Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 187
Filtrar
1.
NPJ Regen Med ; 6(1): 82, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848747

RESUMO

Localized cartilage lesions in early osteoarthritis and acute joint injuries are usually treated surgically to restore function and relieve pain. However, a persistent clinical challenge remains in how to repair the cartilage lesions. We expressed doublecortin (DCX) in human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (hASCs) and engineered hASCs into cartilage tissues using an in vitro 96-well pellet culture system. The cartilage tissue constructs with and without DCX expression were implanted in the knee cartilage defects of rabbits (n = 42) and monkeys (n = 12). Cohorts of animals were euthanized at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery to evaluate the cartilage repair outcomes. We found that DCX expression in hASCs increased expression of growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) and matrilin 2 in the engineered cartilage tissues. The cartilage tissues with DCX expression significantly enhanced cartilage repair as assessed macroscopically and histologically at 6, 12, and 24 months after implantation in the rabbits and 24 months after implantation in the monkeys, compared to the cartilage tissues without DCX expression. These findings suggest that hASCs expressing DCX may be engineered into cartilage tissues that can be used to treat localized cartilage lesions.

2.
Curr Genet ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797379

RESUMO

The role of general transcription factor TFIIB in transcription extends well beyond its evolutionarily conserved function in initiation. Chromatin localization studies demonstrating binding of TFIIB to both the 5' and 3' ends of genes in a diverse set of eukaryotes strongly suggested a rather unexpected role of the factor in termination. TFIIB indeed plays a role in termination of transcription. TFIIB occupancy of the 3' end is possibly due to its interaction with the termination factors residing there. Interaction of the promoter-bound TFIIB with factors occupying the 3' end of a gene may be the basis of transcription-dependent gene looping. The proximity of the terminator-bound factors with the promoter in a gene loop has the potential to terminate promoter-initiated upstream anti-sense transcription thereby conferring promoter directionality. TFIIB, therefore, is emerging as a factor with pleiotropic roles in the transcription cycle. This could be the reason for preferential targeting of TFIIB by viruses. Further studies are needed to understand the critical role of TFIIB in viral pathogenesis in the context of its newly identified roles in termination, gene looping and promoter directionality.

3.
Orthopedics ; 44(6): 367-375, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618643

RESUMO

The etiology of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the proximal humerus can be classified as idiopathic or posttraumatic, the latter being mainly due to proximal humerus fractures. Evidence suggests that posttraumatic AVN may require surgical intervention more often than idiopathic AVN of the proximal humerus. This article provides a comprehensive review of the management of posttraumatic AVN of the proximal humerus. Early stage AVN (stages 1 to 3) is commonly treated with nonoperative intervention or core decompression of the humeral head, whereas later stage disease (stages 4 and 5) may require hemiarthroplasty or total shoulder arthroplasty to restore function. [Orthopedics. 2021;44(6):367-375.].


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Ombro , Hemiartroplastia , Osteonecrose , Fraturas do Ombro , Humanos , Cabeça do Úmero/diagnóstico por imagem , Cabeça do Úmero/cirurgia , Úmero/diagnóstico por imagem , Úmero/cirurgia , Osteonecrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteonecrose/etiologia , Osteonecrose/cirurgia , Fraturas do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Ombro/cirurgia
4.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1166, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620991

RESUMO

Hyperdiverse tropical rainforests, such as the aseasonal forests in Southeast Asia, are supported by high annual rainfall. Its canopy is dominated by the species-rich tree family of Dipterocarpaceae (Asian dipterocarps), which has both ecological (e.g., supports flora and fauna) and economical (e.g., timber production) importance. Recent ecological studies suggested that rare irregular drought events may be an environmental stress and signal for the tropical trees. We assembled the genome of a widespread but near threatened dipterocarp, Shorea leprosula, and analyzed the transcriptome sequences of ten dipterocarp species representing seven genera. Comparative genomic and molecular dating analyses suggested a whole-genome duplication close to the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event followed by the diversification of major dipterocarp lineages (i.e. Dipterocarpoideae). Interestingly, the retained duplicated genes were enriched for genes upregulated by no-irrigation treatment. These findings provide molecular support for the relevance of drought for tropical trees despite the lack of an annual dry season.

5.
Brain Inj ; 35(10): 1218-1228, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383619

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the association between Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) scores, Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) scores, and oculomotor deficits post-concussion. METHODS: Records of adolescent patients examined in a multidisciplinary concussion clinic between July 2014 and May 2019 were reviewed. PCSS and CISS scores, results of eye examination and oculomotor assessment, concussion history, and demographics were abstracted. RESULTS: One hundred and forty patient records (median age, 15.3 years; 52 males, presented 109 days (median) from their most recent concussion) met inclusion criteria. Mean total scores on PCSS and CISS were 46.67 ± 25.89 and 27.13 ± 13.22, respectively, and were moderately correlated with each other (r = 0.53, p < .001). Oculomotor deficits were observed in 123 (88%) patients. Step-wise linear regression identified increased PCSS total score to be significantly associated with decreased amplitude of accommodation (p < .001). Increased CISS total score was significantly associated with receded near point of convergence, developmental eye movement test error scores, and cause of concussion. CONCLUSION: High PCSS scores may indicate an accommodation deficit and thus prompt an oculomotor assessment in patients following a concussion. Using the CISS and a detailed oculomotor assessment may reveal underlying oculomotor deficits, which may benefit from treatment.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Síndrome Pós-Concussão , Adolescente , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/diagnóstico , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/epidemiologia
7.
Orthopedics ; 44(4): e588-e592, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292837

RESUMO

Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a possible complication of distal biceps tendon repair (DBTR). Several agents can prevent HO formation, although relatively few studies have investigated prophylaxis specifically after DBTR. The purposes of this study were to survey members of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) to determine (1) what percentage use HO prophylaxis after DBTR; (2) type, dosage, and duration of prophylaxis used; and (3) use of single-incision or double-incision surgical technique. An anonymous electronic survey was distributed to ASES members to determine the use of HO prophylaxis and DBTR technique. The survey included questions regarding the number of DBTRs performed annually; preferred surgical technique and implants; and type, dosage, and duration of HO prophylaxis used before, during, and after surgery. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the results. Of 173 respondents, 98 (56.6%) performed 1 to 10 DBTRs per year, 65 (37.6%) performed 11 to 25 DBTRs per year, and 10 (5.8%) performed 26 to 50 DBTRs per year. A total of 131 (75.7%) preferred the single-incision technique, whereas 42 (24.3%) preferred the double-incision technique. A total of 94 (54.3%) performed DBTR using a metal button and interference screw, 35 (20.2%) through drill holes, 25 (14.5%) with suture anchors, and 19 (11.0%) with a metal button alone. A total of 132 (76.3%) respondents did not use HO prophylaxis, and 41 (23.7%) used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs following surgery. A total of 35 (85.4%) used indomethacin, 18 (51.4%) of whom preferred 75 mg/d for 3 to 4 weeks. Heterotopic ossification is a commonly reported complication following DBTR, especially with the double-incision technique. Prophylaxis with anti-inflammatory medications and suppressive modalities (radiation therapy) appear to reduce the incidence of HO. Despite these data, most surgeons (76.3%) do not use HO prophylaxis. Low annual volume of cases, lack of large-volume studies with outcome data, and the dominant use of the single-incision repair technique may explain this. [Orthopedics. 2021;44(4):e588-e592.].


Assuntos
Ossificação Heterotópica , Traumatismos dos Tendões , Cotovelo , Humanos , Ossificação Heterotópica/etiologia , Ossificação Heterotópica/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Ruptura , Traumatismos dos Tendões/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Tendões/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos dos Tendões/cirurgia , Tendões
8.
Sci Prog ; 104(3): 368504211031364, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236926

RESUMO

As adaptive systems, kinship and its accompanying rules have co-evolved with elements of complex societies, including wealth inheritance, subsistence, and power relations. Here we consider an aspect of kinship evolution in the Austronesian dispersal that began from about 5500 BP in Taiwan, reaching Melanesia about 3200 BP, and dispersing into Micronesia by 1500 BP. Previous, foundational work has used phylogenetic comparative methods and ethnolinguistic information to infer matrilocal residence in proto-Austronesian societies. Here we apply Bayesian phylogenetic analyses to a data set on Austronesian societies that combines existing data on marital residence systems with a new set of ethnographic data, introduced here, on initiation rites. Transition likelihoods between cultural-trait combinations were modeled on an ensemble of 1000 possible Austronesian language trees, using Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (RJ-MCMC) simulations. Compared against a baseline phylogenetic model of independent evolution, a phylogenetic model of correlated evolution between female and male initiation rites is substantially more likely (log Bayes factor: 17.9). This indicates, over the generations of Austronesian dispersal, initiation rites were culturally stable when both female and male rites were in the same state (both present or both absent), yet relatively unstable for female-only rites. The results indicate correlated phylogeographic evolution of cultural initiation rites in the prehistoric dispersal of Austronesian societies across the Pacific. Once acquired, male initiation rites were more resilient than female-only rites among Austronesian societies.

9.
Arthroscopy ; 37(6): 1777-1778, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090564

RESUMO

The optimal treatment for proximal biceps tendon lesions identified at the time of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair remains a topic for debate. The decision between biceps tenotomy and tenodesis is one in which we will likely never have a clear-cut answer. Proponents of biceps tenotomy and biceps tenodesis will cite the pros and cons of each surgical option to support their treatment of choice. Several meta-analyses have shown no superior outcomes with either treatment. Cost analysis and surgical efficiency may favor biceps tenotomy, whereas the possible development of a Popeye deformity, biceps cramping, and supination strength favor tenodesis. The surgical treatment of choice requires an informed discussion and shared decision making between surgeon and patient to determine patients' expectations and maximize surgical outcomes for each individual patient.


Assuntos
Lesões do Manguito Rotador , Tenodese , Artroscopia , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Ombro , Tenotomia
10.
JSES Int ; 5(3): 532-539, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136866

RESUMO

Background: The outcomes and complication rates of patients with isolated greater tuberosity fractures are not well documented. The present study aimed to evaluate the reoperation rates, types of reoperations, and complications for patients undergoing open reduction internal fixation and those undergoing initial nonoperative treatment of isolated greater tuberosity fractures. Methods: An administrative claims database was queried from 2010 to 2018 for adult patients treated with open reduction internal fixation or initial nonoperative treatment within 6 weeks of sustaining a closed isolated greater tuberosity fracture. Reoperation rates, types of reoperations, local/surgical complications, and systemic complications for two cohorts were collected, and statistical analysis was performed using R statistical software for patients initially treated operatively and nonoperatively. Complication rates were compared using multivariate logistic regression, while demographic data were compared using chi-square analysis. Results: Of the 8509 patients who were documented to have sustained a closed isolated greater tuberosity fracture, 333 patients underwent operative treatment and 8176 patients received initial nonoperative treatment within the first 6 weeks of diagnosis. The operative cohort had a reoperation rate of 2.7% at 90 days, 5.7% at 6 months, and 7.8% at 1 year, with the majority of reoperations being rotator cuff repair (40.6%). Within the initial nonoperative cohort, 7.3% had an operation within a year, with the majority of operations being open reduction internal fixation (41.3%). The subsequent reoperation rate for those patients was 3.5% at 2 years with the majority of reoperations being rotator cuff repair (32.4%). In the operative cohort, the 90-day infection rate was 3.0%. Nonunion was demonstrated in the operative cohort at a rate of 1.8% at 6 months and 2.7% at 1 year. Conclusion: When surgical care was provided to patients sustaining isolated greater tuberosity fractures in the first 6 weeks, there was a 7.8% rate of reoperation within the first year. Patients initially treated nonoperatively had a future operation rate of 7.3% within the first year and a 3.5% reoperation rate within the second year. The most common reoperation regardless of initial treatment was rotator cuff repair. With an elevated rate of subsequent operations, education is paramount to provide patients with expectations for the sequelae of this injury especially when presenting with concomitant injuries.

11.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 669044, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996913

RESUMO

Viral infections and the harm they cause to their host are a perpetual threat to living organisms. Pathogenesis and subsequent spread of infection requires replication of the viral genome and expression of structural and non-structural proteins of the virus. Generally, viruses use transcription and translation machinery of the host cell to achieve this objective. The viral genome encodes transcriptional regulators that alter the expression of viral and host genes by manipulating initiation and termination steps of transcription. The regulation of the initiation step is often through interactions of viral factors with gene specific factors as well as general transcription factors (GTFs). Among the GTFs, TFIIB (Transcription Factor IIB) is a frequent target during viral pathogenesis. TFIIB is utilized by a plethora of viruses including human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, Thogoto virus, hepatitis virus, Epstein-Barr virus and gammaherpesviruses to alter gene expression. A number of viral transcriptional regulators exhibit a direct interaction with host TFIIB in order to accomplish expression of their genes and to repress host transcription. Some viruses have evolved proteins with a three-dimensional structure very similar to TFIIB, demonstrating the importance of TFIIB for viral persistence. Upon viral infection, host transcription is selectively altered with viral transcription benefitting. The nature of viral utilization of TFIIB for expression of its own genes, along with selective repression of host antiviral genes and downregulation of general host transcription, makes TFIIB a potential candidate for antiviral therapies.

12.
J Clin Orthop Trauma ; 19: 118-124, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046306

RESUMO

Rotator cuff tears are common shoulder injuries expected to increase with the growth of the aging population. Although a small subset of patients with low functional demands can be treated nonoperatively, surgical intervention is a cost-effective solution, which can restore shoulder function and help patients return to activity sooner. While multiple surgical options are available, rotator cuff repair is a highly utilized procedure with varying success. Due to a large proportion of rotator cuff repairs still failing to completely heal, this procedure requires careful planning to achieve anatomical and biomechanically stability. New technology and techniques are being explored to help increase the success of rotator cuff repairs with an increasing focus on augmentation. The current article gives a brief overview of pertinent anatomy, treatment options, and challenges in healing of rotator cuff repairs. Thereafter, the merits of different types of rotator cuff repair augmentation available will be discussed as well as the authors' experience in utilizing biologic augmentation and surgical technique.

13.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1948): 20203045, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849320

RESUMO

The decline in species richness at higher latitudes is among the most fundamental patterns in ecology. Whether changes in species composition across space (beta-diversity) contribute to this gradient of overall species richness (gamma-diversity) remains hotly debated. Previous studies that failed to resolve the issue suffered from a well-known tendency for small samples in areas with high gamma-diversity to have inflated measures of beta-diversity. Here, we provide a novel analytical test, using beta-diversity metrics that correct the gamma-diversity and sampling biases, to compare beta-diversity and species packing across a latitudinal gradient in tree species richness of 21 large forest plots along a large environmental gradient in East Asia. We demonstrate that after accounting for topography and correcting the gamma-diversity bias, tropical forests still have higher beta-diversity than temperate analogues. This suggests that beta-diversity contributes to the latitudinal species richness gradient as a component of gamma-diversity. Moreover, both niche specialization and niche marginality (a measure of niche spacing along an environmental gradient) also increase towards the equator, after controlling for the effect of topographical heterogeneity. This supports the joint importance of tighter species packing and larger niche space in tropical forests while also demonstrating the importance of local processes in controlling beta-diversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Árvores , Ecologia , Extremo Oriente
14.
Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil ; 3(1): e73-e78, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615250

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the likelihood of spiral fracture of the humerus using torsional load to failure after intraosseous biceps tenodesis at the position of the arthroscopic suprapectoral tenodesis versus the subpectoral meta-diaphyseal location. Methods: Eight matched pairs of humeri were dissected. Unicortical tenodesis holes were drilled, either at the bottom of the bicipital groove (group 1) or just below the pectoralis major tendon insertion (subpectoral) in the humeral diaphysis (group 2). Tenodesis was performed in a 7-mm bone tunnel, with suture fixation distal to this site using 2 separate 2-mm holes, secured with No. 2 polyester suture. Each humerus was potted in plaster and mounted to a hydraulic torsional load frame, consistent with previously validated models for creating humeral spiral fractures. External rotation torque was applied to each humerus distally until fracture occurred. The paired t test was used to compare the 2 groups. Results: Fracture occurred at the subpectoral cortical drill hole in all 8 specimens in group 2. In group 1, only 2 fractures occurred through the tenodesis hole, with spiral fracture resulting in the diaphysis of the humerus in 6 of 8 specimens. Average torque to failure measured 31.35 Nm in group 1 and 25.08 Nm in group 2; the difference was statistically significant (P < .0001). Conclusions: Subpectoral cortical drill holes for biceps tenodesis were shown to be a stress riser for humeral spiral fracture. Suprapectoral cortical drill holes were shown to be significantly less of a stress riser. The amount of torque required to fracture the humerus through the subpectoral drill holes was less than with the suprapectoral drill holes. Only 2 fractures occurred through the suprapectoral tenodesis holes, and significantly more torque was required to create these fractures. Clinical Relevance: Clinically, the difference between suprapectoral and subpectoral tenodesis fracture potential should be considered when selecting a tenodesis location.

15.
Instr Course Lect ; 70: 55-72, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438904

RESUMO

Traumatic elbow instability is a difficult condition to manage. Many surgeons consider the elbow a perplexing black box and evaluating damaged structures in the setting of pain and swelling a diagnostic challenge. Injury most commonly occurs from a fall onto an outstretched hand but also results from elbow dislocation, direct trauma, and sporting activities. The injury can initiate on the medial or lateral side, depending on forearm position at the time of injury, and usually follows a predictable pattern, with progressive instability caused by soft-tissue disruption and fractures of the medial or lateral column. Primary medial instability, lateral instability, and combined injury patterns have been described and discussed. Simple elbow dislocations and certain fractures can be managed nonsurgically, whereas complex patterns of instability and fracture-dislocations routinely require surgery. Stiffness and nerve injury are the most common complications and occur from both surgical and nonsurgical management. This chapter describes the diagnosis and management of traumatic elbow instability and the management of its sequela.


Assuntos
Articulação do Cotovelo , Luxações Articulares , Instabilidade Articular , Cotovelo , Articulação do Cotovelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Cotovelo/cirurgia , Amigos , Humanos , Luxações Articulares/diagnóstico , Luxações Articulares/etiologia , Luxações Articulares/terapia , Instabilidade Articular/diagnóstico , Instabilidade Articular/etiologia , Instabilidade Articular/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Evol Anthropol ; 30(1): 40-49, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986264

RESUMO

The sharp distinction between biological traits and culturally based traits, which had long been standard in evolutionary approaches to behavior, was blurred in the early 1980s by mathematical models that allowed a co-dependent evolution of genetic transmission and cultural information. Niche-construction theory has since added another contrast to standard evolutionary theory, in that it views niche construction as a cause of evolutionary change rather than simply a product of selection. While offering a new understanding of the coevolution of genes, culture, and human behavior, niche-construction models also invoke multivariate causality, which require multiple time series to resolve. The empirical challenge lies in obtaining time-series data on causal pathways involved in the coevolution of genes, culture, and behavior. This is a significant issue in archeology, where time series are often sparse and causal behaviors are represented only by proxies in the material record.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Evolução Cultural , Modelos Biológicos , Antropologia , Indústria de Laticínios/história , Ecossistema , História Antiga , Humanos
18.
Evol Anthropol ; 30(1): 4-7, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574411

RESUMO

Recent developments in evolutionary biology have led to a call for an extension of standard evolutionary theory, with its emphasis on processes such as selection and drift, into a much larger theoretical framework that includes processes such as niche construction, developmental plasticity, inclusive inheritance, and developmental bias. Skeptics argue that these processes are already subsumed within the standard theory and thus an extension is not required. Here, we outline what this evolutionary "rethink" might mean for the study of human origins. Specifically, can paleoanthropologists benefit from an extended theoretical toolkit? The papers in this special issue suggest it can be useful but may not be necessary, depending on the kinds of questions that are being asked.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Animais , Arqueologia , Hominidae , Humanos
19.
Clin Sports Med ; 40(1): 123-131, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187603

RESUMO

The medications used in postconcussion syndrome are typically used to help manage or minimize disruptive symptoms while recovery proceeds. These medications are not routinely used in most concussions that recover within days to weeks. However, it is beneficial to be aware of medication options that may be used in athletes with prolonged concussion symptoms or for those that have symptom burdens that preclude entry into basic concussion protocols. Medications and supplements remain a small part of the concussion treatment plan, which may include temporary academic adjustments, physical therapy, vestibular and ocular therapy, psychological support, and graded noncontact exercise.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Concussão Encefálica/terapia , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/terapia , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/tratamento farmacológico , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/diagnóstico , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/tratamento farmacológico , Psicoterapia
20.
Ecol Evol ; 10(23): 13154-13164, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304525

RESUMO

Fungal pathogens are implicated in driving tropical plant diversity by facilitating strong, negative density-dependent mortality of conspecific seedlings (C-NDD). Assessment of the role of fungal pathogens in mediating coexistence derives from relatively few tree species and predominantly the Neotropics, limiting our understanding of their role in maintaining hyper-diversity in many tropical forests. A key question is whether fungal pathogen-mediated C-NDD seedling mortality is ubiquitous across diverse plant communities. Using a manipulative shadehouse experiment, we tested the role of fungal pathogens in mediating C-NDD seedling mortality of eight mast fruiting Bornean trees, typical of the species-rich forests of South East Asia. We demonstrate species-specific responses of seedlings to fungicide and density treatments, generating weak negative density-dependent mortality. Overall seedling mortality was low and likely insufficient to promote overall community diversity. Although conducted in the same way as previous studies, we find little evidence that fungal pathogens play a substantial role in determining patterns of seedling mortality in a SE Asian mast fruiting forest, questioning our understanding of how Janzen-Connell mechanisms structure the plant communities of this globally important forest type.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...