CSF leak 49% sooner than non-OSA patients (Hazard Ratio 1.49, median 2 vs. 6 days, log-rank p = 0.20). Conclusion Patients with OSA trended toward leaking earlier than those without OSA, and no OSA patients repaired with a nasoseptal flap (NSF) had a leak after postoperative day 5. Due to a small sample size this trend did not reach significance. Future studies will help to determine the appropriate timing for restarting PPV in this high risk population. This is important given PPV's significant benefit to the patient's overall health and its ability to lower intracranial pressure.

8.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 161(4): 705-713, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of 2-dimensional (2D) illustrations and 3-dimensonal (3D)-printed anatomic models of the frontal sinuses according to the International Frontal Sinus Anatomy Classification in the education of otolaryngology and radiology residents. STUDY DESIGN: A crossover study design with half of the study participants randomized to the 2D illustration intervention first and the other half randomized to the 3D-printed model first. SETTING: Regularly scheduled resident didactic lectures at a tertiary care center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-one otolaryngology and radiology residents were assessed with pre- and postintervention questionnaires that included subjective and objective methods of assessment. RESULTS: Overall, there was a statistically significant improvement in total number of answers correct and in confidence score between the pre- and postintervention assessments (P < .0001). The primary outcome of order of intervention (ie, 2D → 3D vs 3D → 2D) did not result in statistically significant differences in postevaluation scores. In regard to the secondary outcome of learner preference for educational modality, radiology residents favored the 2D illustrations to understand anatomic relationships, while otolaryngology residents preferred the 3D model to be more helpful in surgical planning (P = .0075). CONCLUSION: There is no difference between 2D-illustrated and 3D-printed International Frontal Sinus Anatomy Classification anatomic models in overall educational outcome, despite the preference of learners. Together, these models can be used as helpful tools in frontal sinus education for otolaryngology and radiology trainees.


Assuntos
Seio Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Internato e Residência , Ilustração Médica , Modelos Anatômicos , Otolaringologia/educação , Impressão Tridimensional , Radiologia/educação , Estudos Cross-Over , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Addict Behav ; 97: 77-83, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153095

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Attitudes of drug-abstinent youth considering marijuana initiation can be highly ambivalent. Invalidating pro-usage elements (i.e., opinions) of ambivalent marijuana attitudes, while leaving anti-marijuana elements intact, may create stronger, less ambivalent marijuana-resistant attitudes and lower usage intentions, while concurrently elucidating the role of ambivalence in persuasive prevention. METHOD: From an initial pool of marijuana-abstinent middle-school students (N = 538), the quintile expressing the most negative attitudes toward a marijuana prevention appeal (N = 101) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions designed to invalidate pro-marijuana opinions. Analyses then tested their susceptibility to a second marijuana prevention appeal. RESULTS: Personally threatening messages were found ineffective, but appeals contesting resistant responses significantly decreased ambivalence (p < .01). Mediational analyses showed that this decreased ambivalence was associated with less favorable attitudes and lower marijuana usage intentions (both p < .001). An attribution-based manipulation increased ambivalence (p < .05), which was associated with positive usage intentions mediated through positive attitudes (both p < .001). CONCLUSION: Analyses elucidated the role of attitude ambivalence in prevention, providing a more complete understanding of potential facilitative use of ambivalence in prevention models based on prevention. Results support the further examination and use of methods that invalidate pro-marijuana opinions, thereby leading to greater susceptibility to subsequent prevention appeals.

10.
Laryngoscope ; 129(9): 1998-2007, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032986

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Determine the effect of endoscopic skull base surgery (ESBS) on long-term olfactory outcomes after surgery. METHODS: An English-language search was conducted using the Cochrane, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Embase databases from January 2000 to October 2017 for adult patients undergoing ESBS with subjective and objective olfaction outcomes. Two authors independently examined articles to identify those meeting inclusion criteria. Studies examining objective olfactory outcomes after ESBS were included in the meta-analysis. A random-effects meta-analysis of patients undergoing sellar and parasellar ESBS was conducted to compare preoperative and postoperative olfactory outcomes using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CCSIT). RESULTS: Among 339 eligible articles, 29 articles met inclusion criteria. Twenty-five of these focused on sellar and parasellar tumors. Individual articles not meeting criteria for meta-analysis were qualitatively reported. Meta-analysis showed there was no difference in preoperative and postoperative olfactory function after sellar and parasellar ESBS based on the UPSIT (five studies, mean difference [MD] = -1.03; 95% CI: -3.98, 1.93; P = .50) and the CCIST (three studies, MD = -0.77; 95% CI: -3.03, 1.49; P = .50). A pooled overall meta-analysis revealed similar results (eight studies, effect size = -0.30; 95% CI: -0.79, 0.18; P = .22). However, heterogeneity for all meta-analyses was high (I2 > 95%, P < .01), suggesting significant variation in the included studies. CONCLUSIONS: Based on published objective olfaction outcomes after sellar and parasellar ESBS, there was no significant difference between preoperative and postoperative olfaction. Further prospective studies using validated objective measures of olfaction are required to improve our understanding on this subject. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2a Laryngoscope, 129:1998-2007, 2019.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/cirurgia , Neuroendoscopia/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Humanos , Neuroendoscopia/métodos , Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 9(5): 493-500, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Olfactory nerve fibers are at risk of injury during transnasal endoscopic skull-base approaches. Olfactory outcomes for various techniques have not been thoroughly investigated. This study aims to report long-term olfactory outcomes when a cold knife upper septal limb incision technique is used compared to monopolar cautery. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary referral center. Adult patients undergoing endoscopic approaches with septal incisions were randomized to cold knife or monopolar cautery groups. Patient demographics, clinical history, surgical data, and outcomes were collected. Preoperative, 3-month, and 12-month postoperative scores on the University of Pennsylvania Smell Inventory Test (UPSIT) and 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) were measured. Fisher's exact tests were performed for categorical variables and t tests were performed for continuous variables. RESULTS: Twenty-two (22) patients (10 cold knife, 12 cautery) were enrolled between March 2016 and August 2017. The average age ± standard deviation was 50.2 ± 14.0 years (p = 0.59), 54% (p = 0.69) were female, and the primary pathology was pituitary adenoma (73%, p = 1.00). Preoperative, 3-month, and 12-month postoperative UPSIT scores were similar between the cold knife and cautery groups (32.8 vs 32.4, p = 0.80; 33.1 vs 33.0, p = 0.96; 33.6 vs 33.3, p = 0.84). On the "sense of smell/taste" question of the SNOT-22, there was also no difference at all time points (p > 0.22). CONCLUSION: There was no significant change in patient UPSIT scores 1 year after transnasal skull-base approaches, and no short-term or long-term differences between cold knife and cautery upper septal limb incision techniques. Our study supports an individualized approach based on surgeon preference.


Assuntos
Eletrocoagulação , Endoscopia , Septo Nasal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Nasais , Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Olfato , Adenoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 160(5): 818-821, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether using image guidance technology with 3-dimensional image segmentation increases the endoscopic surgeon's accuracy, efficiency, and confidence in identifying the anterior ethmoidal artery. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of attending physicians and residents at an academic medical center. Because identification of the anterior ethmoidal artery during image-guided surgery can be challenging, we studied the effect of anterior ethmoidal artery image segmentation (ie, partitioning and coloring) on surgeon test performance. A computerized test was administered to 16 surgeons who were asked to identify the anterior ethmoidal artery on multiplanar computed tomographic images and to answer multiple-choice questions. Half the questions showed segmented images of the anterior ethmoidal artery, and half showed images without segmentation. Efficiency and accuracy of identification and subjective surgeon confidence were determined for each question. Descriptive statistics were used to compare test performance for identification of the anterior ethmoidal artery on images with or without segmentation. RESULTS: Percentage of correct answers ( P < .001), efficiency ( P < .001), and confidence ( P < .001) in identification of the anterior ethmoidal artery were significantly better with segmented computed tomographic images. DISCUSSION: We demonstrated that use of segmented images improves surgeons' accuracy, confidence, and efficiency for identification of the anterior ethmoidal artery. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: We describe how segmentation can allow surgeons to improve the surgical course by increasing their accuracy, confidence, and efficiency in identifying the anterior ethmoidal artery.


Assuntos
Endoscopia , Seio Etmoidal/irrigação sanguínea , Seio Etmoidal/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional , Otolaringologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Autoeficácia
13.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; 32(6): 533-538, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) of the paranasal sinuses is the diagnostic reference standard for chronic rhinosinusitis and related inflammatory sinus pathology. Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) levels have been investigated as a diagnostic tool in sinus disease because it decreases with sinus obstruction. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the study was to determine the correlation of passive (baseline) and dynamic (humming) nNO to CT findings of sinus inflammation and to sinonasal symptoms measured by the modified Sinonasal Outcome Test (26 items) (SNOT-26). METHODS: From June 2015 through January 2016, subjects had baseline and humming nNO levels measured with a chemiluminescence NO analyzer, and each subject underwent CT imaging and completed the SNOT-26 survey. CT images were scored using the Lund-Mackay (LM) system (LM scores >3 indicated sinus inflammation). Correlation was measured by linear and ordinal regression analysis that compared SNOT-26 scores, LM scores, and nNO measurements. RESULTS: Fourteen subjects were recruited. LM scores had a positive pairwise correlation with total SNOT-26 scores ( R2 = .1457; correlation = .3817) and nasal-specific SNOT-26 scores ( R2 = .4036; correlation = .6353). Baseline nasal nNO scores had a negative pairwise correlation with LM scores ( R2 = .1580; correlation = -.3582), total SNOT-26 scores ( R2 = .1515; correlation = -.3893), and nasal-specific SNOT-26 scores ( R2 = .0805; correlation = -.4343). Although baseline nNO levels correlated with LM and SNOT-26 scores, humming nNO levels did not show a similar correlation. CONCLUSION: Baseline passive nNO may be a useful and inexpensive point-of-care screening test for sinonasal opacification.


Assuntos
Seios Paranasais/patologia , Rinite/diagnóstico , Sinusite/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Expiração , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Seios Paranasais/diagnóstico por imagem , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 93(2): 155-166, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present a multiyear clinical experience with intravenous bevacizumab for the management of severe gastrointestinal bleeding and/or epistaxis in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients treated with intravenous bevacizumab for severe hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia-related bleeding from June 1, 2013, through January 31, 2017, were included in this report. Severity of epistaxis (determined using the Epistaxis Severity Score questionnaire); hemoglobin, iron, and ferritin levels; and quality of life data were collected serially in all patients. RESULTS: Intravenous bevacizumab was administered to 34 patients using a standardized treatment protocol. Anemia was primarily related to severe epistaxis (n=15, 44%), severe gastrointestinal bleeding (n=4, 12%), or both (n=15, 44%), with a median baseline hemoglobin level of 9.1 g/dL (range, 8.3-10.5 gm/dL; to convert to mmol/L, multiply by 0.62). Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions had been administered to 28 patients (82%). Of these, 16 patients (47%) were RBC transfusion dependent and had received a median of 75 RBC transfusions (range, 4->500 RBC units) before bevacizumab initiation. The median length of follow-up was 17.6 months from the beginning of bevacizumab treatment (range, 3-42.5 months). There was a significant reduction in epistaxis severity scores (P<.001) and RBC transfusion requirements (P=.007) after completion of the initial bevacizumab treatment cycle. New-onset or worsened hypertension was noted in 4 patients, with 1 patient experiencing hypertensive urgency with a temporary decline in renal function. CONCLUSION: Intravenous bevacizumab is an effective treatment option for patients with severe anemia related to epistaxis and/or gastrointestinal bleeding. Further studies are needed to establish a dose-response relationship as well as clinical, genetic, and biomarker predictors of response.


Assuntos
Anemia Refratária , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Epistaxe , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Qualidade de Vida , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Anemia Refratária/diagnóstico , Anemia Refratária/etiologia , Anemia Refratária/terapia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Epistaxe/diagnóstico , Epistaxe/etiologia , Epistaxe/terapia , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/sangue , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/complicações , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/diagnóstico , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 156(5): 946-951, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28418817

RESUMO

Objective To define relationships between the frontal sinus opening, ostia of other frontal recess cells, and endoscopic landmarks and to develop a clinically useful framework to guide frontal sinus surgery. Study Design Retrospective review. Setting Tertiary care academic referral center. Methods Adult patients with computed tomography (CT) without sinonasal pathology were included. Virtual endoscopy (using OsiriX) and corresponding CT reconstructions were used to identify all visible ostia in the frontal recess and characterize their positions in spaces between the uncinate/agger nasi (U), bulla ethmoidalis (EB), and middle turbinate (MT). Results Two hundred sides in 100 patients (median age 51 years, 62% female) were analyzed. The "center" of each map was defined as the intersection of spaces between U, EB, and MT. The frontal sinus opening was in the "center" in 53% of frontal recesses, lateral to this position in 29%, and anterior in 11%. When the frontal sinus opening was at the "center," anterior ostia drained frontal Kuhn T cells in 51% and intersinus septal cells in 23%. The skull base attachment of the apical strut of the uncinate process demarcated medial and lateral within the space between U and EB, with the opening to the frontal sinus medial in 68% and lateral in 31%. Left-right asymmetry in frontal sinus openings was noted in 46% of patients. Conclusion Combining preoperative imaging and knowledge of these anatomic relationships may facilitate more efficient frontal outflow tract identification and instrumentation. This represents the first and largest description of ostial configurations relative to endoscopic structural landmarks. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.


Assuntos
Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/cirurgia , Seio Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Seio Frontal/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral/métodos , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual/métodos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Endoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Clin Sports Med ; 36(2): 337-353, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28314421

RESUMO

Nasal trauma is a common consequence of athletic competition. The nasal bones are the most commonly fractured facial bone and are particularly at risk during sports participation. Acute management of trauma to the nose includes thorough evaluation of all injuries and may require immediate management for repair of facial lacerations, epistaxis control, or septal hematoma drainage. Nasal fractures can often be addressed with closed reduction techniques; however, in the setting of complex nasal trauma, an open approach may be indicated. Using appropriate treatment techniques, posttraumatic nasal sequelae can be minimized; most patients report satisfactory long-term nasal form and function.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Nariz/lesões , Traumatismos em Atletas/complicações , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Humanos , Osso Nasal/lesões , Septo Nasal/lesões , Nariz/anatomia & histologia , Volta ao Esporte , Fraturas Cranianas/complicações , Fraturas Cranianas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Cranianas/fisiopatologia , Fraturas Cranianas/terapia
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 5(4): 990-997.e1, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28202405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary leukotriene E4 (ULTE4) may be a biomarker that distinguishes aspirin-intolerant asthma from other asthma subtypes. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the diagnostic testing accuracy of ULTE4 as a marker of aspirin intolerance in patients with asthma using previously published studies. METHODS: We identified relevant clinical studies from a systematic review of English and non-English articles using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL (inception to February 10, 2015). Articles were screened at the abstract and full-text level by 2 independent reviewers. We included previously published studies that analyzed ULTE4 in human subjects with asthma characterized as having or not having aspirin intolerance on the basis of a specified definition: convincing history of aspirin intolerance, positive aspirin challenge, or both as the criterion standard. Individual-level data points from all included studies were obtained and analyzed. RESULTS: The search strategy identified 867 potential articles, of which 86 were reviewed at the full-text level and 10 met criteria for inclusion. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of ULTE4 to determine aspirin intolerance in subjects with asthma were 0.55, 0.82, 0.75, and 0.66 (Amersham-enzyme immunoassay); 0.76, 0.77, 0.70, and 0.78 (Cayman-enzyme immunoassay); 0.70, 0.81, 0.86, and 0.79 (mass spectrometry); and 0.81,0.79, 0.65, and 0.88 (radioimmunoassay) at optimal thresholds of 192, 510, 167 to 173, and 66 to 69 pg/mg Cr, respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio for each methodology was 6.0, 11.9, 10.5, and 19.1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ULTE4 is a marker for aspirin-intolerant asthma and could potentially be used as a clinical test to identify the risk of aspirin intolerance in subjects with asthma.


Assuntos
Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Asma/urina , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/urina , Leucotrieno E4/urina , Biomarcadores/urina , Humanos
18.
Laryngoscope ; 127(5): 1208-1216, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27667784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a variant of chronic otitis media that is characterized by the development of thick mucoid middle ear effusion, adult onset bronchial asthma, sinonasal polyposis, and aspirin sensitivity. EOM is typically refractory to corticosteroid therapy and surgical intervention. Pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) has effectively treated hypereosinophilic syndrome in clinical trials; however, the efficacy of this medication for EOM treatment remains undefined. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, case series, tertiary academic center. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on EOM patients from 2008-2014. A total of 32 patients met the clinical criteria for EOM according to established diagnostic guidelines. Outcomes of all patients with severe, refractory EOM who initiated PEG-IFN therapy are reported. RESULTS: Eight patients were treated with pegylated interferon-α 2a or 2b for refractory EOM. Half of the patients had significant side effects with interferon treatment. Three of these were able to continue at a reduced dosage without side effect reoccurrence, and one patient stopped the medication permanently. Four of eight (50%) patients had a complete clinical response with total resolution of otorrhea and normalization of middle ear mucosa, and were able to discontinue corticosteroid treatment. Two patients attempted to stop PEG-IFN therapy after prolonged symptom remission and had recurrent otorrhea. Both patients had symptom resolution after PEG-IFN reinitiation. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that pegylated interferon-α 2a and 2b therapy may benefit patients with severe, refractory EOM. Further larger studies with long-term follow-up are required to validate these early but promising results. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1208-1216, 2017.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Eosinofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Otite Média com Derrame/tratamento farmacológico , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon alfa-2 , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioimunoensaio , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; 30(4): 287-93, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27456598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 1972, patients with large nasal perforations, who were symptomatic, and who were not candidates for surgery, had the option of custom prosthetic closure at Mayo Clinic. Although septal prostheses have helped many patients, 27% of pre-1982 patients chose not to keep the prosthesis in place. Two-dimensional computed tomography (CT) sizing resulted in more of the patients choosing to retain the prosthesis. The introduction of three-dimensional (3-D) printing to the sizing process offered the potential of further improved retention by refinement in prosthesis fit. OBJECTIVE: To describe the fabrication of nasal septal prostheses by using 3-D printing for sizing and to compare the retention rate of 3-D-sized prostheses with those that used previous sizing methods. METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive patients who had placement of septal prostheses sized by using 3-D printed templates were studied. CT image data were used to print 3-D templates of the exact shape of the patient's septal perforation, and medical-grade silastic prostheses were fabricated to fit. In four cases, the 3-D printed template allowed preoperative surgical simulation. Metrics collected included prosthesis retention; symptoms, including intranasal crusting and epistaxis; and previous prosthetic closure failures. RESULTS: Twenty of the twenty-one patients had improvement in symptoms. The mean diameter of the perforations was 2.4 cm; the mean closure time by the end of the study period was 2.2 years. All but two patients chose to keep their prosthesis in place, for a retention rate of 90%. Seven patients with successful closure had failed previously with prior prosthesis sized without the current 3-D printing methodology. This 90% retention rate exceeded the previous rates before the introduction of 3-D sizing. CONCLUSION: Sizing done by 3-D printing for prosthetic closure of nasal septal perforations resulted in a higher retention rate in helping patients with these most-challenging nasal septal perforations.


Assuntos
Perfuração do Septo Nasal/cirurgia , Septo Nasal/cirurgia , Impressão Tridimensional , Próteses e Implantes , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perfuração do Septo Nasal/diagnóstico por imagem , Perfuração do Septo Nasal/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
J Neurosurg Spine ; 24(4): 521-6, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26654341

RESUMO

OBJECT: Endoscopic approaches to the anterior craniocervical junction are increasing in frequency. Choice of oral versus endoscopic endonasal approach to the odontoid often depends on the relationship of the C1-2 complex to the hard palate. However, it is not known how this relevant anatomy changes with age. We hypothesize that there is a dynamic relationship of C-2 and the hard palate, which changes with age, and potentially affects the choice of surgical approach. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship of C-2 relative to the hard palate with respect to age and sex. METHODS: Emergency department billing and trauma records from 2008 to 2014 were reviewed for patients of all ages who underwent cervical or maxillofacial CT as part of a trauma evaluation for closed head injury. Patients who had a CT scan that allowed adequate visualization of the hard palate, opisthion, and upper cervical spine (C-1 and C-2) were included. Patients who had cervical or displaced facial/skull base fractures, a history of rheumatoid arthritis, or craniofacial anomalies were excluded. The distance from McGregor's palatooccipital line to the midpoint of the inferior endplate of C-2 (McL-C2) was measured on midsagittal CT scans. Patients were grouped by decile of age and by sex. A 1-way ANOVA was performed with each respective grouping. RESULTS: Ultimately, 483 patients (29% female) were included. The mean age was 46 ± 24 years. The majority of patients studied were in the 2nd through 8th decades of life (85%). Significant variation was found between McL-C2 and decile of age (p < 0.001) and sex (p < 0.001). The mean McL-C2 was 27 mm in the 1st decade of life compared with the population mean of 37 mm. The mean McL-C2 was also noted to be smaller in females (mean difference 4.8 mm, p < 0.0001). Both decile of age (p = 0.0009) and sex (p < 0.0001) were independently correlated with McL-C2 on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship of C-2 and the hard palate significantly varies with respect to age and sex, descending relative to the hard palate a full centimeter on average in adulthood. These findings may have relevance in determining optimal surgical approaches for addressing pathology involving the anterior craniocervical junction.


Assuntos
Articulação Atlantoaxial/cirurgia , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Pescoço/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Processo Odontoide/cirurgia , Palato Duro/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Fatores Sexuais , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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